Virginia

Virginia is now divided into 119 counties. Its seat of government is the city of Richmond, and its greatest commercial port is Norfolk. There are many other cities and populous towns in the state, more particular descriptions of which will be found in their proper order in this volume. Within even its present boundaries flow some of the finest rivers in America, the most important of which are the Potomac, Rappahannock, James, and Kanawha Rivers. It is also watered by the Ohio and its tributaries on the west. The surface of the state is greatly diversified; insomuch that those familiar with its topography have considered its soil and climate under several distinct zones or divisions. (Gazetteer of the United States of America, 1854)
Place Unit Type
State or Province
Containing Unit
Date Type
Alleged fugitive slave arrested in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania and sent that evening to Philadelphia Slavery/Abolition
Governor Chase of Ohio responds to Virginia Governor Wise's accusations against his northern neighbors Legal/Political
Governor Wise takes over the Winchester and Potomac Railroad in preparation for the execution of John Brown Lawmaking/Litigating
- Grant's Overland Campaign against the Army of Northern Virginia continues Battles/Soldiers
In Philadelphia, the U.S. Commissioner frees Harrisburg alleged fugitive slave Daniel Dangerfield Slavery/Abolition
In Virginia, the Union Army crosses the Rapidan River and begins Grant's Overland Campaign Battles/Soldiers
President Buchanan rejects Virginia's call for federal forces to police neighboring states Legal/Political
Richmond newspaper editorial defends slavery as a vital financial need for Virginia Slavery/Abolition
Robert E. Lee appointed commander of all Confederate troops in Virginia Battles/Soldiers
- The fugitive slave case of Daniel Dangerfield from Harrisburg causes popular excitement in Philadelphia Legal/Political
The Ladies' Mount Vernon Association acquire Mount Vernon from the Washington family Cultural
The moderate Constitutional Union ticket of Bell and Everett narrowly carries Virginia Campaigns/Elections
The troops of the Pennsylvania Reserve present General George Meade with a valuable sword in recognition of his leadership Personal
The Union Army crosses the James River, ending Grant's Overland Campaign and besieging Petersburg Battles/Soldiers
- The Virginia Convention on secession is meeting in Richmond Lawmaking/Litigating
The Virginia Republican State Convention meets in Wheeling, Virginia Campaigns/Elections
Virginians elect delegates to their secession convention Lawmaking/Litigating
Name Type
Accomack County, VA County
Albemarle County, VA County
Alexandria County, VA County
Alleghany County, VA County
Amelia County, VA County
Amherst County, VA County
Appomattox County, VA County
Arlington County, VA County
Augusta County, VA County
Barbour County, VA County
Bath County, VA County
Bedford County, VA County
Berkeley County, VA County
Bland County, VA County
Boone County, VA County
Botetourt County, VA County
Braxton County, VA County
Brooke County, VA County
Brunswick County, VA County
Buckingham County, VA County
Cabell County, VA County
Campbell County, VA County
Caroline County, VA County
Carroll County, VA County
Charles City County, VA County
Charlotte County, VA County
Chesterfield County, VA County
Clarke County, VA County
Craig County, VA County
Culpeper County, VA County
Cumberland County, VA County
Cumberland Gap, VA Location or Site
Dinwiddie County, VA County
Doddridge County, VA County
Elizabeth City County, VA County
Essex County, VA County
Fairfax County, VA County
Fauquier County, VA County
Floyd County, VA County
Fluvanna County, VA County
Franklin County, VA County
Frederick County, VA County
Giles County, VA County
Gilmer County, VA County
Gloucester County, VA County
Goochland County, VA County
Grayson County, VA County
Greenbrier County, VA County
Greene County, VA County
Greensville County, VA County
Halifax County, VA County
Hampshire County, VA County
Hancock County, VA County
Hanover County, VA County
Hardy County, VA County
Harrison County, VA County
Henrico County, VA County
Henry County, VA County
Highland County, VA County
Isle of Wight County, VA County
Jackson County, VA County
James City County, VA County
James River Continent
Jefferson County, VA County
Kanawha County, VA County
King & Queen County, VA County
King George County, VA County
King William County, VA County
Lancaster County, VA County
Lee County, VA County
Lewis County, VA County
Logan County, VA County
Loudoun County, VA County
Louisa County, VA County
Lunenburg County, VA County
Madison County, VA County
Marion County, VA County
Marshall County, VA County
Mason County, VA County
Mathews County, VA County
Mecklenburg County, VA County
Mercer County, VA County
Middlesex County, VA County
Monongalia County, VA County
