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Chicago Style Entry Publication Type Reading Level Source Type Year Link

Villard, Oswald Garrison. John Brown, 1800-1859: A Biography Fifty Years After. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1910.

Book Secondary 1910

Holt, Michael F. The Political Crisis of the 1850s. New York: W W Norton & Company, 1983.

Book Secondary 1983

Emerson, Jason. The Madness of Mary Lincoln. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2007.

Book Secondary 2007

Brown, Ira V. "Miller McKim and Pennsylvania Abolitionism." Pennsylvania History 30, no. 1 (1963): 56-72.

Journal Article Secondary 1963

Etcheson, Nicole. "The Great Principle of Self-Government: Popular Sovereignty and Bleeding Kansas." Kansas History 27, no. 1-2 (2004): 14-29.

Journal Article Secondary 2004

Notehelfer, F. G., ed. Japan Through American Eyes: The Journal of Francis Hall, 1859-1866. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001.

Book Primary 2001

Reed, George Leffingwell, ed. Alumni Record: Dickinson College. Carlisle, PA: Dickinson College, 1905.

Book Secondary 1905
Still, William. The Underground Rail Road. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1872.
Book Primary 1872

Hinton, Richard J. John Brown and His Men; With Some Account of the Roads Traveled to Reach Harper's Ferry. New York: Funk & Wagnall's Company, 1894.

Book Primary 1894

Simpson, Brooks D. Let Us Have Peace: Ulysses S. Grant and the Politics of War and Reconstruction, 1861-1868. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Book Secondary 1991

Trefousse, Hans L. Impeachment of a President: Andrew Johnson, the Blacks, and Reconstruction. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1975.

Book Secondary 1975

Essah, Patience. A House Divided: Slavery and Emancipation in Delaware, 1638-1865. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1996.

Book Secondary 1996

Mullis, Tony R. Peacekeeping on the Plains: Army Operations in Bleeding Kansas. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004.

Book Secondary 2004

Dray, Philip. Capitol Men: The Epic Story of Reconstruction through the Lives of the First Black Congressmen. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Jordan, David M. Roscoe Conkling: Voice in the Senate. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1971.

Book Secondary 1971

Etcheson, Nicole. "A living, creeping lie": Abraham Lincoln on Popular Sovereignty." Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 29, no. 2 (2008): 1-25.

Journal Article Secondary 2008

Etcheson, Nicole. Bleeding Kansas: Contested Liberty in the Civil War Era. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004.

Book Secondary 2004

Miner, Craig. Seeding Civil War: Kansas in the National News, 1854-1858. Lawrence : University Press of Kansas, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Clark, James C. The Murder of James A. Garfield: The President’s Last Days and the Trial and Execution of his Assassin. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1993.

Book Secondary 1993

Alcott, Louisa May. Hospital Sketches. Boston: James Redpath, 1863.

Book Primary 1863

Gray, John S. Custer's Last Campaign: Mitch Boyer and the Little Bighorn Reconstructed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.

Book Secondary 1991

Barnett, Louise K. Touched by Fire: The Life, Death, and Mythic Afterlife of George Armstrong Custer. New York: Henry Holt, 1996.

Book Secondary 1996

Grinnell, Josiah B. Men and Events of Forty Years. Boston: Lothrop, 1891.

Book Primary 1891

Payne, Charles E. Josiah Bushnell Grinnell. Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1938.

Book Secondary 1938

Rutherford, S.S. “The Under Ground Railroad,” Publications of the Historical Society of Dauphin County (1928): 3-8.

Journal Article Secondary 1928

Denton, Lawrence M. A Southern Star for Maryland: Maryland and the Secession Crisis, 1860-1861. Baltimore: Publishing Concepts, 1995.

Book Secondary 1995

McMillen, Sally G. Seneca Falls and the Origins of the Woman’s Rights Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Marrs, Aaron W. "Railroads and Time Consciousness in the Antebellum South." Enterprise & Society 9, no. 3 (2008): 433-456.

Journal Article Secondary 2008

Connelley, William E. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1918

Book Secondary 1918

Zornow, William Frank. “The Kansas Senators and the Re-election of Lincoln.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 19 (1951): 133-144.

Journal Article Secondary 1951

Gambone, Joseph G. “Samuel C. Pomeroy and the Senatorial Election of 1861, Reconsidered.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 37 (1971): 15-32.

Journal Article Secondary 1971

Steele, Robert V. Between Two Empires: The Life Story of California’s First Senator. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969.

Book Secondary 1969

Quinn, Arthur. The Rivals: William Gwin, David Broderick, and the Birth of California. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1994

Book Secondary 1994

Harsha, David Addison. The Life of Charles Sumner. New York: Dayton & Burdick, 1856.

Book Primary 1856

Blue, Frederick J. “The Poet and the Reformer: Longfellow, Sumner, and the Bonds of Male Friendship.” Journal of the Early Republic 15 (1995): 273-297.

Journal Article Secondary 1995

Magdol, Edward. Owen Lovejoy: Abolitionist in Congress. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1967.

