Limits and Extent. — It is bounded by Tennessee on the north, Georgia on the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico on the south, and Mississippi on the west. It extends from 30° 10' to 35° north latitude, and from 85° to 88° 307 west longitude; comprising an area of nearly 51,000 square miles.
Surface and Soil. — The face of the country exhibits much variety. In the northern quarter, where the Alleghany Mountains terminate, it is elevated and somewhat broken, but gradually improves in appearance and fertility as it descends towards the opposite boundary, where it settles into wide-spreading prairies and gently-swelling plains, profusely covered with grass and beautiful herbage. For all purposes of agriculture, the chief pursuit of the inhabitants, the soil is, in general, finely adapted. There are many large tracts, especially on the margins of rivers, which are remarkably productive. The most prominent among the "kindly fruits of the earth" are cotton, corn, wheat, and rice. Tobacco and sugar are also cultivated to some extent. The cotton crop, for several years past, is estimated to have been equal to a sixth part of the aggregate annual harvest of that commodity within the United States. Minerals, particularly iron and coal, are found in various parts of the state; the latter article exists in abundance on the borders of the Cahawba and Black Warrior Rivers.
Climate. — Alabama presents considerable diversity of climate, healthful or otherwise, according to locality. The hilly region, in the central and northern parts, affords a salubrious atmosphere, mildly tempered in winter, and gratefully pleasant in summer; but the low and marshy districts at the south, the bottom lands along the rivers, and the country, lying in the neighborhood of the Muscle Shoals, are usually considered unhealthy.
Rivers. — Nearly every part of the state is amply watered by large streams admitting of extensive steamboat navigation. The most considerable and important of these rivers are the Tennessee, Chattahoochee, Alabama, and Tombigbee.
Civil Government. — The legislative power is vested in a Senate and House of Representatives; the former composed of thirty-three members, elected for four years, — one half retiring every two years, — and the latter consisting of one hundred members, elected biennially. The sessions of the legislature are held once in two years, at the present seat of government, the city of Montgomery. The people elect not only the executive and legislative authorities, but the judges of Circuit and Probate Courts. Judges of the Supreme Court and chancellors are chosen for terms of six years by the General Assembly, in joint ballot.
Judiciary. —The Supreme Court holds its sessions at the capital, semiannually, in June and January: it is composed of a chief and two associate justices. The Court of Chancery, comprising three chancellors, holds an annual session in each of the thirty-seven districts into which the state is subdivided. The Circuit Courts, of which there are nine judges, hold two sessions per annum, in each of the nine circuits.
Education. — See Literary Institutions.
Internal Improvements. — The state enjoys numerous facilities for intercommunication, and a due measure of public interest is directed to the development of these natural advantages. Many miles of railroads, and several important canals, have already been constructed, and others are also in contemplation.
Manufactures. — But little attention has been given to the business of converting the principal staple of the state into fabrics for exportation. Nearly all the cotton produced is sent as raw material to markets beyond the state, and but a small portion of the population is engaged in the manufacture of other articles of domestic growth.
Public Debt, &c. — For information relative to the debts, expenditures, financial resources, &c., of the state, see Statistical Tables.
Indians. — There are within the limits of Alabama several formidable tribes, or parts of tribes, some of whom, the Cherokees particularly, have attained a respectable state of civilization. These reside in the north-east corner of the state. The Choctaws and Chickasaws occupy portions of the western part, and the Creeks dwell on the eastern border. During the war of 1812, the white settlements were much annoyed by the Indians, who were finally subdued by General Jackson.
Population. — One of the chief impulses which led to the almost unexampled increase of population in Alabama, within the last forty years, was the annexation, in 1812, of a part of Florida. This measure gave access to an important coast frontier on the Gulf of Mexico, and induced an immediate flow of emigration in that direction.
Baltimore was first laid out as a town in 1792. It contained only 50 houses in 1765. In 1797 it was chartered as a city. Owing to its eminent natural advantages, it has had a rapid growth in population and in wealth. The municipal government is vested in a mayor and city council the mayor is elected for two years, by twelve electors, one from each ward, chosen by the people.
Hon. James Perkins gave for the use of the Athenaeum, in 1821, his own costly mansion in Pearl Street, which was occupied until it became necessary, in 1849, to change the location. The beautiful building which it now occupies is on Beacon Street, a short distance east of the State House, a situation most highly eligible for such an institution. The edifice is elegant, spacious, and convenient. The front is in the later Italian style of architecture, resembling some of the works of Palladio in its general arrangement; constructed of the Patterson freestone, of a light gray color. The length is 100 feet, and the height 60. The main entrance opens into a pillared and panelled rotunda, from which the staircases conduct above. The sculpture gallery, 80 feet by 40, is on the first floor. The library occupies the second story, which is divided into three rooms, two in front and one large hall in the rear, 109 feet by 40. This hall is beautifully finished in the Italian style, and admirably fitted for the purposes of its design. The picture gallery is in the upper story, divided into six apartments, each lighted by a skylight. An annual exhibition of paintings is open here, during the winter and spring.
The Massachusetts Historical Society, founded in 1790, occupies a suit of rooms in the granite building, on Tremont Street, between the Stone Chapel Cemetery and the Boston Museum. It has a valuable library of 7000 bound volumes, besides 450 volumes of manuscripts, and a large collection of pamphlets, maps, charts, coins, and other interesting relics of antiquity. The manuscripts of the historian Hubbard; of the first Gov. Winthrop, 11 vols.; of Gov. Hutchinson; of the first Gov. Trumbull, of Connecticut, 23 vols.; and the manuscript of Washington's Farewell Address to the Officers of the American Army, are in possession of this society. One of its rooms is adorned with the portraits of about 70 distinguished personages, mostly the worthies of New England. This society has issued a series of Historical Collections, in all amounting to 30 volumes.
The library of the Boston Library Society, founded in 1792, occupies a hall over the centre of the Tontine Buildings, as formerly denominated, in Franklin Place. This hall was a donation to the society by Bulfinch, (the architect of the Capitol at Washington,) Vaughan, and Scollay, the three proprietors of the Tontine. This library has over 12,000 volumes.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, founded in 1780, is next in age to the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, which is the oldest of the scientific associations of the country. Its library, of 8000 volumes, contains a valuable collection of the memoirs and transactions of learned societies, and other scientific publications. It is kept in the N. wing of the Athenaeum, on the lower floor.
The Mechanics' Apprentices Library Association, in Boston, claims the distinction of being the first of its kind established in the world. It is due to the wise suggestion and philanthropic energy of Mr. William Wood, now residing in Canandaigua, N. Y.; whose exertions have been extended, with the like success, to most of our large cities, and even to the cities of the old world. Lord Brougham remarks, that, " Although the remote origin of these institutions may be traced to Dr. Franklin, Mr. Wood has the merit of establishing them on their present plan, and adapting them peculiarly to the instruction of mechanics and apprentices. He founded the first in Boston, in 1820." The library contains about 4000 volumes, and was the gift of the Boston public to the apprentices of the city. It was originally intrusted to the care of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association, a society of established reputation, founded in 1795. This society, which is still prosperous, has handsome funds, which have been recently invested in the Revere Hotel. Its income is employed for relieving the distresses of unfortunate members and their families, and to stimulate, by premiums, inventions, and improvements in the mechanic arts. For this purpose it provides for those frequent and extensive exhibitions of the products. of manufacturing skill and industry which have been so highly successful in Boston. In 1828, the Apprentices' Association was organized as distinct from that of the Mechanics, and the library committed to their entire control.
The Mercantile Library Association, of Boston, instituted in 1820, is a large and useful society, composed of merchants' clerks and others, which has a library of over 7000 volumes, and maintains an able and popular course of lectures. Their hall is on the corner of Bromfield and Province Streets.
Efforts are now making to establish a free City Library, and several handsome donations have been already made for that purpose.
But the most munificent foundation of this character, in Boston, is that of the Lowell Institute, established by the princely liberality of JOHN LOWELL, Jr., Esq. By a legacy amounting to about $250,000, this gentleman has provided for the maintenance of public lectures, of the highest order, which are to be free to all the citizens, on the great subjects of natural and revealed religion; on the literature and eloquence of the English and other languages; on the various sciences in their application to the arts, and other relations of utility to man; and on such other subjects as the wants and taste of the age may demand. The Lowell Institute, by its ample income, is able to command the services of men of the highest talent in the country, and to furnish them with the fullest means for illustrating the subjects of their various discourses. The lectures are given on Tuesday and Friday evenings, in a spacious audience room, fitted up for the purpose, and leased by the Institute, in the rear of the Marlboro' Hotel. None of its income can be expended in the erection of buildings.
There are other literary societies in Boston which we cannot speak of in detail. Such are the Boston Society of Natural History: the American Statistical Association; the New England Historical and Genealogical Society; the American Oriental Society; and the Boston Lyceum. All these have valuable libraries, cabinets, and collections. The Handel and Haydn Society, the Boston Academy of Music, and the Musical Education Society, are well-conducted and efficient associations for the cultivation of musical science and Christian psalmody.
Among the numerous charitable and humane institutions of the city are the Boston Lunatic Hospital, and the Houses of Industry and Reformation, each of which has a commodious and handsome edifice, located at South Boston; the Quarantine Hospital, delightfully situated on Rainsford's Island; the New Almshouse, on Deer Island, for which a most splendid, capacious, and well-constructed building has been erected, which is in the form of a Latin cross, having its four wings, three stories high above the basement, radiating from a central building four stories high,- the Boston Eye and Ear Infirmary, with a beautiful structure lately erected in the W. part of the city; the Boston Female Asylum, founded in 1800, for assisting, instructing, and employing female orphan children, for which a new and substantial brick building, with ample grounds and some peculiar arrangements for warming and ventilating, has been provided at the south end ; also the New England Female Medical College, established by the exertions of Samuel Gregory, for the qualification of females to nurse and attend upon the sick of their own sex. Besides these there are several societies for the benefit of seamen; among which are the Boston Port Society, and the Boston Seaman's Friend Society, which has provided an excellent Home for Sailors.
The Massachusetts General Hospital, situated on an open plot of ground of four acres, on the banks of Charles River, at the W. part of the city, is one of the noblest, best endowed, and best furnished institutions of the kind in the country. This beautiful edifice is of Chelmsford granite, 274 feet in length by 54 in breadth, with a portico in front of eight Ionic columns. Connected with the building in the rear is a kitchen and laundry of the most approved construction. The whole interior arrangement is according to the most perfect system. The premises are decorated with ornamental trees and shrubs, and laid out in gravel walks for those patients who are able to enjoy exercise in the open air. This institution has found many munificent patrons in Massachusetts. Its capital, now yielding income, exclusive of the large amount invested in the buildings, grounds, &c., is $171,119. It has several other sources of income, making its whole receipts, in 1850, $38,517. The number of patients received the same year was 746.
The McLean Asylum for the Insane, so called from JOHN MCLEAN, Esq., an eminent merchant of Boston, and a liberal benefactor of the General Hospital, is a branch of that institution, having a separate location on a delightful eminence in Somerville, about 1 mile N. W. of the city. The establishment, consisting externally of a group of five elegant buildings, makes a fine appearance from whatever direction it is viewed. As an example of the noble manner in which such institutions are sustained by the Boston merchants, it maybe stated that, in 1843, Hon. William Appleton gave $10,000 "for the purpose of affording aid to such patients in the McLean Asylum as, from straitened means, might be compelled to leave the institution without a perfect cure;" and, in 1850, the same gentleman contributed the further sum of $20,000 " for the purpose of erecting two additional edifices, sufficiently large to accommodate eight males and eight females, with such conveniences and facilities as shall enable each to have not only the care, attention, and comforts, but the luxuries and retirement which they have been accustomed to enjoy at home."
The Perkins Institution and Massachusetts Asylum for the Blind is another of the great eleemosynary institutions originated by Boston liberality. It was first opened as an experiment, in 1832, under the superintendence of Dr. Samuel G. Howe. In 1833, Col. Thomas H. Perkins made a donation of his valuable mansion house in Pearl Street, other gentlemen in Boston $50,000, the ladies $14,000, and the legislature $6,000 annually, for its permanent establishment. It now receives from the state $9000 annually. Its average number of pupils is about 100, who are from many different states of the Union. The rapid growth of the institution having rendered its removal necessary, the estate in Pearl Street was exchanged for the present large and beautiful edifice at South Boston, formerly known as the Mount Washington House. To this splendid building, five stories high, and from its lovely eminence overlooking the city, harbor, and surrounding region, many conveniences have since been added, making the establishment, in respect to its accommodations, all that can be desired. It is open to the public on the afternoon of the first Saturday in each month.
Several of our national societies for religious and benevolent purposes have their seat of operations in the metropolis of New England. Among these are the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the American Baptist Missionary Union, the American Education Society, the American Peace Society, the American Unitarian Association, the Prison Discipline Society, and the old Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Indians and others in North America. Several others, though not national in their organization, are truly such in the extent of their operations; such as the Massachusetts Home Missionary Society, the American Tract Society of Boston, and the Massachusetts Sabbath School Society.
There are upwards of one hundred churches in Boston, of the different denominations; 98 of which have their regular places of worship. Of these, the Unitarian Congregationalists have 22; Orthodox Congregationalists, 14; Baptists, 13; Methodists, 12; Episcopalians, 11; Roman Catholics, 11; Universalists, 6; Presbyterians, Swedenborgians, and several other denominations, one each. Most of the church edifices are venerable and costly structures, which contribute in no small degree to beautify, the city. Several have lofty spires, which have a fine appearance on an approach to the city by land or water. That of the Park Street Meeting House, north of the Common, rises to the height of 218 feet above the pavement, and is one of the most beautiful examples of this description of architecture in the country. The Gothic style, in dark colored sandstone, has been adopted, with fine effect, in the erection of several of the more recent structures.