Monroe County, VA County
Montgomery County, VA County
Morgan County, VA County
Nansemond County, VA County
Nelson County, VA County
New Kent County, VA County
Newport News, VA City or Town
Nicholas County, VA County
Norfolk County, VA County
Northampton County, VA County
Northumberland County, VA County
Nottoway County, VA County
Ohio County, VA County
Orange County, VA County
Page County, VA County
Patrick County, VA County
Pendleton County, VA County
Pittsylvania County, VA County
Pleasants County, VA County
Pocahontas County, VA County
Powhatan County, VA County
Preston County, VA County
Prince Edward County, VA County
Prince George County, VA County
Prince William County, VA County
Princess Anne County, VA County
Pulaski County, VA County
Putnam County, VA County
Raleigh County, VA County
Randolph County, VA County
Rappahannock County, VA County
Richmond County, VA County
Ritchie County, VA County
Roanoke County, VA County
Rockbridge County, VA County
Rockingham County, VA County
Russell County, VA County
Scott County, VA County
Shenandoah County, VA County
Smyth County, VA County
Southampton County, VA County
Spotsylvania County, VA County
Stafford County, VA County
Surry County, VA County
Sussex County, VA County
Taylor County, VA County
Tazewell County, VA County
The Great Dismal Swamp, VA Location or Site
Tyler County, VA County
Upshur County, VA County
Warren County, VA County
Warwick County, VA County
Washington County, VA County
Wayne County, VA County
Westmoreland County, VA County
Wetzel County, VA County
Wirt County, VA County
Wood County, VA County
Wyoming County, VA County
Wythe County, VA County
York County, VA County
Date Title
Recollection by Noah Brooks, April 1863, Army of the Potomac
Spencer Fullerton Baird, Report of the Curator of the Musuem, July 11, 1848
David Wilmot’s Speech in the House of Representatives, Washington, DC, August 3, 1848
(Columbus) Ohio State Journal, “New Law about Fugitive Slaves,” April 30, 1850
John Henry Hill to William Still, October 4, 1853
John Clayton to William Still, March 6, 1854
Boston (MA) Herald, “Fugitives,” March 20, 1854
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, "Underground Operations," April 29, 1854
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, "The Virginia Springs," July 1, 1854
John Henry Hill to William Still, January 7, 1855
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, "The Underground Railroad," November 7, 1855
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, "Runaways Returned," November 29, 1855
Charleston (SC) Mercury, "Return of Fugitives," December 5, 1855
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, "The Underground Railroad," December 6, 1855
New York Herald, "Threatened Civil War Between Virginia and Pennsylvania," January 31, 1856
New York Herald, “Law to Protect Slave Property in Virginia,” March 22, 1856
Thomas Garrett to William Still, July 19, 1856
N. Coryell to William Still, August 18, 1856
New York Times, “Free Negroes and Free Slaves In Virginia,” January 8, 1857
New York Herald, "The Decision in the Dred Scott," March 9, 1857
New York Times, “Virginia Frightened,” April 7, 1857
New York Times, “A New Kink in the Southern Mind,” May 7, 1857
New York Times, “Sensible Southern Sentiments,” May 11, 1857
Washington (DC) National Era, "The Administration," June 25, 1857
New York Times, “A Nice Distinction,” August 4, 1857
Washington (DC) National Era, “Virginia and the South,” October 22, 1857
New York Times, “Virginia Politics,” October 26, 1857
New York Herald, "Kansas as a Slave State," January 7, 1858
Boston (MA) Liberator, "The Beauties of Personal Liberty Laws," January 8, 1858
Boston (MA) Herald, "Rescue of a Slave from the U.S. Marshal at Blairsville, PA," April 9, 1858
John Henry Hill to William Still, June 5, 1858
New York Herald, "Found At Last," June 13, 1858
New York Herald, "The Late Meeting of Maryland Slaveholders," July 23, 1858
New York Herald, “Political Joking," August 15, 1858
Boston (MA) Liberator, “Underground Railroad,” August 27, 1858
Boston (MA) Liberator, “The Underground Railroad,” October 8, 1858
New York Herald, “The Struggle Among the Virginia Democracy,” December 5, 1858
New York Herald, “The Presidential Question,” January 24, 1859
New York Herald, “The Presidential Question,” January 29, 1859
New York Times, “Extension of the Southern Revolt Against the Cuban Scheme,” February 8, 1859
Louisville (KY) Journal, “‘U. G.’ Railroad Statistics,” March 14, 1859
New York Times, “An Elevated Struggle,” March 23, 1859
San Francisco (CA) Evening Bulletin, “Filibusterism and Disunion,” April 1, 1859
New York Herald, “The Gubernatorial Contest in Virginia,” April 3, 1859
New York Herald, “The Late Scattering Elections,” April 6, 1859
New York Herald, “Does Mr. Crittenden Back Out?,” May 22, 1859
