A Spanish naval force on a scientific expedition to South America's Pacific coast was on hand to enforce Spanish demands against Peru for compensation for both recent losses incurred by Spanish citizens in Peru and the more long-standing demands of the War of Independence. The warships seized the guano-rich Chincha Islands, worth perhaps 60% of Peru's annual income, and began a blockade of the Peruvian coast. Events escalated and Spain fought a war with Peru and Chile during 1865 and 1866. (By John Osborne)
Spencer C. Tucker (ed.), A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2010), 1431.