The oldest church edifice in Boston, still standing, is that of Christ Church, (Episcopal) at the north end, built in 1723. In the steeple of this church is a peal of eight bells, on each of which is an inscription. Two of these are as follows: " We are the first ring of bells cast for the British Empire in North America. A. R., 1744." "God preserve the Church of England. 1744." The initials A. R. are those of the founder.
The Old South Meeting House, on Washington Street, is the next building in age, having succeeded to two others of wood on the same spot. It was opened for worship April 26,1730. There is great historical interest connected with this sacred edifice. "Here was delivered, in defiance of the threats of authority, and in presence of marshalled soldiery, Warren's fearless oration, on the anniversary of the massacre of the 5th of March, 1770. Here were repeatedly held the meetings of oppressed freemen, which called forth those peals of patriotic eloquence which moved the whole country, and shook the British throne." When the British troops occupied Boston, the whole interior of the Old South, except the sounding board and the east gallery, was dismantled by them, and converted into a circus for their dragoons. About two feet of earth was spread upon the floor for their horses to exercise upon. Large portions of the invaluable historical library, collected by its former pastor, Rev. Thomas Prince, they used for kindling their fires. This desecration of the Old South excited universal indignation. Happily, the interior was afterwards fully restored in its former style, with its two tiers of galleries, &c., and has been carefully preserved to this day, at once a venerated specimen of the elegance of ancient times, and a sacred shrine of patriotic and religious memories. In keeping with these associations, the Old South has long been the place where the annual election sermon is delivered before the governor and General Court.
The public schools of Boston, next to her religious institutions, and in harmony with them, have, from the first, been her most cherished care. The records of the town afford evidence, as early as 1635, of the establishment of a " Free School." From that hour to the present, Boston, in this respect, has held an honorable preeminence. The system of the public schools has here been brought to a high degree of completeness and perfection. It comprises schools of four different grades, viz.: I. The Primary Schools, each taught by one female teacher, for children between 4 and 8 years of age. 2. The English Grammar and Writing Schools, into which all the children pass from the primary schools. 3. The English High School. 4. The Latin Grammar School. The two last are exclusively for boys. A public high school for girls is, perhaps, a desideratum ; though the deficiency is supplied, to a great extent, by excellent private schools in the city. The number of primary schools, in 1851, was 188; and of the English grammar schools, 22; with a corps of 370 teachers, whose Salaries amount to $183,898. The buildings for the use of the high and grammar schools are the most perfect in their kind, and in their style of architecture at once neat and ornamental. Their cost, with that of the primary school houses, including the ground, up to May 1, 1851, is estimated at $1,210,110. About one quarter part of the population of Boston is kept at school throughout the year, at an annual expense to the city of about $250,000; which, including the heavy investments for buildings, apparatus, &c., involves an outlay for this important public interest without a parallel in the world's history. It is, however, a part of the encomium due to the merit of the public schools of Boston, that many of her sister cities are now emulating her wisdom and liberality in this particular.
As a branch of the same enlightened philanthropy, the Boston Farm School for Indigent Boys, on Thompson's Island, should be mentioned; the object of which is "the education and reformation of boys who, from loss of parents or other causes, are exposed to extraordinary temptations, and in danger of becoming vicious and dangerous, or useless members of society." This institution, with 140 acres of land and suitable buildings, can accommodate 300 boys, who are to be trained with a view to promote at once their physical, mental, and moral welfare. This is virtually the Boston “College for Orphans." It has been in operation since 1835. There are likewise the House of Correction, and the House of Industry and Reformation, at South Boston, the latter designed for juvenile delinquents, and having a branch at the hospital on Deer Island, in which excellent schools are maintained. The State Reform School, at Westboro, also receives a large number of this class of children from the city.
The institution of the Franklin medals, awarded annually in the Boston schools, was founded by Dr. Franklin. The following is from the clause in his will, in which he makes the bequest, and defines its object: —
"I was born in Boston, New England, and owe my first instructions in literature to the free grammar schools established there. I therefore give one hundred pounds sterling to my executors, to be by them, the survivors or survivor of them, paid over to the managers or directors of the free schools in my native town of Boston to be by them put out to interest, and so continued at interest forever, which interest; annually shall be laid out in silver medals, and given as honorary rewards annually by the directors of the said free schools, for the encouragement of scholarship in the said schools," &e. To the proceeds of this benefaction the city adds an annual sum sufficient to procure six silver medals, which are inscribed "The Gift of Franklin." The first pupil of the Boston schools, who received the Franklin medal, was Dr. John C. Warren, in 1792.
The foreign commerce of this country may be said to be controlled by the cities of Boston and New York. The aggregate value of their imports amounts to about $185,000,000, of which about $35,000.000 comes direct to Boston. The immense wealth of these two cities, amounting in the aggregate to $500,000,000, enables them almost entirely to command those great branches of commerce which require a heavy capital for their operations. The East India and Pacific trade, without including the vessels bound to California, employs, at the present time, 338 ships and barks, which, with the exception of a few vessels owned in Salem, is controlled entirely by Boston and New York; New York having a majority of the China trade, and Boston controlling nearly all the trade with Calcutta, Manilla, Batavia, Sumatra, the Cape of Good Hope, Chili, and Peru.
"Those," says an early historian of Boston, " who were formerly forced to fetch most of the bread they ate, and beer they drank a thousand leagues by sea, are, through the blessing of the Lord, so increased, that they have not only fed their elder sisters, Virginia, Barbadoes, and many of the Summer Islands, that were preferred before them for fruitfulness, but also the grand mother of us all, even the fertile isle of Great Britain. Beside, Portugal hath had many a mouthful of bread and fish from us in exchange for their Madeira liquor, and also Spain; nor could it be imagined that this wilderness should turn a mart for merchants in so short a space. Many a fair ship had her framing and finishing here, besides lesser vessels, barks, and ketches. Many a master, besides common seamen, had their first learning in this colony. Boston, Charlestown, Salem, and Ipswich, our maritime towns, begin to increase roundly, especially Boston, the which, of a poor country village, in twice seven years, is become like unto a small city, and is in election to become a mayor town suddenly, chiefly increased by trade by sea." This quaint and lively sketch of the infant commerce of Boston, so interesting on other accounts, reveals the early development of many of those great sources of wealth which have made it one of the richest cities of this country. It has been the mother of the maritime interest in America, has continued the training of " many a master, besides common seamen," not only for her own, but for the other great ports of the country, and is now a chief mart for the exportation of "bread and fish," in exchange for the commodities of Europe.
But as other considerations besides the facilities of trade had an influence, and even a controlling influence, in the original settlement of Boston, its situation was not selected upon the principle which has generally governed the location of our large cities, viz., the confluence of some large navigable river with the sea, thus uniting the greatest natural advantages for foreign and internal traffic. Consequently, for a time after the vast resources of the country west of the Alleghany Mountains began to be largely developed, and to seek a channel to the foreign market, the trade of Boston suffered, relatively, from the want of better communication with the more remote interior, and her ships had to seek freight in the southern ports. But, happily, in her large accumulations of capital, and in the indomitable enterprise of her citizens, she found the means of completely obviating this natural disadvantage, through the construction of the several great lines of railroad by which she has become connected with the most distant sections of the country lying east, west, north, and south. This great achievement of science, industry, and art has effected a most surprising advancement in the commercial prosperity and prospects of Boston. Her internal trade, which was formerly limited to the coast, and to the space circumscribed by the nearest ranges of elevated mountains, is now opened to the farthest boundaries of the valleys of the Mississippi and the St. Lawrence; and her merchants now think as lightly of extending their traffic beyond the Rocky Mountains to Oregon and California, as they once did of reaching the opposite slopes of the Green Mountain and Alleghany ranges.
There are now seven great lines of railroad diverging in different directions from Boston, most of which are annually increasing in extent. It will give some idea of the magnitude to which this interest has grown, when it is stated that the aggregate distance travelled to and from Boston daily, upon the railroads now in operation, disregarding many of the shorter trips of the numerous accommodation trains around the city, is over 12,000 miles, and that the number of persons arriving and departing daily is upwards of 10,000. Another route is now nearly completed, to meet the great Erie Railroad, by the way of Hartford, Ct., and Fishkill on the Hudson River. But the greatest further improvement now in progress is the extension of the Fitchburg Railroad beyond its present terminus at Greenfield, by tunneling the Hoosic Mountain, and passing to the city of Troy on the Hudson River opposite the Erie Canal. As the highest grade on this road between the Connecticut and Hudson Rivers is only 31 feet to the mile, and the distance between the two cities only about 175 miles, this improvement, when completed, cannot fail to give to Boston a large increase of the almost boundless commerce of the west.
By our tables of latitude and longitude, it will be seen that Albany, Buffalo, Detroit, and Chicago lie within a fraction of the same degree of latitude with Boston; and as these four places- are the chief depositories of the immense produce of the west, and as the great marts for this produce in Europe — Liverpool, Havre, St. Petersburg, and other ports — lie some degrees N. of Boston, it must be evident that every variation to the S. of this line of communication will by so much increase the distance on this great channel of commercial intercourse. And the capitalists of Boston, aware of this fact, are expending large sums of money in the extension of these improvements. To say nothing of several enterprises more remote, or in their more incipient stages, we learn from authentic sources, that probably one third of the entire line from Albany to Buffalo; one half of the Vermont Central, the Rutland, and the Canada roads; two-thirds of the Ogdensburg, connecting the Vermont Central with Lake Ontario; and two thirds of the Michigan Central, extending from Detroit to Chicago, are owned in Boston.
As a mart for our domestic manufactures, Boston, from these various facilities, possesses great advantages; and especially as the metropolis of New England, which is already, and seems destined to be more and more, the great manufacturing district for the country.
There is probably no place in the world better provided than Boston with the necessary accommodations for her extensive commerce. The whole margin of the city on the E. and N. is lined with about 200 docks and wharves, affording altogether an extent of wharfage of over 5 miles. Some of these wharves are among the most stupendous structures of this description in the country. Long Wharf, at the foot of State Street, extends into the harbor 1800 feet, having upon it a line of 76 spacious warehouses. Central Wharf. S. of this, is 1379 feet long, with a uniform range of warehouses running the whole length, 50 feet wide and four stories high. Between these two wharves, on Commercial Street, stands the Custom House. South of Central Wharf is India Wharf, 930 feet long, with a range of 39 warehouses in the centre. Among the most extensive wharves towards the northern part of the city are Granite or Commercial Wharf, Lewis's Wharf, and the Eastern Railroad Wharf. On each of these is a range of massive granite warehouses, unequalled by any thing of the kind in the United States. On the Eastern Railroad Wharf there are two such ranges, and the avenue to the railroad station passes between them. That on the south side is occupied by an extensive flouring mill, in which 2500 bushels of wheat daily are manufactured into the finest flour. South of these are other important wharves; among these is Russia Wharf, formerly Griffin's Wharf, where that memorable demonstration of the spirit of resistance to British oppression was given, in the presence of several of her ships of war lying before the city — the emptying of about 340 chests and half chests of tea into the ocean. One of the greatest accommodations recently provided is that at the termination of the Grand Junction Railroad at East Boston, by which all the railroads coming to the city are immediately connected with a system of warehouses and wharves, where vessels are laden and unladen. This important was opened on the 17th of September, 1851, the day of the grand festival held by the city for celebrating the completion of the last of the great lines of railroad centring here, by which the River St. Lawrence, at its two most important points, the port of Ogdensburg and the city of Montreal, one the outlet of the commerce of the great lakes, and the other the head of ship navigation entering the British provinces by that mighty river, became connected with the port of Boston. This was a proud day for the New England metropolis, which, after years of incredible enterprise and expenditure, saw the completion of that magnificent scheme of internal communication by which the most distant sections of our country, and the neighboring provinces of Great Britain, became commercially annexed to her domain. As was natural, the highest public functionaries, and many of the wealthy merchants and others from Canada, were present, by invitation, to unite in the festivities of the occasion.
No maritime port in this country enjoys finer advantages than Boston in respect to the capaciousness and security of its harbor, and "the unobstructed ingress and egress of shipping to its wharves at all seasons of the year.
Boston continued a town, and its affairs were administered by selectmen, like other towns in Massachusetts, until February 23, 1822. At this time the population was about 45,000. The intention to make Boston a city had occasionally been entertained since 1651; but the people had not hitherto felt the necessity of a more efficient municipality than that of the town. They had continued in a remarkable degree, notwithstanding the admixture of foreign elements, to justify the early encomium of Winthrop: “They wore generally of that understanding and moderation, as that they would be easily guided in their way by any rule from Scripture or sound reason."
The city is divided into 12 wards, and is governed by a mayor, 8 aldermen, and 48 common councilmen, 4 from each ward. The mayor and aldermen constitute one board, and the common councilmen another, who hold their sessions separately, excepting when they meet in joint ballot. Two persons besides from each ward are chosen to act with the mayor and president of the common council, as a school committee 5 and one from each ward to constitute a board of overseers of the poor. The term of all these offices is one year.
