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Chicago Style Entry Publication Type Reading Level Source Type Year Link
Hansen, Stephen and Paul Nygard. "Stephen A. Douglas, the Know-Nothings, and the Democratic Party in Illinois, 1854-1858." Illinois Historical Journal 87, no. 2 (1994): 109-130. Journal Article Secondary 1994
Bordewich, Fergus M. Washington: The Making of the American Capital. New York: Amistad, 2008. Book Secondary 2008
Miller, Edward A. Gullah Statesman: Robert Smalls from Slavery to Congress, 1839-1915. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1995. Book Secondary 1995
Faust, Drew Gilpin. This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008. Book Secondary 2008
Hensel, William U. “A Buchanan Myth.” Papers Read before the Lancaster County Historical Society 10 (1906): 169-172. Journal Article Secondary 1906
Offen, Karen. "Women and the Question of ‘Universal’ Suffrage in 1848: A Transatlantic Comparison of Suffragist Rhetoric." NWSA Journal 11, no. 1 (Spring 1999): 150-177. Journal Article Secondary 1999
Blake, Nelson M. "Background of Cleveland's Venezuelan Policy." American Historical Review 47, no. 2 (1942): 259-277. Journal Article Secondary 1942
Horton, Louise. Samuel Bell Maxey: A Biography. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1974. Book Secondary 1974
 Brown, William Wells.  The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements.  Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1863.
Book Secondary Primary 1863
Cowens, John. "Looking for the Big Dipper." Teaching Pre K-8 37 (May 2007): 42. Journal Article Secondary 2007
Hartnett, Stephen. "Lincoln and Douglas Meet the Abolitionist David Walker as Prisoners Debate Slavery: Empowering Education, Applied Communication, and Social Justice." Journal of Applied Communication Research 26, no. 2 (May 1998): 232. Journal Article Secondary 1998
Kornblith, Gary J. "Rethinking the Coming of the Civil War: A Counterfactual Exercise." Journal of American History 90, no. 1 (2003): 76-105. Journal Article Secondary 2003
Buss, Jim, John Lauritz Larson, and John R. VanAtta. "Lessons on Market Revolution: What's a Body to do? A Series of Personal Dilemmas." Magazine of History 19, no. 3 (2005): 26-39. Journal Article Secondary 2005
Washburn, Israel. The Issues: The Dred Scott decision: The Parties. Washington, DC: Congressional Republican Committee, 1860. Book Primary 1860
Hensel, William U. “James Buchanan as a Lawyer.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 60 (1912): 546-573. Journal Article Secondary 1912
Zink-Sawyer, Beverly A. "From Preachers to Suffragists: Enlisting the Pulpit in the Early Movement for Woman's Rights." ATQ 14, no. 3 (September 2000): 193-209. Journal Article Secondary 2000
Eastman, Alaine Goodale. Pratt, the Red Man's Moses. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1935. Book Secondary 1935
“Collusion between the Supreme Court and Buchanan.” Independent 71 (August 1911): 428-430. Journal Article Secondary 1911
Sayers, Daniel O. "The Underground Railroad Reconsidered." Western Journal of Black Studies 28, no. 3 (2004): 435-443. Journal Article Secondary 2004
Kreneck, Thomas H. "From Enthusiasm to Disillusionment: The Texas Volunteer Infantry in the Mexican War." Texana 12, no. 4 (1973): 362-381. 
