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Chicago Style Entry Publication Type Reading Level Source Type Year Link

Villard, Oswald Garrison. John Brown, 1800-1859: A Biography Fifty Years After. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1910.

Book Secondary 1910

Dray, Philip. Capitol Men: The Epic Story of Reconstruction through the Lives of the First Black Congressmen. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Jordan, David M. Roscoe Conkling: Voice in the Senate. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1971.

Book Secondary 1971

Reed, George Leffingwell, ed. Alumni Record: Dickinson College. Carlisle, PA: Dickinson College, 1905.

Book Secondary 1905
Still, William. The Underground Rail Road. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1872.
Book Primary 1872

Essah, Patience. A House Divided: Slavery and Emancipation in Delaware, 1638-1865. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1996.

Book Secondary 1996

Etcheson, Nicole. "A living, creeping lie": Abraham Lincoln on Popular Sovereignty." Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 29, no. 2 (2008): 1-25.

Journal Article Secondary 2008

Etcheson, Nicole. Bleeding Kansas: Contested Liberty in the Civil War Era. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004.

Book Secondary 2004

Miner, Craig. Seeding Civil War: Kansas in the National News, 1854-1858. Lawrence : University Press of Kansas, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Symonds, Craig L. Lincoln and his Admirals: Abraham Lincoln, the U.S. Navy, and the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Clark, James C. The Murder of James A. Garfield: The President’s Last Days and the Trial and Execution of his Assassin. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1993.

Book Secondary 1993

McPherson, James M. Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Marvel, William. Lincoln's Darkest Year: The War in 1862. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Brown, Ira V. "Miller McKim and Pennsylvania Abolitionism." Pennsylvania History 30, no. 1 (1963): 56-72.

Journal Article Secondary 1963

Hinton, Richard J. John Brown and His Men; With Some Account of the Roads Traveled to Reach Harper's Ferry. New York: Funk & Wagnall's Company, 1894.

Book Primary 1894

Alcott, Louisa May. Hospital Sketches. Boston: James Redpath, 1863.

Book Primary 1863

Denton, Lawrence M. A Southern Star for Maryland: Maryland and the Secession Crisis, 1860-1861. Baltimore: Publishing Concepts, 1995.

Book Secondary 1995

Epstein, Dena J. "Lucy McKim Garrison, American Musician." Bulletin of the New York Public Library 67, no. 8 (1963): 528-546.

Journal Article Secondary 1963

Eltis, David. "The U.S. Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1644–1867: An Assessment." Civil War History 54, no. 4 (2008): 347-378.

Journal Article Secondary 2008

Finkelman, Paul. "Regulating the African Slave Trade." Civil War History 54, no. 4 (2008): 379-405.

Journal Article Secondary 2008

Holt, Michael F. The Political Crisis of the 1850s. New York: W W Norton & Company, 1983.

Book Secondary 1983

Marvel, William. Mr. Lincoln Goes to War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2006.

Book Secondary 2006

Simpson, Brooks D. Let Us Have Peace: Ulysses S. Grant and the Politics of War and Reconstruction, 1861-1868. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Book Secondary 1991

Roberts, David. Devil's Gate: Brigham Young and the Great Mormon Handcart Tragedy. New York : Simon & Schuster, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Trefousse, Hans L. Impeachment of a President: Andrew Johnson, the Blacks, and Reconstruction. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1975.

Book Secondary 1975

Gray, John S. Custer's Last Campaign: Mitch Boyer and the Little Bighorn Reconstructed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.

Book Secondary 1991

Barnett, Louise K. Touched by Fire: The Life, Death, and Mythic Afterlife of George Armstrong Custer. New York: Henry Holt, 1996.

Book Secondary 1996

McMillen, Sally G. Seneca Falls and the Origins of the Woman’s Rights Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Book Secondary 2008

Marrs, Aaron W. "Railroads and Time Consciousness in the Antebellum South." Enterprise & Society 9, no. 3 (2008): 433-456.

Journal Article Secondary 2008

Grinnell, Josiah B. Men and Events of Forty Years. Boston: Lothrop, 1891.

Book Primary 1891

Payne, Charles E. Josiah Bushnell Grinnell. Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1938.

Book Secondary 1938

Connelley, William E. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1918

Book Secondary 1918

Zornow, William Frank. “The Kansas Senators and the Re-election of Lincoln.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 19 (1951): 133-144.

Journal Article Secondary 1951

Notehelfer, F. G., ed. Japan Through American Eyes: The Journal of Francis Hall, 1859-1866. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001.

Book Primary 2001

Gambone, Joseph G. “Samuel C. Pomeroy and the Senatorial Election of 1861, Reconsidered.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 37 (1971): 15-32.

Journal Article Secondary 1971

Rutherford, S.S. “The Under Ground Railroad,” Publications of the Historical Society of Dauphin County (1928): 3-8.

Journal Article Secondary 1928

Steele, Robert V. Between Two Empires: The Life Story of California’s First Senator. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969.