The original conformation of the ground was such that the N. part of the peninsula was almost severed from the other by the coves or indentations of the shore which ran in around the base of Copp's Hill on the S., both from the harbor on the E., and from Charles River on the opposite side, so as nearly to meet at their extreme points. When the tides were highest, this part of Boston, and the central part, which would also be nearly or quite cut off from the continent by the flowing of the waters across the Neck, presented the appearance of two islands, rather than that of a peninsula. The tide ran up on the E. to where Dock Square now is, and in a northerly direction almost to Hanover Street at a point a little E. of Union Street. From Charles River, on the opposite side, a broad cove came up to a point only a few rods N. W. of Hanover Street, leaving but a narrow neck of land for the connection between the centre and the north end of the town. By the erection of a causeway where Causeway Street now is, this cove was subsequently converted into a capacious mill pond, and by means of a short canal cut through the neck by which its waters were separated from the harbor, they were made available for a tide mill at this place. This was long known as Mill Creek, and constituted the dividing line between the centre and the north end. That part of the map of Boston which exhibits an equilateral triangle, as included between Charlestown, Merrimac, and Causeway Streets, having its apex in Haymarket Square, covers the principal part of the area which was occupied by this mill pond ; having been converted into solid land with the materials obtained by the leveling of Beacon Hill and the eminences W. of it, excepting the creek, which was kept open to connect the river with the harbor as long as the navigation upon the Middlesex Canal was a matter of consideration. This improvement was commenced about 1804, and when completed, it had added to the area of the city about 43 acres. And here it may be remarked that the area of the peninsula, which in its natural condition comprised, as above stated, only about 700 acres, has been enlarged by continued encroachments upon the sea, until it contains fully double this number of acres at the present time. The city is now extending its limits in this manner more rapidly than at any former period. The quantity of land made, and in the process of being made, by improvements recently undertaken by the city at the south end, is estimated at over 2,000,000 square feet. By the railroads in this direction entire hills of gravel are being removed from their bases in the vicinity of Boston, to form the foundations of a new and beautiful extension of this flourishing city. It is not improbable that the whole of the bays on each side of the Neck may, at some period not far distant, disappear before the march of human enterprise, and that the city may be otherwise extended much into the area of Roxbury and Dorchester. — Some knowledge of the natural structure of the ground on which Boston is built is necessary to explain the great irregularity of the plan upon which its streets and thoroughfares have grown up. The high hills in different quarters of the town, with the coves, and creeks, and marshes, thrusting themselves up between them on all sides, would necessarily control the choice of sites for building, and the location and courses of the principal streets, in a place thus springing up in the poverty and infancy of the country. There is a similar irregularity in the lower part of the city of New York. Even in Philadelphia, the situation of which upon a gently-swelling plain admitted of the most uniform arrangement of the streets which could possibly be desired, the operation of this principle is illustrated, in the case of Dock Street, in the oldest part of the city, which follows the winding course of an ancient creek running into the Delaware. This seems the more remarkable there from being almost a solitary exception to the general plan. But in Boston it would have been perhaps impossible for the founders of the city, even if they could have anticipated its future growth and greatness, with the means they had at command, to have caused it to be built up on any outline materially different from that which it received. As an example, an order dated March 30, 1640, provides for a road between certain points, " two rods in breadth, as directly as the land will bear."
"Prior to 1640," says Snow in his History of Boston, " mention is frequently made of Tower Fields, in the Boston records: and they seem to have been enclosed by a general fence." The following vote was passed on the 30th of March, 1640: "Henceforth, there shall be no land granted either for house-plot or garden, out of the open lot or common field which is left between the Sentry Hill and Mr. Colburn's end, except three or four lots to make up the street," &c. This was the origin of the Boston Common; which, scanty as their precincts were, the fathers of the city, with a wise and disinterested care for the public welfare, secured to the enjoyment of all future generations of its inhabitants. This Common, extending over about forty-eight acres of ground, with its splendid malls surrounding the whole border, shaded with majestic elms, some of which are over a hundred years old, and its numerous cross paths beautifully graded, bevelled, and adorned with variegated trees, is considered- as one of the most delightful promenades in the world. One of its greatest charms is in the diversified natural surface which it presents; and one of the most gratifying proofs of the good taste of the Bostonians is seen in the care which has been taken to obliterate as little as possible, by any artificial embellishments, those lineaments of nature which are universally pleasing. This beautiful ground is enclosed by a costly iron fence one mile and two hundred and seventeen yards in length, with elegant granite gateways at two of the opposite angles. Near the centre is a beautiful little pond, out of the midst of which a fountain, supplied from the Boston Water Works, sends up its massive and graceful jet d’eau from 80 to 90 feet into the air. The fountain also displays, at will, many other pleasing forms, having an affluent supply of water, and a head which presses upon it like one of nature's illimitable forces. This extensive and beautiful public ground is an inestimable boon to the citizens of Boston. Its position, partly on the north-western declivity of Beacon Hill, with a public garden of about 25 acres lying still beyond it, keeping its whole western margin open to Charles River and to the distant landscape as far as the eye can reach, secures the free ingress of the most exhilarating and healthful influences of the climate to the very centre of the city. As a field for military parades, civic processions, and grand commemorative banquets, the Common has been honorably distinguished. On the annual gala day of the republic, it presents, in pleasant weather, a most joyous and sublime spectacle. The people of the city, and of the country for many miles around, the native born and the adopted citizen, young men and maidens, old men and children, here meet as in a grand levee, under the mutual restraints of self-respect, courtesy, and decorum, and in the conscious enjoyment of a dignity and happiness which fall to the lot of the populace of no other country on the globe. It is seldom that any unseemly rudeness or vulgarity offends the eye or ear on these public occasions; especially since intoxicating liquors have been excluded from the refreshment stands upon the streets. It is estimated that not less than 100,000 persons have been present at the usual display of fireworks in the evening; and yet, within a half hour after the entertainment is over, this vast multitude will have retired, without disorder, leaving the Common and its vicinity to its accustomed silence and repose.
Some of the most elegant streets in Boston are those which front upon the Common; viz., Beacon, Park, Tremont, and Boylston Streets. Beacon Street, especially, for grandeur of elevation, extent and beauty of prospect, and the splendor of its long line of palace residences, culminating with the State House on the summit of the hill, will compare to advantage with the most celebrated streets and terraces in the European cities.
The ground on which Brooklyn is built is considerably more elevated than that of New York, especially towards its southern extremity. "Brooklyn Heights," so-called, memorable in revolutionary history, presents a bold front to the sea, rising abruptly to an elevation of 70 feet above tide water, affording a view of the city and harbor of New York, the islands in the bay, and particularly Governor's Island, with its noble fortifications, Staten Island, and the New Jersey shore, all combining to furnish a prospect which is scarcely surpassed by any in this country.
The greatest length of Brooklyn, within its its corporated limits, is 6 miles, N. E. and S. W., and its greatest breadth 4 miles. The whole of this extensive area has been laid out into streets, though many of them have not yet been opened and regulated. The city, generally, is laid out with order and symmetry of plan; and the streets, excepting Fulton Street, the oldest in the city, are straight, and, almost without any other exception, they cross each other at right angles. They are generally from 50 to 60 feet wide, and several of them have a still greater width. Many of the streets are shaded with beautiful trees, which impart to portions of the city, in the summer season, a peculiar air of pleasantness and comfort. No city in the country, perhaps, is better built than Brooklyn. The houses are very generally marked by chasteness and elegance of design, and many of them are splendid specimens of architectural beauty.
Of the public buildings the most prominent is the new City Hall, situated on a triangular piece of ground between Fulton, Court, and Joraleman Streets. This noble building is constructed of Westchester marble, 162 feet long by 102 feet wide, and 75 feet in height to the top of the cornice. The crown of the cupola, with which it is surmounted, is 153 feet from the pavement. In the eastern part of the city, near Fort Green, is the Jail, which is a substantial building erected in 1837. The Lyceum, at the corner of Washington and Concord Streets, a fine granite edifice; the Savings Bank, an elegant structure at the corner of Fulton and Concord Streets; the Brooklyn Female Academy, a spacious building on Joraleman Street; the City Library, containing a large collection of valuable literary and scientific works; a new and elegant Athenaeum, the Brooklyn Orphan Asylum, are each of them buildings which are ornamental to the city.
The more thickly-settled parts of Brooklyn have no public squares or open grounds. Such, however, is the commanding width of many of its avenues, the high and airy location of its site in general, and its almost rural aspect, in many parts, from the abundance of the trees with which the streets are bordered, that the absence of such open pleasure grounds is less to be regretted than it otherwise must have been. Provision has been made, however, in the newer parts of the city, for some public squares.
Brooklyn contains about 50 churches, several of which are splendid edifices recently constructed. Among these is the Episcopal "Church of the Holy Trinity," on Clinton Street, a fine specimen of the Gothic architecture, erected by the munificence of an individual citizen of Brooklyn, at a cost of about $150,000. The Congregational "Church of the Pilgrims," not far from the same locality, is a fine edifice, of dark gray granite, in the characteristic English style of the period of Cromwell. In the base of the principal tower of this church, about 8 feet from the ground, is placed an angular fragment, of considerable size, from the rock on which the Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth.
The United States Navy Yard, at Brooklyn, is situated on the S. side of Wallabout Bay, which makes up with a broad curve from the East River, at the N. E. part of the city. From this point a ferry runs directly across to the foot of Walnut Street, New York. About 40 acres of ground are included in these premises. There are two large ship houses for the protection of naval vessels of the largest class when building, together with extensive workshops, and every requisite for a great naval depot. There is connected with this establishment an important literary institution, called the United States Naval Lyceum, formed in 1833 by officers of the service connected with the port. It contains a mineralogical and geological cabinet, and a fine collection of curiosities of a miscellaneous character. The government has constructed a dry dock here similar to that in the United States Navy Yard at Charlestown, Ms. On the opposite side of the Wallabout, about half a mile E. of the Navy Yard, is the Marine Hospital, situated upon a commanding elevation, and surrounded by about 30 acres of land under high cultivation. In this bay are always one or more large naval vessels lying in ordinary. These mark the spot where lay the Jersey and other British ships, during the revolutionary war, made use of as prison ships, for the confinement of those American soldiers whom they had taken prisoners in battle, in which it is said that as many as 11,500 prisoners perished in the course of the war, from bad air, close confinement, and ill treatment. These unhappy men were buried upon the shore, with little care but to put their bodies out of sight. In 1808, the bones of these sufferers were collected, as far as could then be done, and placed in 13 coffins, corresponding with the old 13 states, and honorably interred in a commemorative tomb erected for the purpose, not far from the Navy Yard.
The harbor of Brooklyn is extensive, and is capable of being very largely improved by adding to the number of its docks and slips. Vessels of the largest class can come up to its piers, to discharge or receive their cargoes. The Atlantic Dock is a very extensive basin for the reception of shipping, about a mile below the South Ferry, constructed by a company incorporated in 1840, at a cost of about $1,000,000. The basin within the piers covers 42 acres, with sufficient depth of water for the largest ships. The outside pier extends 3000 feet on Buttermilk Channel. The piers are furnished with spacious stone warehouses. The terminus of the Long Island Railroad is located near the landing from the South Ferry, which connects with New York at the S. E. corner of the Battery. From the station, the road is carried, by a long tunnel, under a number of the most important of the streets of Brooklyn, which it has to cross in its route.
Greenwood Cemetery, in the S. part of Brooklyn, about three miles from Fulton Ferry, is an extensive and beautiful ground provided by the cities of New York and Brooklyn for the burial of their dead. It may be approached either by this ferry, from which hourly carriages run to the entrance for a trifling charge, or by another at the Battery, which passes round and lands its passengers on the S. side, in the near vicinity. Greenwood contains 250 acres of ground, one half or more of which is covered with wood of the natural forest. The grounds have a varied surface of hill, and valley, and plain. From some of the open elevations extensive views are obtained of the ocean, and of the cities of Brooklyn and New York. The whole cemetery is traversed by about 15 miles of winding avenues and paths, leading through each shaded recess, and to every spot at once hallowed and adorned by the memorials of the dead. Great improvements are continually going on, andevery year adds new beauty to this interesting place.
The first settlement of Brooklyn was made at the Wallabout Bay, by George Jansen Rapelje, in 1625. The earliest deed for lands on record is to Thomas Besker, in 1639. October 18, 1667, Governor Nicholls granted a patent "to certain inhabitants of the town Breukelen, for and in behalf of themselves and their associates, the freeholders and inhabitants, for all the lands in the town not taken up in severally." This patent was confirmed by Governor Dongan in 1686. In 1670, license was giyen by Governor Lovelace to the inhabitants to purchase the Indian title.
With Brooklyn and its immediate neighborhood is connected the memory of the bloody battle of August 27, 1776, in which the Americans were defeated, occasioning the withdrawal of the army from Long Island into New York.
Brooklyn was incorporated as a village in 1816. In April, 1834. the whole territory of the town was incorporated under the name of the "City of Brooklyn." It is divided into nine wards; and the powers of the corporation are vested in a mayor and a board of aldermen, composed of two from each ward, all elected by the people.
The "Cairo City Property" embraces in all about 9500 acres on this dela between the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, with the levees, work-shops, foundries, saw mills, dwellings, hotel, and other buildings on the premises. 1200 acres embraced within the proposed corporate limits of Cairo, are wholly enclosed by levees, raised above the higest known floods; and the enclosure for nearly 4000, including the above, is partly completed.
One of the correlative enterprises of internal improvement, upon which those interested in the prosperity of Cairo depend for encouragement,is the incorporation of a company by the state of Illinois for building a railroad from Cairo, through the centre of the state, to Peru, at the southern terminus of the Illinois and Michigan Canal; and thence, by branches diverging N. E. and N. W., to Chicago, on Lake Michigan, and to Galena and Dubuque, on the Upper Mississippi. A long portion of this road is now in process of construction. For the furtherance of this important enterprise Congress, by an act passed in 1850, has granted to the state of Illinois the right of way for the construction of this road through all the public lands where it may pass; and also "every alternate section of land designated by even numbers, for six sections in width on each side of said road and branches," to be sold for the purpose of its construction. The grants are made on the conditions that the work shall be begun and carried on simultaneously from both ends of the route, and that the whole shall be completed within 10 years from the date of their enactment. Similar grants are made, by the same act, to the states of Mississippi and Alabama, for the construction of a railroad south, from Cairo to Mobile, on the Gulf of Mexico. The construction of the Illinois Central Railroad has been undertaken with spirit by the state, and will doubtless be completed within the time fixed by Congress.