Journal Article Secondary 1973
Carson, James Taylor. "Native Americans, the Market Revolution, and Culture Change: The Choctaw Cattle Economy, 1690-1830." Agricultural History 71, no. 1 (1997): 1-18. Journal Article Secondary 1997
Taney, Roger B. "The Dred Scott Case." Web Site Primary 2001
Heckman, Richard Allen. "Out-Of-State Influences and the Lincoln-Douglas Campaign of 1858." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 58, no. 1 (1966): 30-47. Journal Article Secondary 1966
Ilisevich, Robert D. Galusha A. Grow: The People's Candidate. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1988. Book Secondary 1988
Hensel, William U. “A Pennsylvania Presbyterian President: An Inquiry into the Religious Sentiments of James Buchanan.” Presbyterian Church Department of History Journal 4 (1908): 203-216. Journal Article Secondary 1908
Gue, B. F. Progressive Men of Iowa: Leaders in Business, Politics, and the Professions. Des Moines: Conway & Shaw, 1899. Book Secondary 1899
Lovejoy, Joseph C., and Owen Lovejoy. Memoir of the Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy; Who Was Murdered in Defence of the Liberty of the Press at Alton, Illinois, Nov. 7, 1837. New York: John S. Taylor, 1838. Book Primary 1838
Reynolds, David S. Waking Giant: America in the Age of Jackson. New York: Harper, 2008. Book Secondary 2008
VanderVelde, Lea. Mrs. Dred Scott: A Life on Slavery's Frontier. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Book Secondary 2009
Kuehl, Daniel T. ""Double-Shot Your Guns and Give 'Em Hell!" Braxton Bragg and the War in Mexico." Civil War History 37, no. 1 (1991): 51-65. Journal Article Secondary 1991
Cornog, Evan. "American Revolution, Democratic Revolution, Market Revolution: A Review Essay." New York History 74, no. 1 (1993): 87-96. Journal Article Secondary 1993
Taney, Roger Brooke and Samuel Tyler. Memoir of Roger Brooke Taney, LL.D.: Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Baltimore, MD: John Murphy & Co., 1872. Book Primary 1872
Hirschhorn, Norbert. "Mary Lincoln's 'Suicide Attempt:' A Physician Reconsiders the Evidence." Lincoln Herald 104, no. 3 (2003): 94-98. Journal Article Secondary 2003
Ruggles, Jeffrey. The Unboxing of Henry Brown. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 2003. Book Secondary 2003
Gillan, W. Rush. “James Buchanan.” Kittochtinny Historical Society Papers 2 (1901): 181-209. Journal Article Secondary 1901
Haberkorn, Ruth E. "Owen Lovejoy in Princeton, Illinois," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 36 (1943): 284-315. Journal Article Secondary 1943
Coleman, Evan J. “Doctor Gwin and Judge Black on Buchanan.” Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine 19 (January 1892): 87-92. Journal Article Secondary 1892
McNeese, Tim. Dred Scott V. Sanford. New York: Chelsea House Publications, 2006. Book Secondary 2006
Kuhne, David. "The San Patricio Affair." Lamar Journal of the Humanities 14, no. 1-2 (1988): 31-36. Journal Article Secondary 1988
Cutler, Wayne. "Jackson, Polk, and Johnson: Defenders of the Moral Economy." Tennessee Historical Quarterly 54, no. 3 (1995): 178-189. Journal Article Secondary 1995
Burkhimer, Michael. "Mary Todd Lincoln: Political Partner?" Lincoln Herald 105, no. 2 (2003): 67-72. Journal Article Secondary 2003
Von Frank, Albert J. The Trials of Anthony Burns: Freedom and Slavery in Emerson's Boston. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998. Book Secondary 1998
Cooper, Michael L. From Slave to Civil War Hero: The Life and Times of Robert Smalls. New York: Lodestar Books, 1994. Book Secondary 1994
Brown, Henry "Box". Narrative of the Life of Henry Box Brown. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Book Secondary 2002
Harmon, George D. “An Indictment of the Administration of President James Buchanan and His Kansas Policy.” Historian 3 (Autumn 1940): 52-68. Journal Article Secondary 1940
Biggleston, William E. They Stopped in Oberlin: Black Residents and Visitors of the Nineteenth Century. Scottsdale, AZ: Innovation Group, 1981. Book Secondary 1981
Freeman, Aileen Sallom. Lincoln: The Northeastern Pennsylvania Connection. Paupack, PA: FOSI, 2000. Book Secondary 2000
