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Chicago Style Entry Publication Type Reading Level Source Type Year Link
Blockson, Charles L. Hippocrene Guide to the Underground Railroad. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1994. Book Secondary 1994
Hunter, William A. and Donald H. Kent. James Buchanan. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1966. Book Secondary 1966
Donald, David, ed. Inside Lincoln’s Cabinet: The Civil War Diaries of Salmon P. Chase. New York: Longmans Green and Co., 1954. Book Primary 1954
Boman, Dennis K. Lincoln's Resolute Unionist: Hamilton Gamble, Dred Scott Dissenter and Missouri's Civil War Governor. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006. Book Secondary 2006
Young, Jesse Bowman. The Battle of Gettysburg: A Comprehensive Narrative. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1913. Book Primary 1913
Super, Charles. A Pioneer College and Its Background. Salem, MA: 1923. Book Secondary 1923
Iger, Eve Marie. John Brown, His Soul Goes Marching On. New York: Young Scott Books, 1969. Book Secondary 1969
Smith, Kenneth L. "Edmund Ruffin and the Raid on Harper's Ferry." Virginia Cavalcade 22, no. 2 (1972): 28-37. Journal Article Secondary 1972
Northrup, Jack. "The Trist Mission." Journal of Mexican American History 3, no. 1 (1973): 13-31. Journal Article Secondary 1973
Frederick, Jeff. "Unintended Consequences: The Rise and Fall of the Know-Nothing Party in Alabama." Alabama Review 55, no. 1 (2002): 3-33. Journal Article Secondary 2002
The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York: James T. White & Company, 1895. Book Secondary 1895
Hillman, Franklin Powell. The Diplomatic Career of James Buchanan. Washington, DC: The George Washington University, 1971. Book Secondary 1971
West, Richard, Jr. Gideon Welles: Lincoln's Navy Department. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1943. Book Secondary 1943
Young, Jesse Bowman. To-Day: An Age of Opportunity. Cincinnati: Jennings and Graham, 1909. Book Primary 1909
Dubay, Robert W. John Jones Pettus, Mississippi Fire-Eater: His Life and Times, 1813-1867. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1975. Book Secondary 1975
Lanman, Charles. The Red Book of Michigan; A Civil, Military and Biographical History. Detroit: E. B. Smith & Company, 1871. Book Secondary 1871
Nortrup, Jack. "Nicholas Trist's Mission to Mexico: A Reinterpretation." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 71, no. 3 (1967): 321-346. Journal Article Secondary 1967
Siebert, Wilbur Henry. The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom. New York: The Macmilliam Company, 1898. Book Secondary 1898
Griest, Ellwood. John and Mary; or, The Fugitive Slaves, A Tale of South-Eastern Pennsylvania. Lancaster, PA: Inquirer Printing and Publish Co., 1873. Book Primary 1873
Wiley, Edgar J. Catalogue of the Officers and Students of Middlebury College. Middlebury, VT: Middlebury College, 1917. Book Secondary 1917
Updike, John. Buchanan Dying; A Play. New York: Knopf, 1974. Book Secondary 1974
Niven, John. Gideon Welles: Lincoln's Secretary of the Navy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973. Book Secondary 1973
Klunder, Willard C. Lewis Cass and the Politics of Moderation. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1996. Book Secondary 1996
Ball, Charles.  Slavery in the United States:  A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Charles Ball, A Black Man. New York: John S. Taylor, 1837. Book Primary 1837
Thayer, Shelly A. “The Delegate and the Duel: The Early Political Career of George Wallace Jones.” Palimpsest 65 (September/October 1984): 178-188. Journal Article Secondary 1984
Burlingame, Michael. The Inner World of Abraham Lincoln. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994. Book Secondary 1994
Noverr, Douglas A. "Popular Fiction and the U.S.-Mexico War: Thomas Mayne Reid's the Rifle Rangers (1850) and John Ludlum Mcconnel's Talbot and Vernon (1850)." Journal of Popular Culture 35, no. 2 (2001): 73-82. Journal Article Secondary 2001