Thus it will be seen that much, very much, is to be anticipated for the future growth of Cairo. Having, as computed, "upwards of 20,000 miles of river navigation" on the Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri, and their tributaries, all centring here, with a navigable channel open to New Orleans at all seasons, and being "at the terminus of the great Central Railroad of Illinois, which is to form the most direct and rapid route of communication between the South-Western and Northern States," and about midway between the great lakes and the Gulf of Mexico, between which an entire communication by railroad, through this place, will ultimately be completed, it is evident that the local disadvantages above referred to cannot long oppose an insuperable obstacle to the causes so powerfully conspiring to render Cairo a great centre of intercourse, traffic, and exchange for one of the most extensive and productive regions of the world.
* This tax was repealed in the spring of 1851...
Manufactures. — The only manufacturing branches at present carried on in California are such as chiefly pertain to the casual wants of the people; and these are confined to mechanical operations connected with the construction and repairing of houses, vessels, furniture, &c., the making up of clothing, and the fabrication of various articles needed by miners. Some considerable amount of gold is formed into jewelry, much of which is sent abroad; but no other commodities, to any great extent, are manufactured for exportation...
Internal Improvements. — But little attention has hitherto been given to this subject, beyond providing for the temporary accommodation of residents in the principal settlements. No railroads or canals of any importance have yet been constructed; although projects have been suggested for several improvements of this description. It is not probable that many years will elapse before ample and convenient means of communication will be established between the seaports and the mining districts; for the necessities of the people, and the nature of their pursuits, must soon demand far greater facilities of intercourse than any now existing...
Government. — The chief magistrate is elected for two years; also the lieutenant governor, who is ex officio president of the Senate. The legislature is composed of two branches — the Senate, consisting of not less than one third, nor more than one half of the number contained in the other house, elected by districts biennially; and the Assembly, chosen annually, also by districts, to comprise not less than twenty-four nor more than thirty-six members, until the population shall amount to 100,000, when the minimum shall be thirty, and the maximum eighty. The legislature convenes annually in January. No lotteries can be granted, nor charters for banking purposes. The circulation of paper as money is prohibited. Corporations may be formed under general laws only. In legislative elections, the members vote viva voce. Loans of the state credit are interdicted; and state debts, exceeding a sum total of $300,000, cannot be contracted except in certain specified contingencies. The property of married women acquired before or after marriage, and a portion of the homesteads, or other estates of heads of families, are protected by law. The elective franchise is held by all white males twenty-one years of age, who are citizens of the United States, or Mexicans choosing to become citizens, under the treaty of Queretaro, and have resided six months within the state. Indians and their descendants are allowed to vote in special cases.
Judiciary. — The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and two associates, elected by the people for six years, and so classified that one shall retire every two years. District judges are chosen in like manner, for the same term of time; and county judges are elected for four years. The Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction in cases involving a sum not less than two hundred dollars, in the settlement of certain legal questions, and in various criminal matters. The District Courts have power to try cases in law and equity, where the sum in dispute exceeds two hundred dollars. The county judges, assisted by two justices of the peace, hold Courts of Sessions in each county for criminal business. Clerks of courts, district attorneys, sheriffs, coroners, &c., are chosen by the people...
Education. — The constitution provides for the establishment and support of a system of free schools, in which instruction shall be given at least three months in each year. A fund is to be created from various sources, the interest of which is to be inviolably applied to the maintenance of these institutions. This fund must soon become one of great magnitude; for it is to consist of the proceeds of public lands ceded to the state for school purposes, and of the 500,000 acres of land granted to each new state by the general government, together with such percentage on sales of lands within the state as shall be allowed by Congress, and the avails of all estates left by persons dying without heirs. Certain lands are also set apart, the income of which is to be appropriated to the maintenance of a university...
Indians. — Few of the descendants of the aboriginal inhabitants remain within the present limits of the state. These few consist of small and scattered tribes, who neither own, nor pretend to claim, any portion of the soil beyond the boundaries of their small villages. To the gold region, especially, they assert no title. They are, for the most part, a roaming, wretched race, divided into insignificant hordes, subsisting on wild fruits, berries, roots, &c., and too indolent to hunt for game in a legitimate way; but not too much so to pursue and steal the cattle and horses of the whites, which they use for food. There are, probably, no bodies of Indians in the United States who are more dishonest, perfidious, and cruel; nor any that are not superior in moral and intellectual character.
Population. — So rapidly has the population of California accumulated since the first discovery of a gold " placer," in February, 1848, and so constantly does the stream of immigration flow on and expand, that the ratio of increase, at definite periods, cannot be ascertained with any great degree of accuracy. A comparison of the number of residents in certain localities, at the time of the occupation of Monterey by the United States forces, (July, 1846,) with the estimated number in January, 1851, — a space of four and a half years, — may give some idea of the force and velocity of that great "tide in the affairs of men," which is setting towards this point from all quarters of the world. At the former date, there were but eight towns, or pueblos, within the present confines of the state, viz., San Diego, with 500 inhabitants; Pueblo de los Angelos, with 2500; Santa Barbara, 800; Monterey, 1200; Santa Cruz, 400; Pueblo de San Jose, 1000; Yerba Buena, (now San Francisco,) 400; Sonoma, 200; making a total of 7000. The rest of the territory contained some 7000 or 8000 besides. At the latter date, it was estimated that the residents in California, permanent and temporary, numbered not far from 200,000, one third of whom are engaged in mining.* There are towns, which, at the close of their first year's existence, contained from 1200 to 1500 voters. In October, 1850, the monthly mail from the United States conveyed nearly 50,000 letters to California; and there were 22,000 advertised letters in the post-office of Sacramento city, then a place of less than three years' growth.
There are some twenty post towns in the state. In January, 1851, thirteen newspapers (many of them daily) were published, as follows: 6 in San Francisco, 2 in Sacramento city, 2 at Stockton, and 1 each at Monterey, Sonoma, and Maryville.
Religion. — There are religious societies of almost every Christian denomination, and increasing attention is given to the support of public worship. No one sect appears to predominate, and the utmost toleration prevails. In the present fluctuating, unsettled, and bustling state of things, there must be, of course, many changes in the affairs, and in the relative numbers, of different communities and associations; so that an attempt to furnish correct statistical details in the premises must, at this time, be attended with much difficulty.
* The following estimate, made in April, 1851, is from a public journal printed at Sacramento : In the northern mines, or that scope of country lying north of San Francisco and Feather River, the population is computed at 20,000; the Yuba, 40,000; Bear River, 4000; the American Fork, 50,000; in the southern mines, or that portion lying south of the American River, 80,000; Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys and neighborhood, 65,000; the coast south of San Francisco, 20,000; — making an aggregate of 314,000. It is further estimated that the 100,000 miners have each labored 300 days during the preceding year, and have produced an average of 3£ dollars per diem; which gives a total of 5100,000,000.
Surface, Soil, &c. — The face of the country presents, perhaps, a greater variety of topographical features than may be found in any one territory of like magnitude upon the whole earth. Several ranges of huge and lofty mountains —many of their peaks of volcanic origin, ascending into the region of perpetual snow — extend through the central parts, and parallel with the sea-coast of the state, from its northern nearly to its southern extremity. On the coast side of these ridges, as well as between them, the surface is greatly diversified, presenting many varieties of soil, thin and sandy in some localities, but in others abounding in the richest loam. Among the hilly regions, there are numerous valleys and plateaus, of different elevations, covered with a soil of good quality, which, wherever duly watered, is capable of being rendered highly productive. But these are frequently interspersed with large tracts of rough, broken, and apparently sterile territory, or intersected by deep and rocky ravines. Until within a very short period, the entire country, with the exception of a few widely separated spots, exhibited all the harsh and rugged characteristics of a yet unredeemed wilderness.
The elevated lands, at certain seasons, are usually either denuded of vegetation, or partially overspread with stunted trees and herbage. But in places that are sheltered, and having facilities for irrigation, fruits and garden vegetables grow luxuriantly. Though few agricultural experiments on a large scale have yet been made, enough has been ascertained to show that the resources of the state, in this respect, may be advantageously developed. Indeed, it is known that most of the cereal grains can be produced in quantities abundantly adequate to the wants of a numerous population. In most parts of the country, the vine, fig, olive, and other valuable plants, both of the temperate and torrid zones, may be cultivated with great success. Springs of water abound in many districts; while in others, the earth, for leagues together, exposes a naked and arid surface, which is only relieved by the periodical rains. Some few extensive forests, comprising, occasionally, trees of enormous magnitude, were met with by recent United States exploring parties ; but large portions of the territory are very scantily wooded. This absence of trees, and the consequent want of moisture, and of shelter to the earth from the sun's heat, is doubtless a grand obstacle in the way of agricultural improvement; and years will probably elapse before any great measure of public attention will be directed to the subject. Among the forest-trees most common in California are the oak, ash, beech, birch, elm, plane, red cedar, and pine of almost every description. These abound more profusely near the Pacific shore, and in the vicinity of rivers communicating with that ocean, thus affording excellent opportunities for ship-building.*
* Timber is scattered over several counties, and is quite abundant around Bodaga, San Rafael, Sonoma, Santa Cruz, and a few other localities. The red wood, or soft cedar, is most frequently met with in those quarters. It often grows to the circumference of forty feet, and to a height of three hundred. Near Santa Cruz, there is one measuring seventeen feet in diameter.
Climate. — There is nearly, if not quite, as great a diversity of climate in California as of its geological features. The coast and its neighborhood are enveloped in cold mists, borne on the north-west winds, which prevail during most of the summer or dry season, with occasional intervals of more pleasant weather. At San Francisco, although the temperature frequently varies some 30° in a single day, it is said that the mean temperature, in both winter and summer, is nearly equal. Other positions on the coast are more or less affected by the chilly winds and fogs from the point above indicated, in proportion to their relative geographical situations, the line of coast at the southern part of the state being less directly influenced by those-causes than that at the northern. In the winter, or rainy season, the prevailing winds are from the south-west, rendering the temperature much milder than in the same latitudes on the Atlantic side of the continent. Farther inland, beyond the first range of mountains, the climate assumes a very different phase. The sea winds of the spring, summer, and early- autumn, having deposited their freight of moisture upon the summits of the intercepting highlands, (the "Cordilleras of California,") pass gently into the great valley of the Sacramento, carrying a grateful softness, with scarcely a remaining vapor to obscure the brightness of the skies. Proceeding still onward in an easterly direction, these prevailing winds climb the flanks of the lofty Sierra Nevada, and, on reaching its elevated peaks, are deprived by condensation of all watery particles that may yet linger among them. Thence they pass down into the broad basin, spreading eastward to an immense extent, with occasional mountainous interruptions. Here another change of climate is perceptible; the air is exceedingly dry and hot throughout more than half the year, and the earth suffers accordingly. These variations occur sometimes within the distance of a few miles, corresponding generally with the abrupt changes observable upon the face of the country. A most delightful climate pervades the numerous valleys on the land side of the mountains, where they are protected from the rude ocean blasts. Near the western border of the Sacramento valley, the extremes of temperature, between winter and summer, are very great, comprehending some 80° Fahrenheit, viz., from 30° to 110°. A degree of heat almost as excessive as the last indicated is often felt in various parts of the mountain region; but this is here so peculiarly modified as to produce none of those injurious effects upon animal life which result from similar temperatures elsewhere. The rainy season, sometimes termed the winter, commences at the north in October or November, and progresses slowly to the south, reaching the centre of the state in December, and the southern boundary in January. The season has an average duration of about three months, but is longer and more pluvious at the north than at the south. The effect of all these atmospheric mutations upon human health must naturally be diverse, and not always congenial. The subject, however, has not yet been sufficiently investigated and analyzed to enable one to treat with accuracy upon the relations between those phenomena and the diseases incident to the localities where they respectively exist. That great scourge of modern times, the cholera, has visited some of the most populous settlements in the state; and other epidemics occur at different seasons, similar in character to those which visit other parts of the world exposed to like vicissitudes and agencies.
Rivers. — The waters of California partake of those varied peculiarities which mark its terrene surface and its atmospheric properties. The sea and its numerous contiguous bays and estuaries, the inland lakes, the rivers and their countless tributaries, are all subjects of speculative interest. They yield abundantly almost every description of fish found in like latitudes, besides many kinds which are either unknown or not common in other regions. Some of the rivers are navigable many miles from their mouths; others flow over precipices and ledges, constituting falls or rapids, which the industry of man may hereafter convert into valuable mill sites. The sea-shores are prolific in marine plants, which, at some future day, will doubtless be applied to useful purposes. Immense quantities of kelp are thrown up by the waves — an article that now forms the most available material for the manufacture of iodine, and is also excellent as a compost for arid soils, like those of this state. Lichens, in all their variety, spring profusely from the rocky strand along its entire extent, which, like the mosses of Iceland, arid the carrageen of Ireland, will undoubtedly, in due time, be much prized for their nutritive and medical properties. The coasts and inland watercourses swarm with wild fowl, some of which resemble the aquatic birds found on the eastern shores of the continent, and others seem peculiar to the tracts which they inhabit. The principal rivers, communicating with the Pacific, are the Sacramento and San Joaquin. These flow through almost the whole length of the great valley between the Sierra Nevada and the coast range of mountains, the former taking its rise in the north, and the latter in the south, and both, uniting near the centre of the state, pass into the noble Bay of San Francisco, whence they reach the sea. They are fed in their course by great numbers of mountain streams from the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada. Other important rivers, though of less considerable extent, intersect the state in various directions...