Berfield, Karen. “Three Antislavery Leaders of Bureau County.” Western Illinois Regional Studies 3 no, 1 (1980): 46-65. Journal Article Secondary 1980
Davis, Kenneth W. “Black, Buchanan and Secession.” Laurel Messenger 15 (February 1975): 1, 8. Journal Article Secondary 1975
Hughes, Robert M. “Floyd’s Resignation from Buchanan’s Cabinet.” Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine 5 (1923): 73-95. Journal Article Secondary 1923
Winitsky, Marvin Laurence. "Roger B. Taney: A Historiographical Inquiry." Maryland Historical Magazine 69, no. 1 (1974): 1-26. Journal Article Secondary 1974
Lambert, Paul F. "The Movement for the Acquisition of all Mexico." Journal of the West 11, no. 2 (1972): 317-327. Journal Article Secondary 1972
Earle, Jonathan. John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008. Book Tertiary 2008
Bach, Jennifer. "Was Mary Todd Lincoln Bipolar?" Journal of Illinois History 8, no. 4 (2005): 281-294. Journal Article Secondary 2005
Mosier, John. Grant. New York: Palgrave MacMillan , 2006. Book Secondary 2006
Dunkelman, Mark H. "A Bold Break for Freedom." American History 34, no. 5 (1999): 22-28. Journal Article Secondary 1999
Ruggles, Jeffrey. "Go and Get a Box: Henry Brown's Escape From Slavery, 1849." Virginia Cavalcade 48, no. 2 (1999): 84-95. Journal Article Secondary 1999
Harmon, George D. “President James Buchanan’s Betrayal of Governor Robert J. Walker of Kansas.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 53 (1929): 51-91. Journal Article Secondary 1929
Hoch, Bradley R. The Lincoln Trail in Pennsylvania: A History and Guide. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001. Book Secondary 2001
Snay, Mitchell. “Abraham Lincoln, Owen Lovejoy, and the Emergence of the Republican Party in Illinois.” Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 22, no. 1 (2001): 82-99. Journal Article Secondary 2001
Hallowell, Anna Davis, ed. James and Lucretia Mott: Life and Letters. New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1884. Book Primary 1884
Brisbin, James S. The Campaign Lives of Ulysses S. Grant, and Schuyler Colfax. Cincinnati: C.F. Vent & Co., 1868. Book Primary 1868
Morris, Christopher. Becoming Southern: The Evolution of a Way of Life, Warren County and Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1770-1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Book Secondary 1995
Crane, Gregg D. "The Lexicon of Rights, Power, and Community in Blake: Martin R. Delany's Dissent from Dred Scott." American Literature 68, no. 3 (1996): 527-553. Journal Article Secondary 1996
Hazen, Lester B. "Without Much Blood." Military Review 62, no. 9 (1982): 57-66. Journal Article Secondary 1982
LaMotte, Joseph H. and Chuck Hill. "The U.S.-Mexican War: Letters from Joseph H. Lamotte." Gateway Heritage 22, no. 2 (2001): 66-71. Journal Article Secondary 2001
Downey, Tom. "Riparian Rights and Manufacturing in Antebellum South Carolina: William Gregg and the Origins of the ‘Industrial Mind’." Journal of Southern History 65, no. 1 (February 1999): 77-108. Journal Article Secondary 1999
Stavis, Barrie. John Brown: The Sword and the Word. South Brunswick: A.S. Barnes, 1970. Book Secondary 1970
Hodder, Frank Heywood. "The Authorship of the Compromise of 1850." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 22, no. 4 (1936): 525-536. Journal Article Secondary 1936
Levine, Ellen, and Kadir Nelson. Henry's Freedom Box. Scholastic Press, 2007. Book Secondary 2007
Evans, Charles F. H. “The Ancestry of President James Buchanan.” American Genealogist 52 (January 1976): 27-29. Journal Article Secondary 1976
Dillon, Merton Lynn. Elijah P. Lovejoy, Abolitionist Editor. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1961. Book Secondary 1961
Greene, Dana. “Quaker Feminism: The Case of Lucretia Mott.” Pennsylvania History 48, no. 2 (1981): 143-154. Journal Article Secondary 1981
Teiser, Sidney. “Life of George H. Williams: Almost Chief-Justice.” Oregon Historical Quarterly 47 (September 1946): 256-280. Journal Article Secondary 1946
Knoles, George Harmon, ed. The Crisis of the Union, 1860-1861. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1965. Book Secondary 1965