Book Secondary 1967

Grayson, Benson Lee. The Unknown President: The Administration of President Millard Fillmore. Washington: University Press of America, 1981.

Book Secondary 1981

Dawson III, Joseph G. The Louisiana Governors: From Iberville to Edwards. Baton Rouge: Lousiana State University Press, 1990.

Book Secondary 1990

Epstein, Dena J. "Lucy McKim Garrison, American Musician." Bulletin of the New York Public Library 67, no. 8 (1963): 528-546.

Journal Article Secondary 1963

Symonds, Craig L. Lincoln and his Admirals: Abraham Lincoln, the U.S. Navy, and the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

McPherson, James M. Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Marvel, William. Lincoln's Darkest Year: The War in 1862. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Eltis, David. "The U.S. Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1644–1867: An Assessment." Civil War History 54, no. 4 (2008): 347-378.

Journal Article Secondary 2008

Finkelman, Paul. "Regulating the African Slave Trade." Civil War History 54, no. 4 (2008): 379-405.

Journal Article Secondary 2008

Roberts, David. Devil's Gate: Brigham Young and the Great Mormon Handcart Tragedy. New York : Simon & Schuster, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Gurko, Miriam. The Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement. Studies in the Life of Women. Collector's ed. Norwalk, CT: Easton Press, 1990.

Book Secondary 1990

Magdol, Edward. "Owen Lovejoy's Role in the Campaign of 1858." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 51 (1958): 403-416.

Journal Article Secondary 1958

Marvel, William. Mr. Lincoln Goes to War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2006.