Minerals. — Besides the incredible quantities of gold, for which California has become renowned above all other countries on the globe, sundry mineral products of much value are found in different parts of the state. Silver, mercury, and lead have been obtained; and indications of copper, tin, iron, and other ores have appeared, as is reported, in several places.* No satisfactory signs, however, of any extensive coal fields have as yet been discovered, although reports of their existence have from time to time been made. Some few small veins of what was at first imagined to be pure coal have been met with; but, on investigation, they have proved to be lignite, bitumen, or other material of tertiary formation. Researches for other minerals than gold have not yet been prosecuted to any great extent; nor is it likely that, during the prevailing attraction towards the more precious metal, the coexistent mineral resources of the state will be fully developed, unless incidentally, and by degrees, or through systematic explorations under authority of the government.
The wealth of the "gold region" is almost, if not entirely, incalculable. This region comprehends the territory occupied by the Sierra Nevada and the contiguous country, including its rivers. Indeed, it is almost solely on account of its capacity to produce gold, that the attention of the world has been directed to this extraordinary country. The universally coveted metal is found in prodigious quantities along the western slopes of the great mountain range, and especially in and around the streams that descend thence into the large valley of California, at the bottom of which flow the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The gold is obtained in various forms, mostly in small, thin particles; but not unfrequently in lumps, some of which have weighed several pounds. The slate rocks of the mountains enclose numerous veins of granite, in which gold is imbedded ; and it is from these sources, wrought upon as they have been by volcanic action, that the metal finds its way into the ravines and crevices upon the mountain sides, and into the streams below, carried thither by the constant operation of powerful atmospheric agencies. The value of the auriferous product of California can scarcely be computed. The yield of the mines for the year 1851, it is confidently stated, may be estimated at some seventy millions of dollars. This is based on official statements of the amounts procured, carried away by sea and land, stamped by various houses, or manufactured into jewelry, &c., during the first quarter of that year; the aggregate of which, at the mint valuation, exceeded sixteen millions of dollars. New developments of rich deposits are constantly occurring; and notwithstanding the vast additions to the population, which are made daily, the average gains of miners do not seem in any degree to diminish.
* Cinnabar is found, in great quantities, within eight or ten miles of San Jose, the capital of the state. Sulphur is obtained in the vicinity of Sonoma. Salt pond exist in different parts of the state, and limestone is not uncommon. In various spots, during the summer season, a peculiar sort of earth may be gathered from the sites of certain dried-up ponds, which possesses strong alkaline properties, and answers all the uses of ashes in the manufacture of soap.
Cambridgeport, as its name implies, is a more crowded and bustling mart of business. There are, however, many very pretty streets here, and many elegant and costly houses. There are several handsome meeting houses, the town- house, and other public buildings.
East Cambridge, formerly known as Lechmere's Point, opposite the N. W. part of Boston, is also a business part of the city, and has risen into consequence within a few years. It contains six or eight places of worship, the court house, jail, and house of correction. Here are the extensive glass works of the New England Glass Company; also soap, candle, and brush factories, and a great variety of other manufacturing and mechanical operations. Charles River winds its course along the S. border of Cambridge, affording convenient facilities for navigation to each section of the town.
The Mount Auburn Cemetery lies about a mile W. of the university, in the towns of Watertown and Cambridge. This beautiful rural cemetery, the first of the kind in the country, was dedicated September 24,1831. It contains about 100 acres of land, covered with a natural growth of trees, the highest part of which is 125 feet above the river, laid out with winding graveled walks, and embellished with every variety of shrub and flower. Numerous monuments, of costly material and exquisite workmanship, are already erected, constituting this a magnificent resting-place of the dead. It is surrounded by an iron fence, with an imposing granite gateway, in the Egyptian style ; and not far from the entrance is a chapel, of granite, for the celebration of burial services. Our readers will be pleased to see the following short extract from the address of the late JUDGE STORY at the setting apart of this hallowed spot to the purpose for which it is now used : —
"Nature," he says, " seems to point it out with significant energy, as the favorite retirement for the dead. There are around us all the varied features of her beauty and grandeur — the forest - crowned height, the abrupt acclivity, the sheltered valley, the deep glen, the grassy glade, and the silent grove. Here are the lofty oak, the beech, that' wreathes its old, fantastic roots so high,' the rustling pine, and the drooping willow, — the tree that sheds its pale leaves with every autumn, a fit emblem of our own transitory bloom; and the evergreen, with its perennial shoots, instructing us that 'the wintry blast of death kills not the buds of virtue.' Here is the thick shrubbery, to protect and conceal the new- made grave ; and there is the wild flower creeping along the narrow path, and planting its seeds in the upturned earth. All around us there breathes a solemn calm, as if we were in the bosom of a wilderness, broken only by the breeze as it murmurs through the tops of the forest, or by the notes of the warbler, pouring forth his matin or his evening song.
"Ascend but a few steps, and what a change of scenery to surprise and delight us! We seem, as it were, in an instant, to pass from the confines of death to the bright and balmy regions of life. Below us flows the winding Charles, with its rippling current, like the stream of time hastening to the ocean of eternity. In the distance, the city — at once the object of our admiration and our love — rears its proud eminences, its glittering spires, its lofty towers, its graceful mansions, its curling smoke, its crowded haunts of business and pleasure, which speak to the eye, and yet leave a noiseless loneliness on the ear. Again we turn, and the walls of our venerable university rise before us, with many a recollection of happy days passed there, in the interchange of study and friendship, and many a grateful thought of the affluence of its learning, which has adorned and nourished the literature of our country. Again we turn, and the cultivated farm, the neat cottage, the village church, the sparkling lake, the rich valley, and the distant hills, arc before us through opening vistas; and we breathe amidst the fresh and varied labors of man."
From the first settlement of the country, Cambridge has been a place of great importance At the commencement of the revolution, and during the year 1775, the head-quarters of the American army were in this town, and here Washington entered upon his duties as commander-in-chief. His quarters were at the Cragie House, situated on the street between the college and Mount Auburn. Our admired poet, Longfellow, the present proprietor, displays good taste by preserving as nearly as possible the original external appearance of the house. The Washington Elm, on the westerly side of Cambridge Common, is also an object of interest, as under its branches Washington was stationed while his commission was proclaimed to the army of twenty thousand men drawn up on the Common; and here he drew that sword which, turning every way, like the sword of the angel, became salvation to his country, and terror and confusion to her adversaries.
The trade of Charleston is extensive. The harbor is spacious and convenient, though somewhat obstructed by the bar at its mouth. Over this bar there are four principal channels, having a depth of water, at high tide, varying, in tho different channels, from 17 feet to iofeet; and at low tide, from 10 to 6 feet. After entering the harbor, the channel, which is deep, passes very near the S. end of Sullivan's Island, upon which Fort Moultrie is situated. Opposite to this point, upon a sand bar, is another fort, called Fort Sumpter, which stands close upon the channel. The position of these fortifications is very effective for the defence of the city. Charleston possesses great facilities for trade with the interior. It is connected by a canal with the Santee River, which is thence navigable to Columbia, and by a railroad with the Savannah River at Augusta. The length of this road is 136 miles. A branch extends from Branchville, 62 miles, to Columbia. Thus Charleston commands the internal trade not only of most of its own state, but likewise much of that of North Carolina and Georgia. There are several lines of packets connecting Charleston with the city of New York; and numerous steamboats running to Savannah, Beaufort, Georgetown, Columbia, St. Augustine, and other places.
The exports of Charleston are of great importance, consisting of rice and tobacco in considerable amount, but particularly of upland and sea-island cotton. The upland cotton in this region of country is of the finest quality. The sea-island cotton is grown on the islands in this neighborhood, and is remarkable for its fineness, and for its staple, or length of fibre.
This city was first settled in 1680. About 10 years later a colony of French refugees, exiled from their native land in consequence of the revocation of the edict of Nantes, settled in Carolina, and some of them in Charleston. These were the Huguenots, or French Protestants, who fled from religious persecution similar to that which brought the Puritans to New England. From this noble stock have descended many of the families of Charleston. Its inhabitants have always been celebrated for their intelligence, their polished manners, and unaffected hospitality. During the revolutionary war, the defences of this city, on Sullivan's Island, sustained a violent assault from a British squadron, consisting of 9 ships of war, carrying 250 guns, and triumphantly repulsed them, by the bravery of a garrison of 400 men, under the command of Colonel Moultrie. The garrison lost only 10 men in the conflict, and had but 22 wounded; while the British suffered a loss of nearly 200 in killed and wounded. This was on the 28th of June, 1776. On the 17th of May, 1780, the British having again attacked the city by sea and land, it was surrendered into their hands, but was evacuated by them in 1782.
Chicago. City, lake port, and shire town of Cook co., Is. Population in 1850, 30,000. This place is situated on the W. shore, and towards the S. end of Lake Michigan, at the point where the river of the same name enters the lake. The northern and southern branches of this river unite about three quarters of a mile back from the lake, forming a harbor from 50 to 75 yards wide, and from 15 to 25 feet deep. At its mouth it spreads out into a bay, with about 9 feet depth of water. The city is built on both sides of this bay and harbor, on a site which is almost as level as a floor, but sufficiently elevated to be secure from the highest floods. Piers have been constructed, extending into the lake from both sides of the mouth of the river, to prevent the formation of a bar from the accumulation of sand. These works were built by the United States and also the light-house, and the fortification named Fort Dearborn, which are upon a strip of land between the city and the lake shore, belong to the government.
This place has had a rapid growth, and from its position in the great line of communication between the E. and W., is destined to become a large city. In 1832 it contained only 5 small stores, and 250 inhabitants. Only 4 vessels had arrived during the year before. In 1836, 4 years later, the arrivals of brigs, ships, and schooners amounted to 407, besides 49 steamboats.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal unites the head of navigable waters in the Illinois River with Lake Michigan at Chicago. This great internal improvement was projected, and in part constructed, to be a ship canal for the largest class of vessels which navigate the lakes. For a distance of 30 miles from a point in the Chicago River, 5 ½ miles W. of the city, it was excavated, through indurated clay and compact limestone, to the depth of from 18 to 20 feet. Beyond this the canal is only 6 feet deep. Its width at the top is 60 feet, and its entire length 96 ½ miles, besides a navigable feeder of about 4 miles, from Fox River. This is one of the best constructed works of the kind in the country, opening an extensive channel of trade to the W., and establishing an uninterrupted water communication between the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi.
Another improvement, still more important in its results to the prosperity of Chicago, is that of the great Illinois Central Railroad, which is now in process of construction between this place and Cairo, at the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. This railroad will constitute the most direct and expeditious channel of communication between the North-Western and the Southern States, and between the commerce of the great lakes and the Gulf of Mexico. Especially will this be the case when its route shall be extended, as now contemplated, through Mississippi and Alabama to the city of Mobile; for which extension, as well as for the road through Illinois, Congress has voted a munificent appropriation from the public lands. Such an important line of communication, whether by this extension to Mobile, or by the river, as at present, to New Orleans, open throughout at all seasons of the year, must bring an incalculable amount of business into Chicago, while it opens to the Atlantic cities of the N. a new available access to the vast resources of the western trade.
The streets of Chicago are laid out in straight lines, intersecting each other at right angles. They are of good width, and some of them are planked; stone pavements not being used to any great extent. The largest buildings are of brick. The place is well supplied, from the region about Green Bay, with pine timber, another important material for building; and the transportation of this valuable description of lumber through the canal into the northern parts of Illinois and other sections of the west, where it is a desideratum, makes a profitable part of the business of Chicago. The city is supplied with water by an aqueduct from the lake. It has six or seven churches, some of which are fine edifices, situated on a public square. Some of the public houses are extensive establishments, affording accommodations equal to the best hotels in our eastern cities.
Cincinnati, O. City, port of entry, and seat of justice of Hamilton co. Situated in the southwestern part of the state, on the N. side of the Ohio River, opposite to the mouth of Licking River, which comes inhere from Kentucky. It is 116 miles S. W. from Columbus, the capital of the state, and 494 above the mouth of the Ohio. The rapid growth of Cincinnati has been remarkable. The population in 1800 was 750; in 1810, 2540; in 1820, 9642; in 1830, 24,831; in 1840, 46,338; in 1850, 115,338.
The city lies in a valley, about 12 miles in circumference, bounded by hills gently rising to the height of 300 feet, and affording from their summits and declivities beautiful views of the river, and of the city upon its banks, with the flourishing towns of Newport and Covington upon the opposite side. The city itself is built on what was originally two successive table lands, or "bottoms " of the river, at different elevations; the one being from 40 to 60 feet above the other; which, in grading, have been reduced more nearly to a gradual ascent of from 5 to 10 degrees from the river. The plan of the city was originally laid out with great regularity, and has been in a good degree preserved. An open area upon the bank of the river, with about 1000 feet front, and embracing 10 acres, is reserved for the "Landing;" which is of great importance to the business of the city, and usually presents a scene of great activity. The seven principal streets run 42 north from the river, 66 feet in width, and at intervals of 396 feet, and are crossed at right angles by seven others, the same distance apart; excepting Water and Front Streets, which are somewhat nearer, and Second and Third Streets, which, on account of the original shape of the ground, were located farther apart. To this original plan other streets have been added, particularly on the N. and W. The corporate limits of the city include about four square miles. The central part is compactly and finely built, with spacious warehouses, large stores, and handsome dwellings. One of the squares was originally reserved for the public buildings, and several of the first edifices designed for public uses were erected upon it. Among the public buildings of Cincinnati are the court house on Main Street, a spacious building 56 by 60 feet, and 120 feet high to the top of the dome ; the edifice for the Franklin and Lafayette Banks, on Third Street, which has a splendid Doric portico of a beautiful gray freestone; the First Presbyterian Church, on Main Street, 68 feet front by 85 feet deep, cornered with turrets, and crowned with a cupola; the Second Presbyterian Church, of agreeable architecture without, and beautiful within; and many other church edifices which are ornamental to the city. There are likewise the Cincinnati College, the Medical College, Mechanics' Institute, Catholic Athenaeum, 4 market houses, — one of which is 500 feet long, — two museums, a theatre, a hospital, a lunatic asylum, &c. There are many extensive and fine blocks of stores, especially on Front and Main Streets. The open area at the Landing is substantially paved to low-water mark, and is supplied with floating wharves, adapted to the great rise and fall of the river, which has a mean annual range of about 50 feet, with about 10 feet more in extraordinary floods. Many of the streets are well paved, and several of them are handsomely shaded with trees. A large proportion of the houses is of stone or brick, from two to four stories high. Though the climate of Cincinnati is more variable than that on the Atlantic coast in the same latitude, yet few places in the country are more healthy than this city. The inhabitants are from nearly every state in the Union, and from many European nations. The Germans make nearly one third of the population.
