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Chicago Style Entry Publication Type Reading Level Source Type Year Link
Valone, Stephen J. “William Henry Seward, the Virginia Controversy, and the Anti-Slavery Movement, 1839-1841.” Afro-Americans in New York Life & History 31, no. 1 (2007): 65-80. Journal Article Secondary 2007
“Mr. Buchanan’s Administration.” Atlantic Monthly 1 (April 1858): 745-760. Journal Article Primary 1858
Young, Ronald C. Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in the Civil War. Brownstown, PA: Ronald C. Young, 2002. Book Secondary 2002
Tobin, Jacqueline, and Raymond G. Dobard. Hidden in Plain View: The Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad. New York: Doubleday, 1999. Book Secondary 1999
Lewis, Lloyd. Captain Sam Grant. Boston: Little, Brown, 1950. Book Secondary 1950
Johannsen, Robert W. "Stephen A. Douglas, Popular Sovereignty and the Territories." Historian 22, no. 4 (1960): 378-395. Journal Article Secondary 1960
Clavin, Matthew. "A Second Haitian Revolution: John Brown, Toussaint Louverture, and the Making of the American Civil War." Civil War History 54, no. 2 (2008): 117-145. Journal Article Secondary 2008
Roark, James L. The American Promise: A History of the United States. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2002. Book Secondary 2002
Holzer, Harold. "Lincoln the Homely." Civil War Times 47, no. 1 (2008): 48-53. Journal Article Secondary 2008
Gallagher, Gary W., ed. Fighting for the Confederacy: The Personal Recollections of General Edward Porter Alexander. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989. Book Primary 1989
Stewart, James Brewer. Joshua R. Giddings and the Tactics of Radical Politics. Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve University, 1970. Book Secondary 1970
Day, Donald Eugene. “A Life of Wilson Shannon, Governor of Ohio, Diplomat, Territorial Governor of Kansas.” Ph.D. diss., Ohio State University, 1978. Thesis Secondary 1978
Pospisek, Patrick A. “Springfield's Acquisition of the Illinois Seat of Government, 1833-1845.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 99, no. 1 (2006): 8-18. Journal Article Secondary 2006
Buchanan’s Political Record: Let the South Beware! Washington, DC: National Executive Committee of the American Party, 1856. Book Primary 1856
Hillbruner, Anthony. "The Lincoln-Douglas Debates: A Study in Equality." Lincoln Herald 62, no. 1 (1960): 3-12. Journal Article Secondary 1960

Shannon, Norman. "Canadians served both sides in the Civil War and abetted Rebel terrorist attacks into the North." America's Civil War 19 (January 2007): 23.

Journal Article Secondary 2007
Blockson, Charles L. African Americans in Pennsylvania: Above Ground and Underground: An Illustrated Guide. Harrisburg, PA: RB Books, 2001. Book Secondary 2001
Lewis, Lucien M. "Battle of San Pasqual." Overland Monthly 91 (May 1933): 71-72.  Journal Article Secondary 1933
Johannsen, Robert W. "Stephen A. Douglas, ‘Harper's Magazine,’ and Popular Sovereignty." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 45, no. 4 (March 1959): 606-631. Journal Article Secondary 1959
Bailey, Thomas A. and David M. Kennedy. The American Pageant: A History of the Republic. 10 ed. Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1994. Book Secondary 1994
Holzer, Harold. "Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis: Rivals in Popular Prints." Journal of Mississippi History 70, no. 1 (2008): 41-66. Journal Article Secondary 2008
Alexander, Edward Porter. Military Memoirs of a Confederate: A Critical Narrative. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1907. Book Primary 1907
Julian, George W. The Life of Joshua R. Giddings. Chicago: A.C. McClurg, 1892. Book Secondary 1892
Buchanan’s Record. Nashville, TN: Patriot Office, 1856. Book Primary 1856
Shapiro, Samuel. "The Rendition of Anthony Burns." Journal of Negro History 44 (January 1959): 34-51. Journal Article Secondary 1959
Zarefsky, David. " ‘Public Sentiment is Everything’: Lincoln's View of Political Persuasion." Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 15, no. 2 (1994): 23-40. Journal Article Secondary 1994
Blockson, Charles L. The Underground Railroad. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1987. Book Secondary 1987
Neely, Mark E. The Boundaries of American Political Culture in the Civil War Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005. Book Secondary 2005
Scott, John. Berwick-Upon-Tweed: The History of the Town and Guild. London: Elliot Stock, 1888. Book Primary 1888
Klein, Maury. Edward Porter Alexander. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1971. Book Secondary 1971
Cahalan, Sally Smith. At Home with James Buchanan. Ephrata, PA: Science Press, 1989. Book Secondary 1989
Blessington, Joseph Palmer. The Campaigns of Walker's Texas Division. New York: Lange, Little & Co., 1875.
