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Andrew Johnson, Proclamation Declaring the Insurrection at an End in Texas, and Civil Authority existing throughout the whole of the United States, August 20, 1866, Washington, D.C.

Andrew Johnson, detail

Texas had been left out of the original proclamation President Andrew Johnson had made in April 1866 that the insurrection was at an end.  In this declaration, with Union forces seemingly in control of the large state, Johnson is able to include Texas and declare that civil authority now runs in all of the United States and its territories.  The proclamation largely uses the language of the April document and Johnson is politically aware that repeating once again the 1861 words of the U.S. Congress that the suppressing of the rebellion would not be a war of conquest or destruction of southern state institutions was a useful Democratic talking point in the burgeoning conflict with the more radical Congress during the 1866 election season. The document did, however, add to the confusion in the southern states under Union Army occupation, where residents took it to mean the end of military jurisdiction. (By John Osborne)