This city is hardly excelled by any other in the Union in respect to the literary advantages it affords. The common free schools are of a high order, embracing ten school districts, with fine brick edifices three stories high, and furnished with various apparatus. Besides these, there are numerous private schools. There are also public high schools, male and female, in which instruction is given to a great number of pupils. There is a college, with which is connected the celebrated Astronomical Observatory established through the exertions of Professor Mitchell, and by the enlightened liberality of the citizens. The Roman Catholics have a college here, called St. Xavier College. The Medical College of Ohio, chartered in 1825, is located here. Lane Theological Seminary, an institution belonging to the New School Presbyterians, is located at Walnut Hills, two miles from the centre of the city. The Old School Presbyterians have also an institution here, more recently established, for the instruction of theological students. The Mechanics' Institute was chartered in 1828, for the improvement of mechanics in scientific knowledge by means of popular lectures, a library, reading room, &c. It has fine buildings, and apparatus which has cost about $10,000. The Young Men's Mercantile Library Association has a valuable library and reading rooms in the Cincinnati College edifice, on Walnut Street. Although intended for the particular benefit of young men, its advantages are open to every respectable citizen. Besides this, there is an Apprentices' Library Association, which has a handsome collection of books, in every department of literature and science, appropriate to the objects of such an institution. All minors brought up to laborious employments have, under certain regulations, free access to this library, from which about 500 volumes are drawn out weekly. In 1831, a College of Teachers was established, having for its object the elevation of the qualifications of teachers, and the advancement of the interests of schools at the west, which holds an annual meeting at Cincinnati in October. The charitable institutions required by the wants of a large city have been liberally furnished in Cincinnati. Among these are the Orphan Asylum, in Elm Street, a fine four story building, with ample grounds; two Orphan Asylums of the Roman Catholics, for the different sexes; and the State Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum, incorporated in 1821, with accommodations for 250 patients. Among the most extensive establishments of the city for business are the pork houses, which are located on the Miami Canal. Cincinnati is the greatest market in the Union for this important article of supplies. The number of hogs slaughtered here, during the season of packing, in the fall and winter of 1851-2, was 352,000.
Cincinnati, for a city of such recent origin, possesses great facilities for communication with the surrounding country, by canals, McAdamized roads, and railroads. The Miami Canal connects the city with the Wabash and Erie Canal, at Defiance. The Whitewater Canal extends into Indiana, and commands much of the trade of its eastern section. The improvements upon the Licking River, by dams and locks, have rendered that stream navigable for steamboats of 150 tons, for a distance of more than 200 miles into Kentucky. Two railroads are now in operation, which connect the city with Sandusky and with Cleveland, on Lake Erie. The interior and capital of Indiana is connected with the Ohio River by a railroad at Madison, about 80 miles below Cincinnati. These are great and useful works, upon the structure of which many millions of dollars have been expended. The trade of the country from the Ohio River to the Lakes, north and south, and from the Scioto to the Wabash Rivers, east and west, comes chiefly to Cincinnati. The same is true of the trade of Kentucky for a great distance each way upon the Ohio. The manufactures of Cincinnati are also extensive. The surplus water from the canals furnishes no inconsiderable power, which has been thoroughly applied to use; and much is added by the steam engine, which is available here at a reasonable expense. A steam engine supplies a large part of the city with water, for drinking and culinary uses. It is forcedup from the Ohio River, into reservoirs upon a hill 700 feet high; and thence it is carried by iron pipes under the bed of Deer Creek, to the intersection of Broadway and Third Street, where its distribution through the city commences. These works were projected and carried on by individual enterprise until 1839, when they were purchased by the city.
On the 28th of December, 1788, but a little more than sixty years ago, the first company of civilized men landed on the north bank of the Ohio, opposite the mouth of Licking River, to commence the settlement of a town. Their first log cabin was built on a spot which is now on Front Street, a little east of Main Street. In January, 1789, they proceeded to lay out their town, which was then covered with a dense forest; the lower bottom bearing huge sycamore and sugar maple trees, and the upper, beech and oak. The streets were run, and the corners marked upon the trees. To their projected city they gave the name of Losantiville, which was afterwards changed to Cincinnati. In 1802, it was incorporated as a town, with a population of less than 1000 inhabitants. Thus recent is the origin, and thus rapid has been the growth, of this beautiful city, which long since obtained the name of "the Queen City of the West."
The court house in Dayton is the most costly and elegant in Ohio, being constructed of cut stone, upon a beautiful Grecian model, surmounted by a handsome cupola. It cost between $60,000 and $70,000. The other public buildings are a jail, of stone, a city hall, two academies, several banks, and a number of church edifices, which are elegant specimens of architecture. Many of the private residences are tasteful, and beautifully situated. The Cooper Female Academy has a spacious edifice, three stories high, for its accommodation. There are nine turnpike roads centring at Dayton, and connecting it with different parts of the country.
This place has good commercial advantages, being on one of the best harbors of Lake Erie, which is generally free from ice a month earlier than that of Buffalo; and being connected, by a canal, with the Ohio River, at the mouth of the Beaver, and thence by the river with Pittsburg, and, by the Pennsylvania Canal, with Philadelphia. The canal basin, connected with the harbor at Erie, is 2000 feet long by 1000 feet wide. It is connected by railroad with Buffalo on the E., and with Cleveland on the W.
There is also a most enchanting prospect obtained from the summit of a mountain opposite, about a mile and a half farther up, on the Maryland side of the river. The eye here reaches a very wide extent of country, fields, woodlands, and plantations; while the Shenandoah, as it is traceable upon the magic picture, appears like a series of beautiful lakes.
A bridge, 750 feet long, crosses the Potomac at Harper's Ferry. The U. S. have located an armory and an arsenal at this place, which are well worthy the attention of the tourist. Nearly 9000 stand of arms are annually manufactured here, employing about 240 hands. The hotels at this place afford excellent accommodations for visitors.
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad here finds a passage through the Blue Ridge, in its route between Baltimore and Cumberland. The distance from Baltimore is 82 miles, and from Cumberland 96 miles. The Winchester Railroad also connects this point with Winchester, Va., 32 miles distant.
The Susquehanna is here divided into two channels by an island called Foster Island; and a fine bridge, nearly a mile in length, including the crossing of the island, connects Harrisburg, from the foot of Market Street, with Cumberland co., on the opposite side of the river. This bridge was finished in 1817, at a cost of $192,000. Another bridge over the Susquehanna, built in 1837 for the Cumberland Valley Railroad, but having also a way for ordinary travel, enters the town two squares below. This is an immense structure, nearly 4000 feet in length, having 23 spans, averaging 173 feet, and two arched viaducts, one 53 and the other 84 feet wide. The railroad track passes upon the top of the bridge, and a double carriage way is beneath. The cost of this bridge was but a little short of $100,000. This railroad connects Harrisburg with Chambersburg, 56 miles, W. by S., and there unites with the Franklin Railroad, extending to Hagerstown, in Maryland. Harrisburg is also connected by lines of railroad communication with Philadelphia on the E., and with Pittsburg on the W. It is brought into connection with a large portion of the interior of the state, as well as of the adjoining states, and of the west, by the great Pennsylvania Canal, with its various branches.
The State House at Harrisburg is a building of imposing appearance, having the advantage of a fine situation in the most elevated part of the town, facing towards the river, to which the ground gradually descends. The edifice consists of a main building, and two wings which were intended to be connected with the centre by walls, and are so placed that their porticoes are all in a range upon the front. The main building is 180 feet front by 80 feet deep, and two stories high. The chambers of the legislature are in the lower story, and the upper is appropriated to the Governor's room, and two rooms for the state library, which contains about 10,000 volumes. The wings are appropriated to the public offices.
The front of the main building is decorated with a circular portico of six Ionic columns, 4 feet in diameter and 36 feet high. The edifice is surmounted by a beautiful dome, the top of which is 108 feet from the ground. From the cupola is presented one of the finest prospects in the state.
The other public edifices are the Court House, formerly occupied as a State House; the Masonic Hall, which is a large and handsome building; two Banks; the new Penitentiary, which is one of the most substantial and elegant buildings in the state, built in the style of a Norman castle; the Lancasterian School House, a large two-story brick edifice, erected by the state; and several handsome church edifices. Of religious denominations in Harrisburg there are the Lutheran, Presbyterian, Episcopalian, German Reformed, Methodist, Baptist, Unitarian, and Roman Catholic.
ILLINOIS. This comparatively young member of the American Union was, nevertheless, partially settled, by civilized adventurers, as early as the year 1673. A party of enterprising Frenchmen from Canada accompanied M. De la Salle in his second exploration of the country, in the above year, when in search of the River Mississippi, and founded the villages of Kaskaskias and Cahokia. These settlements continued to flourish for some years; but the people, by constant intercourse with the surrounding savages, gradually reduced themselves to a semi-barbarous condition, and for a long period their numbers were but little augmented by immigration. By the treaty of peace between the French and English, in 1763, the Illinois country, together with Canada, was ceded by the former to the latter, who took formal possession two years afterwards. It remained in their hands, under several successive military governors, until 1778; in which year a body of Virginia troops, commanded by General Clarke, penetrated the country, and subdued all the fortified places. In the same year, a county called Illinois was organized by the legislature, and placed under the care of a deputy governor. The country had been considered, hitherto, as a part of the territory included in the charter of Virginia; and the claim founded thereon was recognized by the treaty of 1783. Virginia, however, ceded it to the United States, four years afterwards, when it constituted a section of the "North-west Territory," so called. In 1800, it received a separate organization and a territorial government, in conjunction with, and under the name of, Indiana. Another division took place in 1809, when the distinct territories of Indiana and Illinois were formed; both of which were subsequently admitted into the Union, as independent states — the former in 1816, and the latter in 1818. The name of the state is derived from that of its great central river — an aboriginal appellation, signifying the River of Men.
Boundaries and Extent. — The state is bounded north by Wisconsin; east by the southern portion of Lake Michigan, by the State of Indiana, and by the Ohio River, dividing it from Kentucky also on the south; and west by the Mississippi, which separates it from the States of Missouri and Iowa. Its extreme length is some 380 miles, extending from 37° to 42£° north latitude. Its breadth varies from about 145 to 220 miles, being widest in the centre, and narrowest at the northern and southern points. Its utmost reach of longitude is 4 degrees, viz., from 87° to 91°, west from Greenwich. Its area is computed at 55,400 square miles, of which near 50,000 are believed to be well adapted to agricultural purposes.
Government. — The chief magistrate is chosen for four years, by the people, viva voce, and cannot serve two terms in succession. The lieutenant governor (who is, ex officio, president of the Senate) and the senators are also elected quadrennially. The members of the House of Representatives are elected for two years. The popular elections and the legislative sessions are held biennially. The Senate cannot consist of less than one third, nor more than one half, the number composing the other branch. All white males above the age of 21 years, who have resided six months within the state, are qualified voters. Slavery is prohibited by the constitution — to amend which instrument a convention must be called. Elections are decided by a plurality of votes.
Judiciary. — The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, composed of three justices, and such other courts as the legislature may create. One session of the Supreme Court is held annually, in each of the three judicial divisions of the state. The state is also divided into nine circuits, each having a resident judge and a state's attorney. Five of these judges constitute a quorum. They are elected by the General Assembly, and hold office during good behavior. The state's attorneys are chosen for two years. Inferior courts are also held by probate judges and justices of the peace. The Supreme Court judges, together with the governor, compose a council of revision, with power to disapprove bills passed by the General Assembly, subject, however, to further legislative action, whereby a rejected bill may, nevertheless, become a law when reenacted by a majority of members elect in both branches.
Education. — The act of admission to the Union provides for a reservation of one thirty-sixth part of all the public lands, for school purposes ; and section numbered 16 has been accordingly designated and set apart, in each township, for the benefit of its inhabitants. A common fund, for the promotion of education generally, was also established by the United States government, through the annual payment to the state of 3 per cent, of the net avails of the public lands within its limits. Of this fund, a sixth part is appropriated to the erection and support of a collegiate institution. Other funds, to a very generous extent, have likewise been provided; from all which sources a large annual income is derived. Yet the subject of common schools has not received that degree of regard and attention which its immeasurable importance demands; although there are, in many towns, primary schools of fair character, and occasionally a seminary of higher grade. Several colleges exist; but they are mostly exclusive or somewhat sectarian in their organization; each of the following denominations having a special institution, viz., Old School Presbyterians, New School Presbyterians, Baptists, and Methodists. One of these, at Alton,-was liberally endowed by Dr. B. Shurtleff, of Boston, Massachusetts, and bears his name. There are a number of respectable academies and literary associations in various parts of the state; and it is to be hoped that measures will be taken to establish the school fund of the state on a basis corresponding to the liberality of Congress, and to the example set by Ohio and other neighboring states.
Finances. — The total amount of the public debt on the 1st of January, 1851, was $16,627,507,91, nearly one half of which grew out of the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. This latter item will be partially if not wholly liquidated by sales of canal lands, and by future receipts for tolls. The state is now able, from its revenues, for the first time in several years, to meet its current expenditures.
