Andrew Cayton, et al., eds., American Pathways to the Present (Needham, MA: Prentice Hall, 2002), 81.
By 1855 Kansas had two rival capitals. There was an antislavery capital at Topeka and a proslavery capital at Lecompton. The following year, tensions escalated into open violence, with murderous raids and counterraids throughout Kansas. The violence woon the territory the grim nickname of "Bleeding Kansas."