Plummer, Mark. "Lincoln and the Rail-Splitter Election." Lincoln Herald 101, no. 3 (1999): 111-116. Journal Article Secondary 1999
Blackmar, Frank W. Kansas: A Cyclopedia of State History, Embracing Events, Institutions, Industries, Counties, Cities, Towns, Prominent Persons, Etc. Chicago: Standard Publishing Company, 1912. Book Secondary 1912
Smedley, Robert Clemens. History of the Underground Railroad in Chester and the Neighboring Counties of Pennsylvania. Lancaster, PA: Office of the Journal, 1883. Book Secondary 1883
Wise, W. Harvey, and John W. Cronin. A Bibliography of Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce and James Buchanan. Washington, DC: Riverford Pub. Co, 1935. Book Secondary 1935
Niven, John. "Gideon Welles and Naval Administration during the Civil War." American Neptune. 35, no. 1 (1975): 53-66. Journal Article Secondary 1975
Smith, William L. G. Fifty Years of Public Life: The Life and Times of Lewis Cass. New York: Derby Jackson, 1856. Book Primary 1856
Beecher, Catharine E. An Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism, with Reference to the Duty of American Females. Philadelphia: Henry Perkins, 1837. Book Primary 1837
Kunhardt, Philip B. Looking for Lincoln: The Making of an American Icon. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008. Book Secondary 2008
Parish, John Carl. George Wallace Jones. Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1912. Book Secondary 1912
Shipherd, Jacob R., Ralph Plumb, and Henry Everard Peck. History of the Oberlin-Wellington Rescue. Boston: John P. Jewett and Company, 1859. Book Primary 1859
Gillette, William. Jersey Blue: Civil War Politics in New Jersey, 1854-1865. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1995.
Book Secondary 1995
Du Bois, Ellen Carol. Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women's Movement in America 1848-1869. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1978. Book Secondary 1978
Iseminger, Gordon L. "The Second Raid on Harpers Ferry, July 29, 1899: The Other Bodies that Lay A'Mouldering in their Graves." Pennsylvania History 71, no. 2 (2004): 129-163. Journal Article Secondary 2004
Oates, Stephen B. "Los Diablos Tejanos: The Texas Rangers in the Mexican War." Journal of the West 9, no. 4 (1970): 487-504. Journal Article Secondary 1970
Lutz, Alma. Created Equal: A Biography of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 1815-1902. New York: The John Day Company, 1940. Book Secondary 1940
Whittier, John Greenleaf. Lucretia Mott. Philadelphia: Office of the Journal, 1880. Book Primary 1880
Stoddard, William Osborn. The Lives of the Presidents: Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce and James Buchanan. New York: F. A. Stokes & Brother, 1888. Book Secondary 1888
Canfield, Eugene B. "Birth of a Blockade." Naval History 21, no. 5 (2007): 44-51. Journal Article Secondary 2007
Birney, James G. Sinfulness of Slaveholding in All Circumstances: Test by Reason and Scripture. Detroit: Charles Willcox, 1846. Book Primary 1846
McPherson, James M. Abraham Lincoln. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Book Secondary 2009
Isenberg, Nancy. Sex & Citizenship in Antebellum America. Gender and American Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. Book Secondary 1998
Oates, Stephen B. "Los Diablos Tejanos!" American West 2, no. 3 (1965): 41-50. Journal Article Secondary 1965
Steins, Richard. Taylor, Fillmore, Pierce, and Buchanan. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Corp., 1997.  Book Secondary 1997
Vermilyea, Peter C. "'If Mr. Lincoln Is In Danger, My Place Is Beside Him': Abraham Lincoln and Gideon Welles." Lincoln Herald 108, no. 2 (2006): 56-69. Journal Article Secondary 2006
McGovern, George S. Abraham Lincoln. New York: Times Books/Henry Holt and Co., 2009. Book Secondary 2009
Pelzer, Louis. Augustus Caesar Dodge. Iowa City: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1908. Book Secondary 1908
Davis, William C. Breckinridge: Statesman, Soldier, Symbol. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1974.