Surface, Soil, &c. — There are no lofty mountains in this state, although at its northern and southern extremes the land is considerably elevated, and occasionally broken. In general, the surface is level, or slightly undulating, about two thirds of the whole consisting of immense prairies, clothed luxuriantly with grass, herbage, delicious strawberries, and other wild berries, and resplendent with myriads of indigenous flowers, flourishing in all the beauty of " nature unadorned." No impenetrable forests encumber these vast tracts, although isolated patches of woodland, some of them covering many acres, are frequently found in their midst. In some quarters of the state, timber is sufficiently abundant; in others, there is a deficiency. The most common descriptions are the oak, hickory, maple, elm, ash, locust, beech, poplar, sycamore, and various other woods. The soil is almost invariably fertile, often of the finest and richest quality, to a great depth. The products of the earth are of corresponding value and amount. Every variety of grain, and of edible vegetables, together with hemp, flax, cotton, and tobacco, are cultivated with extraordinary success. All the fruits common to the temperate latitudes are produced in abundance: grapes, especially, natives of the soil, are remarkably plentiful in most parts of the state, and of fine quality, capable of yielding excellent wines. The fecundity of the land, and the generous returns with which it rewards even the moderate labors of the husbandman, may be inferred from the fact that in almost all parts of the state an average crop, per acre, can be obtained, of fifty bushels of Indian corn — one of its important staples; and instances are frequent where the product reaches 75 to 100 bushels.
Rivers. — Illinois is provided most bountifully by nature with admirable facilities for communication by water, not only within, but far beyond, its own borders, by means of its numerous inland streams, tending in every direction towards, and connecting with, the great western rivers, and by its immediate contact, on the north-east, with Lake Michigan. The whole of its western boundary is washed by the mighty Mississippi, and the noble Ohio flows along a portion of its eastern frontier. The Illinois traverses a large part of the state from north-east to south-west, and its tributaries course through most of the central counties. Some of these branches are of great extent. Among the other important rivers are Rock,. Kaskaskia, Wabash, &c.
Internal Improvements. — The canal for uniting the navigable waters of the Illinois with those of Lake Michigan, at Chicago, is one of the greatest enterprises of the kind in the Western States. Its computed extent is 106 miles, and its cost upwards of $8,000,000. When fully completed, the waters of the Gulfs of St. Lawrence and of Mexico may be said to meet each other, through a long chain of inland channels. Under the system of internal improvement adopted by the state, in 1837, a number of extensive and important railroads were projected, the work on most of which has been commenced, and some few are in travelling order.
Minerals. — At the north-west angle of the state lie immense beds of lead ore, of which great quantities are annually smelted and sent to market. Copper and iron are also found in abundance in many parts of the state; and in the southern quarter, there are several sections of the public lands which are reported to be rich in silver ore, and in consequence are withheld from sale. Lime, salt, and coal are among the most plentiful of the mineral productions. Limestone ledges of great extent exist for many miles along the banks of the Mississippi, often rising abruptly and perpendicularly, in huge bluffs, to a height of 300 feet. In the south arid east parts of the state, there are numerous saline springs, so strongly impregnated as to render profitable the manufacture of salt on an extensive scale in their vicinity. The elevated and broken regions towards the north, particularly in the neighborhood of Rock River, contain exhaustless veins of bituminous coal; and the bluffs and ravines on the river banks, in Madison and St. Clair counties, at the south-west quarter of the state, are pregnant with treasures of this valuable mineral.
Manufactures. — Hydraulic power to a considerable extent is attainable at various points of the state, some of which is already advantageously improved for manufacturing purposes. The contemplated improvements of the Wabash and other rivers — some of which are already in progress — will furnish additional water privileges of great value. Steam mills, for sawing lumber, manufacturing flour, &c., as well as mills wrought by animal and water power, are common throughout the state. There are also numerous smelting houses, iron furnaces, tanneries, potteries, distilleries, &c., together with a few cotton, woollen, and flax factories; and almost every article of domestic use is or may be fabricated within the state. Among the few commodities principally manufactured for export are whiskey and castor oil: some 40,000 to 50,000 gallons of the latter are annually expressed from the palma christi, or castor bean, at a single establishment in Edwardsville.
Indians. — Few or none of the descendants of the tribes formerly occupying this region now linger within or around it, their titles having been extinguished, from time to time, by various treaties with the United States government. The white inhabitants were somewhat annoyed by hostile Indians during the war of 1812; but after its close, the country was exempt from molestation until 1832, when a band of sanguinary savages, led on by the notorious chief Black Hawk, committed many bloody atrocities, and created much distress and alarm, at the northern part of the state. They were at length entirely quelled, and finally removed to the country west of the Mississippi.
Population. — During the thirty years prior to 1840, the population of Illinois increased from 12,282 to 476,183, of whom 3600 were persons of color. In 1850, the population was 851,470, of whom 5366 were persons of color.
Climate. — In general, the climate of Illinois, in its influence upon health, does not differ materially from that of the other states, lying within the same parallels, east of the Alleghany ridge. It furthermore enjoys the advantage of exemption from annoying easterly winds, although the prairie breezes are often severely cold. The temperature, ordinarily, is much like that of Ohio and Michigan during the respective seasons. The length of the winter is usually somewhat less than three months. Snow seldom falls to & great depth, or continues upon the earth many days in succession; and the ground is commonly free from frost throughout half the winter. The early spring months are rainy and unpleasant; but they are soon succeeded by a milder season, a warm and cheering summer, with an invigorating atmosphere ; and, finally, "the year is crowned" by a delightful autumn of some months' duration, rarely disturbed by a cloudy day or a stormy hour.
Religion.— The most numerous sect are the Methodists, including their different varieties. Then follow the Baptists and Presbyterians, with their several ramifications. The Episcopalians, Lutherans, and Dunkards have each from eight to twelve congregations; and there are small societies of Roman Catholics, Quakers, and Mormons. The proportion of professors of religion has been estimated at about one tenth of the whole population.
Boundaries and Extent. — The state is bounded north by Michigan and the southern portion of the lake of that name; east by the State of Ohio; south-east and south by Ohio River, which divides it from Kentucky; and west by Illinois, the Wabash River forming part of the boundary. It lies between 37° 47' and 41° 50' north latitude, and its mean length is estimated at 260 miles; its mean breadth is about 140 miles, extending from 84° 45' to 88° west longitude. Its area comprehends nearly 34,000 square miles.
Government. — The executive power resides in a governor and lieutenant governor, the latter being president of the Senate, and acting as governor in cases of vacancy. The legislature consists of two branches, — Senate and House of Representatives, — apportioned to the counties, according to the number of qualified electors, in such ratio that the number of representatives shall not be less than 36 nor more than 100. The Senate is never to contain less than 12 nor more than 50 members. All the above are elected by the people triennially, except the representatives, who are chosen every year. The legislature convenes annually. The chief magistrate cannot hold office longer than six years in any term of nine years. The secretary of state, treasurer, and auditor are chosen by the General Assembly in joint ballot, the first for a term of four years, and the two latter for three years.
Judiciary. — The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, in Circuit Courts, Courts of Common Pleas, Probate Courts, and justices of the peace. The Supreme Court is composed of three judges, the senior in office being chief justice, and are appointed for seven years by the governor and Senate. The Circuit Courts are thirteen in number, and consist of a president judge for each judicial circuit, acting with two associate judges in each county: the president judges are elected for seven years by the legislature, and the associate judges for the same term by the people. Judges of probate, justices of the peace, sheriffs, and coroners are chosen by the people, for various terms.
Education. — Attention to this important interest has been considerably awakened within a few years. A common school fund, to be derived from various sources, was founded by a law of the state in 1849, at which time the several funds set apart for the purpose were valued at upwards of $700,000. By the census of 1840, there were within the state over 38,000 white persons, above the age of 20 years, who could neither read nor write. Asylums for the blind, the deaf and dumb, and the insane, have been established. There are several colleges, and numerous academies, in various parts of the state.
Finances. — The annual revenue of Indiana is amply sufficient for the ordinary current expenditures. The amount of the public debt in July, 1849, was more than $12,000,000, the liability for which is nearly equally divided between the state and the Wabash and Erie Canal Company.
Surface, Soil, &tc. — The face of the country, though not mountainous, is in some quarters hilly and broken. The greater portion of the state, by far, consists of immense tracts of level lands, studded at intervals with picturesque clusters of trees. Many of the upland prairies are skirted for long distances with noble forests, while those bordering upon the rivers are rarely productive of any description of timber. The whole earth is replete with vegetable wealth. Upon the prairies there is, at the proper seasons, intermingled with gay and odorous flowers, a thick covering of grass, growing to a height of seven or eight feet. The soil of the prairies, as well those which are elevated as those which lie along the rivers, is surpassingly rich, the loam commonly reaching to a depth of two to five feet. The trees of native growth comprise several varieties of oak, walnut, maple, elm, sycamore, beech, ash, linden, locust, sassafras, buckeye, cottonwood, cherry, and mulberry. The most important of the cultivated products are wheat, Indian corn, rye, and other grains, potatoes, and various other esculents. Grapes, and indeed fruits of all kinds peculiar to the climate, grow profusely. Among the many valuable staples of this state are large quantities of beef, pork, butter, cheese, sugar, wool, tobacco, and hemp.
Rivers. — The entire state is admirably watered by large and beautiful streams, many of them navigable for hundreds of miles. Among the most considerable rivers, besides the Ohio, are the Wabash, a tributary of the former; White River, a branch of the Wabash, with its two great forks ; Whitewater, St. Joseph's, &c.
Internal Improvements. — The Wabash and Erie Canal, 187 miles in length, connecting the navigable waters of the River Wabash with those of Lake Erie, is the most important enterprise of the kind in which this state has been concerned. Nearly 100 miles of its extent are in Indiana, and the residue in Ohio. The whole was completed in 1843. The Whitewater Canal, a work of much less magnitude, is partially completed, and several additions are contemplated. A railroad, commencing at Indianapolis, connects the capital with three or four different points on the Ohio, a distance of about 100 miles. From the same point of beginning, another road, partly macadamized, extends northwardly to Michigan city. Other railroads have been projected, some of which are in course of construction.
Minerals. — The mineral resources of this state have been but partially explored or developed. Iron is known to exist in various quarters, and some copper has been found. Salt springs have been opened, at which salt in considerable quantities has been manufactured. Epsom salts, and saltpetre in a pure state, have been quite plentifully obtained from caves in Crawford and Harrison counties. Coal in abundance has been recently excavated from the bluffs near the Ohio, in Perry county. At a place called Cannelton, the deposits are extremely productive, yielding in profusion a very superior quality of bituminous coal, resembling, in all its characteristics, the celebrated English Cannel coal.
Manufactures. — The business of manufacturing has not been pursued largely, except for domestic uses. Cotton and woollen fabrics are extensively manufactured in families throughout the state; and there are also a number of fulling mills, woollen and cotton factories, iron furnaces, tanneries, potteries, breweries, flouring and saw mills, &c.
Indians. — The various tribes formerly inhabiting this region have yielded to the advances of their civilized successors, parted with their native right to the soil, and sought other homes farther west.
Population. — The population of Indiana, since the year 1825, has increased with unexampled rapidity. At that date, the number of inhabitants was estimated at 185,000. It is now, in (1850,) 988,416. Among the causes which have conduced to attract settlers thither, the extraordinary fertility of the soil, the low price of lands, the facilities for inland water communication, and the healthful climate, are doubtless among the most prominent.
Climate. — Residents of the country characterize the climate as generally mild and salubrious. In summer, the temperature is genial and uninterrupted by injurious changes. The winters are neither long nor severe, six weeks being considered as their average duration. Frosts, however, are common in spring and autumn. Fevers and agues prevail only in marshy places, and in the neighborhood of stagnant waters.
Religion. — In "modes of faith" there is much diversity. The most numerous classes of Christians are Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists; there are also considerable numbers of Lutherans, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, and Friends.
Curiosities. — Among the most remarkable curiosities of the state are the mineral caves already alluded to, and the multitudes of singular mounds scattered over the face not only of Indiana, but most of the Western States, supposed by many to have been ancient Indian fortifications, by others conjectured to be places of sepulture, and by some to be tumuli produced solely by natural causes.
Boundary and Extent. — Iowa is bounded north by the Territory of Minnesota; east by the Mississippi River, which separates it from the States of Wisconsin and Illinois; south by the State of Missouri; and west and north-west by portions of the Territories of Nebraska and Minnesota, from which it is separated by the Missouri and the Big Sioux Rivers. The country lies between 40° 30' and 43° 30' north latitude, and extends from 90° 30' to 96° 30' west longitude; reaching some 200 miles from north to south, with an average extent of over 220 miles from east to west, and comprehending about 51,000 square miles.
Government. — The executive power resides in a governor and lieutenant governor, chosen by popular vote for two years : the latter is president of the Senate. The legislature comprises a Senate and House of Representatives, the former chosen for four years, one half biennially, and in number not less than one third nor more than one half that of the other branch. The constitution provides that the House of Representatives shall not consist of less than 26 nor more than 39 members, until the white population shall amount to 125,000 ; when the minimum shall be 36, and the maximum 72. All free white male American citizens, after a residence of six months, are voters.
Judiciary. — The Supreme Court is composed of a chief justice and two associates, either two of whom form a quorum. They are elected by joint vote of the legislature for six years. District judges are elected for five years by the people, in the several districts. Probate judges, prosecuting attorneys, and clerks of courts are also elected in the same manner, every two years.
Education. — A superintendent of public instruction is chosen by the people for three years. A large school fund is secured by the appropriation of lands granted by Congress, escheated estates, and the percentage allowed by Congress on sales of public lands within the state. Common schools in all the school districts are also maintained, by law, from other sources of revenue. There is also a large fund assigned for the support of a university. The permanent school fund, at interest, in 1850, amounted to about $279,000.
