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In Bologna, Italy, Edgardo Mortara is removed by force from his Jewish parents' home to be raised as a Catholic

Northern Italy, 1857, zoomable map
Edgardo Mortana, a Jewish six year old who a Catholic servant girl had baptized when he was near death from illness, is removed from his family in Bologna by police to be raised as a Catholic. Bologna was then under the direct rule of the Pope and the law was clear that no baptized Catholic could be raised as a Jew. All family efforts to retrieve the child will be futile despite powerful international outcry and Mortana was eventually ordained a priest. (By John Osborne)
Source Citation: 
Benjamin Vincent, Haydn's Dictionary of Dates and Universal Information Relating to all Ages and Nations (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1906), 757.