Book 1974
Oberly, James W. "Military Bounty Land Warrants of the Mexican War." Prologue 26 (1994): 28-35. Journal Article Secondary 1994
Tinelli, L. W. Fremont, Buchanan and Fillmore; or, The Parties Called to Order. New York: Livermore & Rudd, 1856. Book Primary 1856
Williams, Frances L. “The Heritage and Preparation of a Statesman, John Young Mason, 1799-1859.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 75 (July 1967): 305-330. Journal Article Secondary 1967
Oliva, Leo E. "The Santa Fe Trail in Wartime: Expansion and Preservation of the Union." Journal of the West 28, no. 2 (1989): 53-58. Journal Article Secondary 1989
Katzman, David M. Before the Ghetto: Black Detroit in the Nineteenth Century. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1973. Book Secondary 1973
Choate, Rufus. The Old-Line Whigs for Buchanan! Letters of Rufus Choate and James B. Clay. 1856. Book Primary 1856
Fladeland, Betty. James Gillespie Birney: Slaveholder to Abolitionist. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1955. Book Secondary 1955
Paulhus, David L. "Rhode Island and the Mexican War." Rhode Island History 37, no. 3 (1978): 89-96. Journal Article Secondary 1978
Shade, William. Democratizing the Old Dominion: Virginia and the Second Party System, 1824-1861. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1996. Book Secondary 1996
Crozier, Alice. The Novels of Harriet Beecher Stowe. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969. Book Secondary 1969
Landon, Fred. "Canadian Negroes and the John Brown Raid." Journal of Negro History 6, no. 2 (1921):174-182. Journal Article Secondary 1921
Cowley, Charles. A Handbook of Business in Lowell with a History of the City. Lowell, MA: E. D. Green, 1856. Book Primary 1856
Cluskey, M. W. Buchanan and Breckinridge: The Democratic Handbook. Washington, DC: R. A. Waters, 1856. Book Primary 1856
Franklin, Cathy Rogers. “James Gillespie Birney, the Revival Spirit, and 'The Philanthropist'.” American Journalism 17, no. 2 (2000): 31-51. Journal Article Secondary 2000
Nye, Wilbur Sturtevant. Here Come The Rebels!. Rev. ed. Dayton, OH: Morningside Bookshop, 1988. Book Secondary 1988
Bailey, Anne J. The Chessboard of War: Sherman and Hood in the Autumn Campaigns of 1864. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000. Book Secondary 2000
Dykstra, Robert R. "The Know Nothings Nobody Knows: Political Nativists in Antebellum Iowa." Annals of Iowa 53, no. 1 (Winter 1994): 5-24. Journal Article Secondary 1994
Jacobsohn, Gary J. "Abraham Lincoln 'On this Question of Judicial Authority': The Theory of Constitutional Aspiration." Western Political Quarterly 36 (1983): 52-70. Journal Article Secondary 1983
Neumann, Maureen D. "Freedom Quilts: Mathematics on the Underground Railroad." Teaching Children Mathematics 11 (February 2005): 316. Journal Article Secondary 2005
Payne, Darwin. "Camp Life in the Army of Occupation: Corpus Christi, July 1845 to March 1846." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 73, no. 3 (1970): 326-342. Journal Article Secondary 1970
Adams, John R. Harriet Beecher Stowe. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1963. Book Secondary 1963
Wellman, Judith. "The Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention: A Study of Social Networks." Journal of Women's History 3, no. 1 (1991): 9-37. Journal Article Secondary 1991
Thornbrough, Emma Lou. The Negro in Indiana before 1900: A Study of a Minority. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993. Book Secondary 1993