Book Secondary 1969

Quinn, Arthur. The Rivals: William Gwin, David Broderick, and the Birth of California. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1994

Book Secondary 1994

Etcheson, Nicole. "The Great Principle of Self-Government: Popular Sovereignty and Bleeding Kansas." Kansas History 27, no. 1-2 (2004): 14-29.

Journal Article Secondary 2004

Gurko, Miriam. The Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement. Studies in the Life of Women. Collector's ed. Norwalk, CT: Easton Press, 1990.

Book Secondary 1990

Mullis, Tony R. Peacekeeping on the Plains: Army Operations in Bleeding Kansas. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2004.

Book Secondary 2004

Harsha, David Addison. The Life of Charles Sumner. New York: Dayton & Burdick, 1856.

Book Primary 1856

Blue, Frederick J. “The Poet and the Reformer: Longfellow, Sumner, and the Bonds of Male Friendship.” Journal of the Early Republic 15 (1995): 273-297.

Journal Article Secondary 1995

Magdol, Edward. Owen Lovejoy: Abolitionist in Congress. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1967.

Book Secondary 1967

Grayson, Benson Lee. The Unknown President: The Administration of President Millard Fillmore. Washington: University Press of America, 1981.

Book Secondary 1981

Magdol, Edward. "Owen Lovejoy's Role in the Campaign of 1858." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 51 (1958): 403-416.

Journal Article Secondary 1958

Dawson III, Joseph G. The Louisiana Governors: From Iberville to Edwards. Baton Rouge: Lousiana State University Press, 1990.

Book Secondary 1990

Emerson, Jason. The Madness of Mary Lincoln. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2007.