New York Times, “The Virginia Election,” May 30, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Republicanism in Virginia,” June 7, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Another Dred Scott Decision,” June 8, 1859
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Virginia Will Lead,” June 22, 1859
New York Herald, “The Spoils,” July 20, 1858
Stepney Brown to William Still, August 27, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “New Danger To Douglas,” September 29, 1859
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, "Northern Impertinences with Regard to the Late Affair at Harpers Ferry," October 24, 1859
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "How Shall Brown Be Punished?," November 7, 1859
Eliza Margaretta Chew Mason to Lydia Maria Child, November 11, 1859
New York Herald, “The South and Southern Safety,” December 4, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Beginning of Sorrows,” December 5, 1859
Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “Paying the Piper,” January 28, 1860
New York Times, "Senator Brown on International Law," March 8, 1860
New York Times, “Disunion Plots,” May 10, 1860
Chillicothe (OH) Scioto Gazette, “Can Locofocos Explain It?,” June 5, 1860
Richard W. Thompson to Abraham Lincoln, June 12, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “What the South Really Fears,” July 25, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Result of Freedom,” August 3, 1860
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, "Precipitate A Revolution," August 9, 1860
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “A Broken Platform,” August 30, 1860
New York Times, “When to Secede,” September 28, 1860
New York Herald, “What are the Southern States Going to Do?,” October 12, 1860
David Hunter to Abraham Lincoln, October 20, 1860
New York Herald, “Helper and His Black Republican Endorsers,” October 28, 1860
New York Herald, “The Disunion Question,” November 19, 1860
William T. Sherman to Ellen Sherman, November 23, 1860
Chicago (IL) Tribune, "The Prime Cause," December 8, 1860
Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, “A British Opinion of American Disunion,” December 12, 1860
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “The Clouds Lowering,” December 27, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Letter From Virginia,” January 2, 1861
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “A Forgeone Conclusion,” January 3, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Fugitive Case,” January 24, 1861
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “Let the People Consider,” January 31, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Bad For Virginia,” February 20, 1861
New York Times, “A Bloody Programme,” March 6, 1861
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “Pryor Rampant,” March 21, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Virginia Still for the Union,” March 28, 1861
Savannah (GA) News, “The Tribune on Virginia,” April 6, 1861
New York Times, “Wise Rampant,” April 9, 1861
New York Herald, “Apprehensions of an Attack on Washington,” April 14, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “Retaliation,” April 15, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “Another John Brown Raid,” April 16, 1861
Entry by George Templeton Strong, April 17, 1861
The Virginia Ordinance of Secession, April 17, 1861
Boston (MA) Liberator, “An Ancient and A Modern Compromise,” April 19, 1861
New York Times, “The Position of Maryland,” April 20, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Reorganization,” April 22, 1861
Virginia Governor John Letcher’s Proclamation, April 24, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "What We Have To Expect," May 6, 1861
Boston (MA) Advertiser, “Not Quite a Unit,” May 9, 1861
New York Times, “Not a War against the South,” May 10, 1861
New York Times, “The Reward of Treason,” May 16, 1861
New York Times, “A Halter with Two Nooses,” May 20, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “The Day of Election,” May 22, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Virginia Playing the Foot,” June 4, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “The Mothers and Wives,” June 6, 1861
New York Times, “The Bitter Fruits,” June 10, 1861
Charles B. Calvert to Abraham Lincoln, July 10, 1861
Raleigh (NC) Register, “Arrest of a Traitor,” August 14, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Spies and Traitors,” February 15, 1862
Joseph Hooker to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, April 17, 1863
Abraham Lincoln to Joseph Hooker, June 10, 1863
Abraham Lincoln to Salmon Portland Chase, September 2, 1863
General Alfred H. Terry, General Order Number Four, Headquarters, Department of Virginia, January 17, 1866
How to Cite This Page: "Virginia," House Divided: The Civil War Research Engine at Dickinson College, http://hd.housedivided.dickinson.edu/node/8986.