Leddy, Chuck. "Boston Combusts: The Fugitive Slave Case of Anthony Burns." Civil War Times 46, no. 3 (2007): 50-55. Journal Article Secondary 2007
Carroll, Anna Ella and James French. Who Shall be President?: An Appeal to the People. Boston: James French & Co., 1856. Book Primary 1856
Hume, Janice, and Noah Arceneaux. “Glittering Dust, Dormant Treasure: Press, Public Memory and Georgia's 'Forgotten' Gold Rush.” American Journalism 23, no. 4 (2006): 7-33. Journal Article Secondary 2006
Brumgardt, John R. “The Confederate Career of Alexander H. Stephens: The Case Reopened.” Civil War History 27 (March 1981): 64-81. Journal Article Secondary 1981
Jones, Jacqueline. Saving Savannah: The City and the Civil War. New York: Knopf, 2008. Book Secondary 2008
Dykstra, Robert R. "Dr. Emerson's Sam: Black Iowans before the Civil War." Iowa Heritage Illustrated 85, no. 2-3 (2004): 50-63. Journal Article Secondary 2004
Pinheiro, John C. " ‘Religion without Restriction’: Anti-Catholicism, all Mexico, and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo." Journal of the Early Republic 23, no. 1 (2003): 69-96. Journal Article Secondary 2003
Hull, Mary. Mary Todd Lincoln: Tragic First Lady of the Civil War. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2000. Book Secondary 2000
Caskey, Marie. Chariot of Fire: Religion and the Beecher Family. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978. Book Secondary 1978
Landon, Fred. "The Anti-Slavery Society of Canada." Journal of Negro History 4, no. 1 (1919): 33-40. Journal Article Secondary 1919
Mealy, Todd. Biography of an Antislavery City: Antislavery Advocates, Abolitionists, and Underground Railroad Activists in Harrisburg, PA. Baltimore: PublishAmerica, 2007. Book Secondary 2007
Evans, C. Wyatt. The Legend of John Wilkes Booth: Myth, Memory, and a Mummy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004.
Book Secondary 2004
Davis, Robert R., Jr. "James Buchanan and the Suppression of the Slave Trade, 1858-1861." Pennsylvania History 33, no. 4 (1966): 446-459. Journal Article Secondary 1966
Lore, Charles B. The Life and Character of George P. Fisher. Wilmington: The Historical Society of Delaware, 1902. Book Secondary 1902
Swan, Jon. "William Walker's Manifest Destiny." MHQ: Quarterly Journal of Military History 13, no. 4 (2001): 38-47. Journal Article Secondary 2001
Levinson, Irving W. Wars Within War: Mexican Guerrillas, Domestic Elites, and the United States of America. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 2005. Book Secondary 2005
Chicago (IL) Times
Book Primary 1850
Belz, Herman. "Rhetoric and Deliberation in the Debate Over Slavery -- Lincoln, Douglas, and Slavery: In the Crucible of Public Debate by David Zarefsky." Review of Politics 54, no. 2 (Spring 1992): 338. Journal Article Secondary 1992
Jaffa, Harry V. Crisis of the House Divided: An Interpretation of the Issues in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. Book Secondary 1999
Newton, James E. "The Underground Railroad in Delaware." Negro History Bulletin 40, no. 3 (1977): 702-703. Journal Article Secondary 1977
Spooner, Lysander. A Defence for Fugitive Slaves against the Acts of Congress of February 12, 1793, and September 18, 1850. Boston: Bela Marsh, 1850. Book Primary 1850
Chiaverini, Jennifer. The Runaway Quilt: An Elm Creek Quilts Novel. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002. Book Secondary 2002
Pinheiro, John C. " ‘Extending the Light and Blessing of our Purer Faith’: Anti-Catholic Sentiment among American Soldiers in the U.S.-Mexican War." Journal of Popular Culture 35, no. 2 (Fall 2001): 129-152. Journal Article Secondary 2001