Book Secondary 1875
Meyer, Michael. "Thoreau's Rescue of John Brown from History." Studies in the American Renaissance (1980): 301-316. Journal Article Secondary 1980
Zarefsky, David. "The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Revisited: The Evolution of Public Argument." Quarterly Journal of Speech 72, no. 2 (1986): 162-184. Journal Article Secondary 1986
Blockson, Charles L. The Underground Railroad in Pennsylvania. Jacksonville, NC: Flame International, 1981. Book Secondary 1981
Livingston-Little, D. E. "Composition and Activities of U.S. Military Forces in California During 1846-1848." Journal of the West 11, no. 2 (1972): 299-306.  Journal Article Secondary 1972
Johannsen, Robert W. The Frontier, the Union, and Stephen A. Douglas. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989. Book Secondary 1989
Neely, Mark E. The Civil War and the Limits of Destruction. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007. Book Secondary 2007
Redpath, James. The Roving Editor: or, Talks with the Slaves in Southern States. New York: A. B. Burdick, 1859. Book Primary 1859
Nash, Gary B. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society. 4th ed. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1998. Book Tertiary 1998
Capen, Nahum. Plain Facts and Considerations Addressed to the People of the United States, without Distinction of Party, in Favor of James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, for President, and John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, for Vice President. Boston: Brown, Bazin & Co., 1856. Book Primary 1856
Cutter, Donald C. "The Legacy of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo." New Mexico Historical Review 53, no. 4 (1978): 305-315. Journal Article Secondary 1978
Hodder, F. H. "Some Phases of the Dred Scott Case." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 16, no. 1 (1929): 3-22. Journal Article Secondary 1929
Livingston-Little, D. E. "Mutiny during the Mexican War: An Incident on the Rio Grande." Journal of the West 9, no. 3 (1970): 340-345.  Journal Article Secondary 1970
Henretta, James A. "The ‘Market’ in the Early Republic." Journal of the Early Republic 18, no. 2 (1998): 289-304. Journal Article Secondary 1998
McKivigan, John R. Forgotten Firebrand: James Redpath and the Making of Nineteenth-Century America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008. Book Secondary 2008
Neely, Mark E. The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993. Book Secondary 1993
Drake, Francis S. Dictionary of American Biography. Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, 1872. Book Primary 1872
Brooks, N. C. A Complete History of the Mexican War, its Causes, Conduct, and Consequences. Comprising an Account of the Various Military and Naval Operations, from its Commencement to the Treaty of Peace. A Rio Grande Classic. Chicago: Rio Grande Press, 1965. Book Secondary 1965
Forney, John W. Anecdotes of Public Men. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1873. Book Primary 1873
Captain of Volunteers. Alta California: Embracing Notices of the Climate, Soil, and Agricultural Products of Northern Mexico and the Pacific Seaboard: Also, a History of the Military and Naval Operations of the United States Directed Against the Territories of Northern Mexico, in the Year 1846-1847 . . . and the Opinion of the Hon. James Buchanan on the Wilmot Proviso, &c. Philadelphia: H. Packer & Co., 1847. Book Primary 1847
Perkins, John D. “The Titus Hunters: Company D 11th Texas Infantry Regiment Walker's Texas Division.” East Texas Historical Journal 35, no. 1 (1997): 17-29. Journal Article Secondary 1997
Moore, James. History of the Cooper Shop Volunteer Refreshment Saloons. Philadelphia: Jas. B Rodgers, 1866.
