John Hayward, Gazetteer of the United States of America… (Philadelphia: James L. Gihon, 1854), 442-443.
Madison, Ia. City, and seat of justice of Jefferson co. On the N. side of the Ohio River. 86 miles S. from Indianapolis, 92 W. from Cincinnati, and 41 E. from Louisville. This place is well situated on a bend of the river, above the reach of the highest floods. In the rear of the city the hills rise abruptly to the height of 250 feet. This is the S. terminus of the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, which extends by branches in different directions beyond Indianapolis, N. and W. Madison is handsomely built, mostly with brick. The streets are broad and straight, and several of them are paved. The principal public buildings are a court house, jail, a branch of the State Bank, and 5 or 6 church edifices. It is a place of much enterprise and success in business. Large manufacturing operations are carried on here by steam power, among which are iron founderies, cotton factories, a steam-engine factory, flouring mills, oil mills, &c. A great business is done here in slaughtering and packing of hogs, which are driven in large droves from the interior. The advantages for commerce which this place possesses must secure to it, as the resources of the state are more and more developed, a steady increase of prosperity and wealth.