Heckman, Richard Allen. "The Lincoln-Douglas Debates: A Case Study in ‘Stump Speaking’." Civil War History 12, no. 1 (1966): 54-56. Journal Article Secondary 1966
Schroeder, Glenna R. "We must Look this Great Event in the Face": Northern Sermons on John Brown's Raid." Fides et Historia 20, no. 1 (1988): 29-43. Journal Article Secondary 1988
Rosen, Jeffrey. The Supreme Court: The Personalities and Rivalries that Defined America. New York: Times Books, 2007. Book Secondary 2007
Lander, Ernest M. "The Palmetto Regiment Goes to Mexico." Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association (1973): 83-93. Journal Article Secondary 1973
McGlone, Robert E. "Forgotten Surrender: John Brown's Raid and the Cult of Martial Virtues." Civil War History 40, no. 3 (September 1994): 185-201. Journal Article Secondary 1994
Stauffer, John. The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002. Book Secondary 2002
Hodder, Frank Heywood. "The Railroad Background of the Kansas-Nebraska Act." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 12 no. 1 (1925): 3-22. Journal Article Secondary 1925
Donovan, Theresa A. “President Pierce’s Ministers at the Court of St. James.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 91 (1967): 457-471. Journal Article Secondary 1967
Bacon, Margaret Hope. “The Motts and the Purvises: A Study in Interracial Friendship.” Quaker History 92, no. 2 (2003): 1-18 Journal Article Secondary 2003
Teiser, Sidney. “Life of George H. Williams: Almost Chief-Justice.” Oregon Historical Quarterly 47 (December 1946): 417-440. Journal Article Secondary 1946
Luebke, Frederick C., ed. Ethnic Voters and the Election of Lincoln. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971. Book Secondary 1971
Heckman, Richard Allen. "Political Fortunes of Lincoln and Douglas in 1858-59." Lincoln Herald 67, no. 4 (1965): 161-170. Journal Article Secondary 1965
Rossbach, Jeffery S. Ambivalent Conspirators: John Brown, the Secret Six, and a Theory of Slave Violence. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982. Book Secondary 1982
Lander, Jr., Ernest M. "The Reluctant Imperialist: South Carolina, the Rio Grande, and the Mexican War." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 78, no. 3 (1975): 254-270. Journal Article Secondary 1975
Egerton, Douglas R. "Slaves to the Marketplace: Economic Liberty and Black Rebelliousness in the Atlantic World." Journal of the Early Republic 26, no. 4 (Winter 2006): 617-639. Journal Article Secondary 2006
Trodd, Zoe, and John Stauffer, eds. Meteor of War: The John Brown Story. Maplecrest, NY: Brandywine Press, 2004. Book Secondary 2004
Office of History and Preservation. "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774 to Present." Web Site Secondary 2008
Horner, Harlan Hoyt. "The Substance of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates." Lincoln Herald 63, no. 3 (1961): 139-149. Journal Article Secondary 1961
Wolff, Cynthia Griffin. "Passing beyond the Middle Passage: Henry 'Box' Brown's Translations of Slavery." Massachusetts Review 37, no. 1 (1996): 23-44. Journal Article Secondary 1996
Auchampaugh, Philip G. “James Buchanan, the Conservatives’ Choice, 1856.; A Political Portrait.” Historian 7 (Spring 1945): 77-90. Journal Article Secondary 1945
Klein, Frederic S. “Election of Buchanan in 1856 is Commemorated at Lancaster; British Share in Celebration.” Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs Bulletin 24 (1956): 17-20, 22. Journal Article Secondary 1956
Heckman, Richard Allen. "Some Impressions of Lincoln and Douglas during the Campaign of 1858." Lincoln Herald 66, no. 3 (1964): 135-139. Journal Article Secondary 1964
Scott, John Anthony, and Robert Alan Scott. John Brown of Harper's Ferry: With Contemporary Prints, Photographs, and Maps. Makers of America. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1988. Book Secondary 1988
Egerton, Douglas R. "Markets without a Market Revolution: Southern Planters and Capitalism." Journal of the Early Republic 16, no. 2 (1996): 207-221. Journal Article Secondary 1996
D'Entremont, John. Southern Emancipator: Moncure Conway, The American Years 1832-1865. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. Book Secondary 1987