Book Primary 1866
Hodges, Graham Russell Gao. "Frontline of Freedom: African Americans and the Forging of the Underground Railroad in the Ohio Valley." American Historical Review 110, no. 2 (April 2005): 486. Journal Article Secondary 2005
Lofgren, Charles A. "Force and Diplomacy, 1846-1848: The View from Washington." Military Affairs 31, no. 2 (1967): 57-64.  Journal Article Secondary 1967
Hogan, David. " “To Better our Condition’: Educational Credentialing and ‘The Silent Compulsion of Economic Relations’ in the United States, 1830 to the Present." History of Education Quarterly 36, no. 3 (Autumn 1996): 243-270. Journal Article Secondary 1996
Holzer, Harold, Gabor Boritt, and Mark E. Neely. The Lincoln Image: Abraham Lincoln and the Popular Print. New York: Scribner Press, 1984. Book Secondary 1984
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. The Minister's Wooing. New York: Derby and Jackson, 1859. Book Primary 1859
King, David C., Norma McRae, and Jaye Zola. The United States and Its People. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1993. Book Secondary 1993
Livingston, John, ed. Portraits of Eminent Americans Now Living: Including President Pierce and his Cabinet. New York, 1854. Book Primary 1854
Raab, James W. J. Patton Anderson, Confederate General: A Biography. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 2004. Book Secondary 2004
Brown, Kent Masterson and Edgar G. Archer. "The Military Career of General Ambrose Powell Hill. Part II: Mechanicsville to Sharpsburg: The Ascendance of the ‘Light Division’." Lincoln Herald 81, no. 3 (1979): 148-158. Journal Article Secondary 1979
Catalogue of Pamphlets from the Library of the Late Ex-President James Buchanan: For Sale. Lancaster, PA: S. H. Zahm & Co., 1885. Book Tertiary 1885
Wilson, Mary L. “Profiles in Evasion: Civil War Substitutes and the Men Who Hired them in Walker's Texas Division.” East Texas Historical Journal 43, no. 1 (2005): 25-38. Journal Article Secondary 2005
Gallman, J. Matthew. Wartime: A Social History of Philadelphia During the Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Book Secondary 1990
Middleton, Stephen. "The Fugitive Slave Crisis in Cincinnati, 1850-1860: Resistance, Enforcement, and Black Refugees." Journal of Negro History 72, no. 1/2 (Winter-Spring 1987): 20-32. Journal Article Secondary 1987
Loomis, J. L. "Captain Quarles Leads Company F to Mexico." Wisconsin Magazine of History 27, (December 1943): 170-177.  Journal Article Secondary 1943
Hogan, David. "Examinations, Merit, and Morals: The Market Revolution and Disciplinary Power in Philadelphia's Public Schools, 1838-1868." Historical Studies in Education 4, no. 1 (1992): 31-78. Journal Article Secondary 1992
Johnson, Allen. Stephen A. Douglas: A Study in American Politics. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1908. Book Secondary 1908
Neely, Mark E., and Harold Holzer. "The Lincoln Family Album." American History Illustrated 25, no. 5 (1990): 44-61. Journal Article Secondary 1990
Jordan, Winthrop D., Mariam Greenblatt, and John S. Bowes. The Americans: A History. Evanston, IL: McDougal, Little & Company, 1991. Book Secondary 1991
Kelsey, Kerck. Israel Washburn, Jr.: Maine’s Little-Known Giant Of The Civil War. Rockport, ME: Picton Press, 2004. Book Secondary 2004
Murphy, Sharon Ann. "Securing Human Property: Slavery, Life Insurance, and Industrialization in the Upper South." Journal of the Early Republic 25, no. 4 (2005): 615-652. Journal Article Secondary 2005
Collins, David R. James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States. Ada, OK: Garrett Educational Corp., 1990. Book Secondary 1990
Winschel, Terrence J. “To Rescue Gibraltar: John G. Walker's Texas Division and the Relief of Fortress Vicksburg.” Civil War Regiments 3, no. 3 (1993): 33-58. Journal Article Secondary 1993
Taylor, Frank H. Philadelphia in the Civil War, 1861-1865. Philadelphia: The City, 1913.
