Thomas McAdory Owen, History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography (Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1921), 4: 1679-80.
When it was apparent that war was inevitable he was made captain of the Fourth Alabama infantry regiment, C. S. Army. In July, 1861, he was appointed major of the 12th Alabama infantry regiment, but did not accept. On July 17, 1861, he was appointed major of his own regiment, and was with the regiment in the first battle of Manassas. On October 19, 1861, he was appointed lieutenant colonel of the 19th Alabama infantry regiment. Col. Joe Wheeler, being colonel, and commanding this regiment in the battle of Shiloh had a horse killed under him. On May 10, 1862, he commanded a detached portion of the 19th Alabama infantry regiment in a skirmish which General Wheeler had with the enemy near Farmlngton. In July, 1862, he went with McCown's division from the Army of the Mississippi to East Tennessee to reinforce Gen. Edmond Kirby Smith and was specially recommended by General Smith to General Cooper. The following August, 1863, he was commissioned brigadier-general and placed in command of the 20th, 23rd, 30th, 31st, and 46th Alabama regiments. At the battle of Port Gibson, Miss., he was in command of this brigade when killed instantly by a minie ball.