Book Secondary 2006
Abels, Jules. Man on Fire: John Brown and the Cause of Liberty. New York: Macmillan, 1971. Book Secondary 1971
Acton, Richard. "The Story of Ann Raley: Mother of the Coppoc Boys." Palimpsest 72, no. 1 (1991): 20-33. Journal Article Secondary 1991
Acton, Richard. "An Iowan's Death at Harpers Ferry." Palimpsest 70, no. 4 (1989): 186-197. Journal Article Secondary 1989
Allen, Austin. Origins of the Dred Scott Case: Jacksonian Jurisprudence and the Supreme Court, 1837-1857. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2006. Book Secondary 2006
Allen, Austin. "The Political Economy of Blackness: Citizenship, Corporations, and Race in Dred Scott." Civil War History 50, no. 3 (2004): 229-260. Journal Article Secondary 2004
Askew, Margaret. "Harper's Ferry: Could It Have Been Defended?" Virginia Cavalcade 29, no. 1 (1979): 14-21. Journal Article Secondary 1979
Bacon, Margaret Hope. Rebellion at Christiana. New York: Crown Publishers Inc, 1975 Book Secondary 1975
Baker, Eric. "A Yankee Lieutenant Rides the Underground Railroad." Military Images 15, no. 4 (1994): 12-15. Journal Article Secondary 1994
Belz, Herman. "Rhetoric and Deliberation in the Debate Over Slavery -- Lincoln, Douglas, and Slavery: In the Crucible of Public Debate by David Zarefsky." Review of Politics 54, no. 2 (Spring 1992): 338. Journal Article Secondary 1992
Birkner, Michael J., moderator. “James Buchanan and the Political Crisis of the 1850s: A Panel Discussion.” Pennsylvania History 60, no. 3 (1993): 261-287. Journal Article Secondary 1993
Bishop, Erin I. "Teaching Lincoln at the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum." Magazine of History 21 (2007): 39. Journal Article Secondary 2007
Blaser, Kent. "North Carolina and John Brown's Raid." Civil War History 24, no. 3 (September 1978): 197-212. Journal Article Secondary 1978
Blight, David W. Passages to Freedom: The Underground Railroad in History and Memory. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books in Association with the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2004. Book Secondary 2004
Blue, Rose, and Corinne J. Naden. Dred Scott: Person or Property?. Tarrytown, NY: Benchmark Books, 2005. Book Secondary 2005
Bogen, David Skillen. "The Maryland Context of Dred Scott: the Decline in the Legal Status of Maryland Free Blacks, 1776-1810." American Journal of Legal History 34, no. 4 (1990): 381-411. Journal Article Secondary 1990
Boman, Dennis K. "The Dred Scott Case Reconsidered: The Legal and Political Context in Missouri." American Journal of Legal History 44, no. 4 (2000): 405-428. Journal Article Secondary 2000
Boone, William A. "The Tracks Lead South: An Underground Railroad from Texas into Mexico." Journal of Big Bend Studies 15 (2003): 69-82. Journal Article Secondary 2003
Bordewich, Fergus M. "Free at Last." Smithsonian 35, no. 9 (2004): 64-71. Journal Article Secondary 2004
Bridner, Elwood L., Jr. "The Fugitive Slaves of Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 66, no. 1 (1971): 33-50. Journal Article Secondary 1971
Brod, Raymond. " ‘All Prairiedom has Broken Loose.’ " Chicago History 25, no. 1 (1996): 58-72. Journal Article Secondary 1996
Bromwich, David. "A Republic Divided." Daedalus 135, no. 2 (Spring 2006): 5-10. Journal Article Secondary 2006
Brooks, Elaine. "Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society." Journal of Negro History 30 (July 1945): 311-330. Journal Article Secondary 1945
Brown, Charles Harvey. Agents of Manifest Destiny: The Lives and Times of the Filibusters. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980. Book Secondary 1980
Browne, John W., and Irving H. Bartlett. "Abolitionists, Fugitives, and Imposters in Boston, 1846-1847." New England Quarterly 55, no. 1 (1982): 97-110. Journal Article Secondary 1982
Burgan, Michael. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Social Reformer. Signature Lives. Minneapolis, MN: Compass Point Books, 2006. Book Secondary 2006
By a Lady Subscriber. "The Rights of the Women." The Ladies' Repository 15 (April 4 1855): 238-238. Journal Article Primary 1855
Canavan, Francis. "That Eminent Tribunal." First Things 85 (1998): 34-39. Journal Article Secondary 1998
Carton, Evan. "Crossing Harpers Ferry: Liberal Education and John Brown's Corpus." American Literature 73, no. 4 (2001): 837-863. Journal Article Secondary 2001
Catterall, Helen Tunnicliff. "Some Antecedents of the Dred Scott Case." American Historical Review 30, no. 1 (1942): 56-71. Journal Article Secondary 1924
Clark, Margaret Goff. Freedom Crossing. New York: Scholastic Book Services, 1980. Book Tertiary 1980
Coffin, Addison. Life and Travels of Addison Coffin. Cleveland, OH: W.G. Hubbard, 1897. Book Primary 1897
Coffin, Levi. Reminiscences of Levi Coffin. The American Negro, His History and Literature. 2nd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Robert Clarke & Co., 1880. Book Primary 1880
Coggan, Blanche. "The Underground Railroad in Michigan." Negro History Bulletin 27, no. 5 (1964): 122-126. Journal Article Secondary 1964
Cohen, Joel E. "The Dred Scott Decision: Background and Implications." Negro History Bulletin 26 (1963): 145-147, 155. Journal Article Secondary 1963
Cohen, Noam. "In Frederick Douglass Tribute, Slave Folklore and Fact Collide." New York Times, January 23, 2007. Other Tertiary 2007
Cohen, Stan. John Brown: The Thundering Voice of Jehovah. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Pub. Co., 1999. Book Secondary 1999
Cohn, Morris M. "Dred Scott Case in the Light of Later Events." American Law Review 46 (July 1912): 548-557. Journal Article Secondary 1912
Cole, Diane. "Patterns of Controversy." U.S. News & World Report, July 2, 2007. Journal Article Secondary 2007
Conard, Rebecca. "A Gamble for Freedom: Frances Overton and the Underground Railroad in Grinnell." Iowa Heritage Illustrated 85, no. 4 (2004): 156-159. Journal Article Secondary 2004
Cooper, Afua. "The Fluid Frontier: Blacks and the Detroit River Region: A Focus on Henry Bibb." Canadian Review of American Studies 30, no. 2 (2000): 129-149. Journal Article Secondary 2000
Corwin, Edward S. "The Dred Scott Decision, in the Light of Contemporary Legal Doctrines." American Historical Review 17 (1911): 52-69. Journal Article Secondary 1911
Cowan, Hilary. "Fresh New Finds--A House Divided: The Lincoln-Douglas Debates." Electronic Learning 15, no. 3 (November 1995): 43. Journal Article Secondary 1995
Cowens, John. "Looking for the Big Dipper." Teaching Pre K-8 37 (May 2007): 42. Journal Article Secondary 2007
Crane, Gregg D. "The Lexicon of Rights, Power, and Community in Blake: Martin R. Delany's Dissent from Dred Scott." American Literature 68, no. 3 (1996): 527-553. Journal Article Secondary 1996
Crooks, George R. Life and Letters of the Rev. John M'Clintock. New York: Nelson & Philips, 1876. Book Primary 1876
Cutter, Donald C. "The Legacy of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo." New Mexico Historical Review 53, no. 4 (1978): 305-315. Journal Article Secondary 1978
Davidson, J. N. Negro Slavery in Wisconsin and the Underground Railroad. Milwaukee, WI: Parkman Club Publications, 1896. Book Secondary 1896
Delle, James A., and Mary Ann Levine. "Excavations at the Thaddeus Stevens and Lydia Hamilton Smith Site, Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Archaeological Evidence for the Underground Railroad?" Northeast Historical Archaeology 33 (2004): 131-152. Journal Article Secondary 2004
Desmond, Jerry R. "The Attempt to Repeal Maine's Personal Liberty Laws." Maine History 37, no. 4 (1998): 194-209. Journal Article Secondary 1998
Desmond, Jerry R. "Maine and the Elections of 1860." New England Quarterly 67, no. 3 (1994): 455. Journal Article Secondary 1994
DeVillers, David. The John Brown Slavery Revolt Trial: A Headline Court Case. Headline Court Cases. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2000. Book Secondary 2000
Dickinson, Sara. " ‘His Soul is Marching On’: Norwid and the Story of John Brown." Polish Review 35, no. 3-4 (1990): 211-229. Journal Article Secondary 1990