Book Secondary 1913

Bradley, David. The Chaneysville Incident: A Novel. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.

Book Secondary 1981
Luce, W. Ray. "The Mormon Battalion: A Historical Accident?" Utah Historical Quarterly 42, no. 1 (1974): 27-38. Journal Article Secondary 1974
Hogan, David. "The Market Revolution and Disciplinary Power: Joseph Lancaster and the Psychology of the Early Classroom System." History of Education Quarterly 29, no. 3 (Autumn 1989): 381-417. Journal Article Secondary 1989
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Boston: John P. Jewett & Co., 1852.
Book Primary 1852
Boyer, Paul. Todd & Curti’s: The American Nation. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1995. Book Secondary 1995
Kelsey, Kerck. "Maine's War Governor: Israel Washburn, Jr. and the Race to Save the Union." Maine History 42, no. 4 (2006): 235-257. Journal Article Secondary 2006
Buchanan, Patrick J. "Jimmy Polk's War." National Interest no. 56 (1999): 97-105. Journal Article Secondary 1999
Stewart, Charles J. “The People and the Lincoln-Douglas Campaign of 1858.” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 65 (October 1967): 284-293. Journal Article Secondary 1967
Cutrer, Thomas W., ed. “'An Experience in Soldier's Life': The Civil War Letters of Volney Ellis, Adjutant, Twelfth Texas Infantry Walker's Texas Division, C. S. A.” Military History of the Southwest 22, no. 2 (1992): 109-172. Journal Article Primary 1992
Bates, Samuel P. History of Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-5. 4 Vols. 1869, PA: B. Singerly, 1869. Book Primary 1869
Blair, William and William Pencak, eds. Making and Remaking Pennsylvania’s Civil War. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001. Book Secondary 2001
Davidson, J. N. Negro Slavery in Wisconsin and the Underground Railroad. Milwaukee, WI: Parkman Club Publications, 1896. Book Secondary 1896
Bramble, Linda. Black Fugitive Slaves in Early Canada. Vanwell History Project Series. St. Catharines, ON: Vanwell Pub. Co., 1988. Book Secondary 1988
Magoffin, Susan Shelby. Down the Santa Fe Trail and into Mexico: The Diary of Susan Shelby Magoffin, 1846-1847. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962. Book Primary 1962
Richardson, Mary L. "The Historical Authenticity of John Brown's Raid in Stephen Vincent Benet's 'John Brown's Body.'" West Virginia History 24, no. 2 (1963): 168-175. Journal Article Secondary 1963
Warren, Robert Penn. John Brown: The Making of a Martyr. New York: Payson and Clarke, 1929. Book Secondary 1929
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp. Boston: Phillips, Sampson and Co., 1856. Book Primary 1856
Earle, Jonathan Halperin. Jacksonian Antislavery and the Politics of Free Soil, 1824-1854. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. Book Secondary 2004
Dirck, Brian R. “By the Hand of God: James Montgomery and Redemptive Violence.” Kansas History 27, no. 1-2 (2004): 100-115. Journal Article Secondary 2004
Wills, Garry. Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. Book Secondary 1992
Campbell, Randolph B. An Empire for Slavery the Peculiar Institution in Texas 1821-1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989. Book Secondary 1989
Brockett, Linus Pierpont and Mary C. Vaughan. Woman’s Work in the Civil War: A Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Philadelphia: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co., 1867.
Book Primary 1867
Abels, Jules. Man on Fire: John Brown and the Cause of Liberty. New York: Macmillan, 1971. Book Secondary 1971
Milhous, Phil. "A Footnote to John Brown's Raid." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 67, no. 4 (1959): 396-398. Journal Article Secondary 1959