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Italian nationalist forces begin the siege of Gaeta, the last stronghold of the Bourbon monarchy

Southern Italy, the Kingdom of Naples, 1857, zoomable map
11/02/1860
The combined forces of Piedmont-Sardinia and Garibaldi began the siege of the fortress of Gaeta on the western central coast of Italy.  This was the last stronghold of the defeated Bourbon monarchy and the refuge of King Francis II and his queen Maria Sophia.  All siege operations had to carried out from the landward side since French naval forces were preventing any seaward bombardment.  Operations were therefore protracted and Gaeta did not surrender until February 1861.  (By John Osborne) 
Source Citation: 
G.M. Trevelyan, Garibaldi and the Thousand, May 1860 (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1916), 276. 

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