Book Secondary 2007
Herda, D. J. The Dred Scott Case: Slavery and Citizenship. Hillsdale, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 1994. Book Secondary 1994
Lavender, David.  "How to Make it to the White House Without Really Trying." American Heritage 18, no. 4 (1967): 26-27, 80-86.  Journal Article Secondary 1967
Gamber, Wendy. "Tarnished Labor: The Home, the Market, and the Boardinghouse in Antebellum America." Journal of the Early Republic 22, no. 2 (Summer 2002): 177-204. Journal Article Secondary 2002
Williams, Frank J. "Mary Todd Lincoln "On the Wing of Expectation:" Wife, Mother, and Political Partner." Lincoln Herald 102, no. 4 (2000): 168-176. Journal Article Secondary 2000
Jeffrey Jr., Kirk. "Stephen Arnold Douglas in American Historical Writing." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 61, no. 3 (1968): 248-268. Journal Article Secondary 1968
Murrin, John M. Liberty Equality Power: A History of the American People. 2nd ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace, 1999. Book Secondary 1999
Auchampaugh, Philip G. “John W. Forney, Robert Tyler and James Buchanan.” Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine 15 (October 1933): 71-90. Journal Article Secondary 1933
Martin, John. ‘The Senatorial Career of Jeremiah Clemens, 1849-1853.’ Alabama Historical Quarterly 43 (Fall 1981): 186-235. Journal Article Secondary 1981
McMurty, Robert Gerald. “James Buchanan in Kentucky, 1813.” Filson Club Historical Quarterly 8 (1934): 73-87. Journal Article Secondary 1834
Hagedorn, Ann. Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002. Book Secondary 2002
Lavender, David Sievert. Climax at Buena Vista: The American Campaigns in Northeastern Mexico, 1846-47. Great Battles of History. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1966.   Book Secondary 1966
Nudelman, Franny. ""The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community." American Literary History 13, no. 4 (2001): 639-670. Journal Article Secondary 2001
Laderman, Gary. "The Body Politic and the Politics of Two Bodies: Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln in Death." Prospects 22 (1997): 109-132. Journal Article Secondary 1997
Johannsen, Robert W. "The Lincoln-Douglas Campaign of 1858: Background and Perspective." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 73, no. 4 (1980): 242-262. Journal Article Secondary 1980
Tindall, George Brown and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1999. Book Secondary 1999
Auchampaugh, Philip Gerald. "The Buchanan-Douglas Feud." Illinois State Historical Society Journal 25 (1932): 5-48. Journal Article Secondary 1932
Thompson, William Y. Robert Toombs of Georgia. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1966. Book Secondary 1966
Barstow, Benjamin. A Letter to the Hon. James Buchanan, President of the United States. Concord, NH: Office of the Democratic Standard, 1857. Book Primary 1857
Parker, John P. His Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P. Parker, Former Slave and Conductor on the Underground Railroad.  Edited by Stuart Sprague. New York: Norton, 1996. Book Primary 1996
Lee, John D. "Diary of the Mormon Battalion Mission." New Mexico Historical Review 42, no. 3 (1967): 165-209. Journal Article Secondary 1967
Glenn, Daniel P. "Losing the Market Revolution: Lebanon, Ohio, and the Economic Transformation of Warren County, 1820-1850." Ohio Valley History 5, no. 4 (2005): 23-46. Journal Article Secondary 2005
Oates, Stephen B. "God's Angry Man." American History Illustrated 20, no. 9 (1986): 10-21. Journal Article Secondary 1986
Everett, Gwen, and Jacob Lawrence. John Brown: One Man Against Slavery. New York: Rizzoli, 1993. Book Secondary 1993
Braden, Waldo W. "Mary Todd Lincoln's Missouri Relatives." Lincoln Herald 93, no. 2 (1991): 45-49. Journal Article Secondary 1991
Johannsen, Robert W. "America's Little Giant: Stephen A. Douglas." Civil War Times Illustrated 13, no. 1 (1974): 18-29. Journal Article Secondary 1974
Paludan, Phillip Shaw, ed. Lincoln's Legacy: Ethics and Politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008. Book Secondary 2008
Dorf, Linda. American History. Parsippany, NJ: Globe Fearon, Pearson Learning Group, 2003. Book Secondary 2003
Brewton, William Wade. The Son of Thunder, An Epic of the South. Richmond: Garrett & Massie, 1936. Book Secondary 1936
Bomberger, Christian Martin Hess. Twelfth Colony Plus; The Formative Years of Pennsylvania and a Biography of James Buchanan, Fifteenth and Only President of the United States from Pennsylvania. Jeannette, PA: Jeannette Pub. Co., 1934. Book Secondary 1934
Higginson, Mary Thacher, ed. Letters and Journals of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 1846-1906. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1921. Book Primary 1921
Lee, Jr., Ronald C. "Justifying Empire: Pericles, Polk, and a Dilemma of Democratic Leadership." Polity 34, no. 4 (2002): 503-531.  Journal Article Secondary 2002
Glickman, Lawrence B. " ‘Buy for the Sake of the Slave’: Abolitionism and the Origins of American Consumer Activism." American Quarterly 56, no. 4 (December 2004): 889-912. Journal Article Secondary 2004
Kent, Zachary. The Story of John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry. Cornerstones of Freedom. Chicago: Children’s Press, 1988. Book Secondary 1988
Holt, Michael F. Forging a Majority: The Formation of the Republican Party in Pittsburgh, 1848-1860. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969. Book Secondary 1969
Cayton, Andrew. American Pathways to the Present. Needham, MA: Prentice Hall, 2002. Book Secondary 2002
Forness, Norman O. “The Seward-Fillmore Feud and the U.S. Patent Office.” Historian 54, no. 2 (Winter 1992): 255-268. Journal Article Secondary 1992
Miller, C. L. “The Importance of the Adoption of Buchanan’s Minority Report on the Repeal of the Twenty-fifth Section of the Judiciary Act of 1789.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 60 (1912): 574-581. Journal Article Secondary 1912
Crooks, George R. Life and Letters of the Rev. John M'Clintock. New York: Nelson & Philips, 1876. Book Primary 1876
Yanuck, Julius. "The Garner Fugitive Slave Case." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 40, no. 1 (June 1953): 47-66. Journal Article Secondary 1953
Goloboy, Jennifer L. "The Early American Middle Class." Journal of the Early Republic 25, no. 4 (Winter 2005): 537-545. Journal Article Secondary 2005
Oates, Stephen B. "To Wash this Land in Blood: John Brown in Kansas." American West 6, no. 4 (1969): 36-41. Journal Article Secondary 1969
Janney, Caroline E. "Written in Stone: Gender, Race, and the Heyward Shepherd Memorial." Civil War History 52, no. 2 (June 2006): 117-141. Journal Article Secondary 2005
Johannsen, Robert W. "The Douglas Democracy and the Crisis of Disunion." Civil War History 9, no. 3 (1963): 229-247. Journal Article Secondary 1963
Boyer, Paul S. The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People. 6th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008. Book Secondary 2008
Hardy, William E. “South of the Border: Ulysses S. Grant and the French Intervention.” Civil War History 54, no. 1 (2008): 63-86. Journal Article Secondary 2008
Horn, Stanley F. “Isham G. Harris in the Pre-War Years.” Tennessee Historical Quarterly 19 (September 1960): 195-207. Journal Article Secondary 1960
Booth, Edward Townsend. Country Life in America as Lived by Ten Presidents of the United States: John Adams, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren, William Henry Harrison, James Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947. Book Secondary 1947
Shackel, Paul A. "Terrible Saint: Changing Meanings of the John Brown Fort." Historical Archaeology 29, no. 4 (1995): 11-25. Journal Article Secondary 1995
Frost, Karolyn Smardz. I've Got a Home in Glory Land: A Lost Tale of the Underground Railroad. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007. Book Secondary 2007
Levy, JoAnn. "Under Siege at Mission Santa Clara." Californians 7, no. 4 (1989): 30-34. Journal Article Secondary 1989
Johannsen, Robert W. "Stephen A. Douglas' New England Campaign, 1860." New England Quarterly 35, no. 2 (June 1962): 162-186. Journal Article Secondary 1962
Divine, Robert A. The American Story. 3rd ed. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2007. Book Secondary 2007