Finances. — The state holds productive property valued at upwards of $11,000,000. Its debt, in 1849, was $55,000, incurring an interest of $5500. The legislature holding biennial sessions only, the annual public expenditure is only about $19,000. The taxable property, in 1849, was valued at $18,479,751, which pays to the state a tax of three tenths of one per cent.
Surface and Soil. — With the exception of some high hills in the northern part, the surface is nowhere mountainous, but consists of table lands, prairies, and gently swelling eminences covered with timber. Ranges of bluffs, from 30 to 120 feet in height, intersected with ravines, generally terminate the table lands upon the borders of rivers. The soil is almost universally good, reaching to a depth of 18 to 24 inches on the upland prairies, and from 24 to 48 inches on the bottom lands. Constant cultivation for a century would scarcely exhaust it. It produces every description of grain and vegetables suited to the climate, and is peculiarly favorable to the growth of fruit. Timber is not abundant, except in certain sections, comprising in all about one fourth part of the state. But the country is so well supplied with river navigation, that this deficiency in other quarters is not felt. Among the indigenous fruits are vast quantities of plums, grapes, strawberries, crab apples, &c. The crops of wheat ordinarily amount to 30 or 35 bushels per acre ; and the yield of corn is from 50 to 75 bushels. Wells of excellent water are obtained at a depth of 25 to 30 feet.
Rivers. — Besides the noble rivers which skirt the state on the east and west, there are several streams of considerable magnitude, with numerous branches, pervading the entire territory. Many of them are extensively navigable, and afford fine water power; and all are immediately or remotely connected with the Mississippi or the Missouri.
Internal Improvements. — A project for constructing a railroad, commencing at Dubuque, on the Mississippi, and extending across the Rocky Mountains to the waters of Columbia River, was started in 1840. At the last session of the General Assembly, acts were passed granting the right of way to the Davenport, Camanche, and Lyons Railroad Companies, for railroads from the Mississippi to Council Bluffs on the Missouri. In these enterprises considerable northern and eastern capital will probably be employed.
Minerals. — But little comparative progress has been made in the exploration and development of the mineral treasures of Iowa; although it is well known, from even imperfect researches, that a very large portion of the country is extremely rich in various descriptions of metals. There are tracts, probably to the extent of hundreds of miles, that abound in load ore; copper and iron are also abundant in various locations, as well as coal, limestone, & In the vicinity of Dubuque, the largest town in the state, are some of the finest and most valuable lead mines in the United States.
Manufactures. — Excepting the working of mineral ores into marketable shape, and the fabrication of articles for domestic use from the raw materials produced within the state, there are no extensive manufacturing operations. The whole amount of capital employed in 1840, in every description of manufactures, fell somewhat short of $200,000.
Indians. — Recently large tracts were held by various tribes of Indians. The lowas held portions of the south, the Pottawatamies of the west, and the Sacs and Foxes of the central parts of the state. But these tracts have been ceeded to the United States.
Population. — Since the admission of Iowa into the Union, the state has been rapidly filling up with white settlers. In 1840, the population numbered 43,112, including that of the north section, now called the Territory of Minesota. It has increased prodigiously within the past ten years, and at the last census amounted to 192,214.
Climate. — With the exception of some localities on the river sides, subject to occasional inundations, the climate of Iowa is more healthy in general than that of the neighboring Western States. This is accounted for by the fact, that the current of its streams is more rapid. The diseases prevalent in quarters considered unhealthy at times are fevers and agues, bilious disorders, &tc. The commencement, duration, and termination of winter correspond with those of the same season in New England. But the temperature is less severe, being more like that of Pennsylvania. Snow, to a depth of more than seven or eight inches, is seldom seen. The summers are extremely pleasant, the heat rarely becoming oppressive, and the atmosphere being often refreshed by gentle showers.
Religion. — Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists are the most numerous of the religious denominations. The Episcopalians have several societies or parishes, and there are also Roman Catholics, Friends, &c.
Curiosities. — One of the most remarkable productions of nature, in this region, is a natural bridge, which crosses the River Maksqueta — a fine stream flowing into the Mississippi, near the centre of the eastern boundary of the state. This bridge has a span of 40 feet, and is composed of solid limestone.
Boundary and Extent. — The Ohio River constitutes the northern boundary of this state, separating it from the States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. On the east lies Virginia, and on the south Tennessee. The Mississippi, on the west, separates Kentucky from the State of Missouri. It extends from north latitude 36° 30' to 39° 10', and lies between 82° and 89° 30' west longitude. Its length from east to west is about 400 miles, and its average breadth does not greatly exceed 100 miles. Its area, as officially reported, is 37,680 square miles.
Government. — The present constitution, adopted in 1850, provides for the quadrennial election of governor and lieutenant governor by a plurality of the popular suffrages; but the former magistrate cannot be reelected until after a lapse of four years. The lieutenant governor is, ex officio, the presiding officer of the Senate, and, in extraordinary cases, discharges the duties of the executive. The number of senators is limited to 38: one half of the number are elected every two years, in a manner that each member may serve four years. The representatives, 100 in number, apportioned to the several counties or districts every eighth year, are chosen biennially. The legislature holds biennial sessions at Frankfort, continuing only 60 days, unless by a two thirds concurrent vote. All white males, 21 years of age, after a residence in the state of two years, and in the district of one year, are qualified voters. The manner of voting at elections is by open vote, or viva voce.
Judiciary. — The courts consist of a Court of Appeals, having appellate jurisdiction only throughout the state, Circuit Courts in each county, and County Courts. The judges of the former, four in number, are elected by the people for eight years, and so classified that one shall retire every two years. Those of the Circuit Courts, 12 in number, are chosen for six years. Those of the County Courts, consisting of a presiding and two associate justices in each county, are chosen by the people for four years. Two justices of the peace are elected, in each county, for terms of four years. Sheriffs are chosen for two years, and cannot serve beyond a second term.
Education. — The state possesses a bountiful school fund, which, for the year 1849, yielded an income of about $67,000, three fourths of which, however, are applied to the ordinary expenditures of the state. In the above year, there were 193,000 children between the ages of five and sixteen years, nearly one half of whom attended the district schools connected with the public system. Among these latter the sum of $29,166 was distributed from the permanent school fund, and $21,874 from the "two cent tax."
Finances. — In 1849, the whole amount of the funded debt was $4,497,652-81, a part of which, viz., $836,000, was due to the school fund. The income in the same year, from all sources, amounted to $468,630-19, and the expenditures to $447,620-64. To meet the interest of the public debt, the state owns bank stocks, turnpike and railroad stocks, and other property, from which an annual revenue of more than $100,000 is derived. The residue of the interest is made up from the yearly tax, which is about 17 Cents on each $100 worth of property. The amount of taxable property in 1849 was upwards of $285,000,000.
Surface, Soil, &tc. — Kentucky presents a great diversity of surface. In the eastern quarter, where it is bordered by the Cumberland Mountains, there are numerous lofty elevations ; and on the northern boundary, adjacent to the Ohio River, and running through the whole extent of the state, there is a strip of hilly but fertile land, from 5 to 20 miles in breadth. Along the immediate margin of the Ohio is a tract, one mile wide, of bottom lands, periodically overflowed. The intermediate country, between the hilly regions on the north and on the south-east, is gently undulating; and here, within an area of 100 by 50 miles, the soil is of extraordinary richness. In the neighborhood of the Cumberland River, there is another tract of about 100 miles in extent, which, though denominated "barrens," has been within a few years transformed from an extended and unbroken prairie into forests of thrifty and valuable timber. The soil throughout the state is generally of excellent quality, producing hemp, tobacco, wheat, corn, and numerous other fruits of the earth in great abundance. Among the native trees, the most common are black walnut, black cherry, mulberry, locust, ash, elm, papaw, buckeye, whitethorn, cottonwood, and sugar maple. Grapes, of fine quality, also abound; and all the fruits adapted to the climate are successfully cultivated.
Rivers. — The largest rivers are the Cumberland and the Tennessee, both branches of the Ohio, which latter flows along the northern boundary for a distance of 637 miles. These branches are navigable to a very considerable extent. They enter the Ohio at points about 12 miles apart, and within 50 to 60 miles of the junction of the Ohio with the Mississippi. The other principal streams, besides those which bound the state, are the Kentucky, Licking, Salt, and Green Rivers, all of which are extensively navigable.
Internal Improvements. — The Louisville and Portland Canal, two and a half miles in length, is a work of extraordinary magnitude and importance. It was completed in 1831, at great cost, and after some years of labor; its bed having been excavated out of lime rock, a portion of it to the depth of 12 feet. By this work, a fall of 22 feet on the Ohio River at Louisville has been overcome, and vast numbers of steamboats and other craft are constantly passing through it. The Lexington and Ohio Railroad, extending from Lexington, via Frankfort, to Louisville, 95 miles in length, is nearly, if not quite, completed. Another, from the former city to Covington on the Ohio, opposite Cincinnati, is under contract; and some others are projected.
Minerals. — The most abundant of the mineral products of Kentucky are iron, coal, lime, and salt. Large quantities of the latter article are annually exported. Limestone, at various depths, underlays the soil of a large portion of the state.
Manufactures. — A large amount of capital is invested in the manufacture of hemp, cotton, wool, iron, tobacco, leather, and other staple commodities. The fabrication of almost every article of domestic use is also carried on throughout the state.
Indians.—Few or none of the descendants of the aboriginal possessors of the soil now remain within the limits of the state.
Population. — Sixty years since, the population of Kentucky numbered less than 75,000. By the last census, it has reached over 1,000,000, more than one fifth of which number are slaves.
Climate. — The winters in this state rarely continue longer than two or three months, and are generally mild, but humid. The other seasons are remarkably pleasant, and the temperature varies less between the extremes of heat and cold than in some of the neighboring states. The climate is consequently healthy.
Religion. — Of the various Christian denominations, the Baptists, perhaps, are the most numerous. The Methodists are next in numerical order. Presbyterians, Episcopalians, and Roman Catholics have each a large number of churches. There are also some societies of Shakers and Unitarians.
Curiosities. — Among the extraordinary objects of wonder found in this state is the celebrated " Mammoth Cave," which has not, probably, an equal in the known world. It is situated in the county of Edmonson, near the centre of the state, and its subterranean vaults have been explored to the extent of some eight to ten miles. Its earthy floor is impregnated so strongly with nitre, that considerable quantities of this article have been extracted therefrom. There are several other remarkable caverns in the state, principally in the south-west part, between Cumberland and Green Rivers. Many of the lofty, perpendicular precipices of solid limestone on the banks of Kentucky River, and the frequent chasms formed in the subjacent calcareous rocks by the rapid action of large streams, may likewise be enumerated among the natural curiosities of Kentucky.
Boundaries and Extent. — Bordered on the northern and eastern fronts by two of the great lakes, and parted near its centre by another, the land surface exhibits two distinct peninsulas — the base of one lying adjacent to Ohio and Indiana on the south, and that of the other commencing at the boundary of Wisconsin on the south-west. The main peninsula, known as Michigan proper, is bounded north by the waters of Lakes Huron and Michigan; east by Lakes Huron and St. Clair, and by a portion of Lake Erie, with the intermediate straits or rivers; south by the states of Ohio and Indiana; and west by Lake Michigan. The northern or upper peninsula is bounded north by Lake Superior; east and south-east by Lake Huron and the waters therewith connected; south by Lake Michigan; and south-west by the Menonomee and Montreal Rivers, which separate it from Wisconsin. The southern peninsula is 282 miles long, with an average breadth of 140; the length of the northern is 324 miles, and its mean width 60. The whole area of the state, including some 36,300 square miles of water surface, comprises about 92,500 square miles. Its geographical position is between 41° 30' and 47° 20' north latitude, and extends from 82° 25' to 90° 30' west longitude.
Government. — The governor, lieutenant governor, and senators are elected biennially, and the representatives annually—the latter numbering 54, and the Senate consisting of 18. These elections are by the people, who, by a late amendment of the constitution, elect also the judges and cabinet officers. The sessions of the legislature commence annually on the first Monday of January; and the present seat of government is established at Lansing, Ingham county. A residence of only six months in the state, immediately preceding an election, confers the right of voting on all white males who have attained their majority.
Judiciary. — Until the recent modification of the constitution, the judges of the SupremeCourt were appointed by the governor and Senate for seven years. The Supreme Court comprises a chief justice and four associate justices, one being assigned to each of the five judicial circuits into which the state is divided. These courts hold one or two terms annually in each county ; and there are also County Courts, having general common law jurisdiction,both civil and criminal. Persons charged with offences punishable by confinement in the State Prison may demand trial before the circuit judge, who in such case is to preside in the County Court. The county judges hold office four years. Probate Courts are held in each county, the judges of which, as well as those of the county courts, are elected by the people.
Education.—The subject of education has received a just share of public attention. The common school system is generously supported, and many literary institutions of a higher order have also been established and liberally endowed. At Ann Arbor is located Michigan University, which has academic branches in various other parts of the state. There are sundry colleges, maintained by different religious denominations, and generally in a flourishing condition. In 1849, the number of scholars in the state, which derived benefit from the public funds appropriated for purposes of education, was upwards of 125,000. There is a Board of Education, consisting of eight members, chosen by the legislature, which has charge of a well-endowed state Normal School, at Ypsilanti. Munificent appropriations have also been made for the erection and maintenance of asylums for the deaf, dumb, blind, and insane.
Finances. — At the opening of the year 1850, the state debt exceeded the immediate available means of payment by somewhat more than $2,000,000. During the year ending November 30, 1850, the receipts into the treasury amounted to $429,268, and the expenditures to $449,355. The revenue is derived not only from direct state taxes, but from specific taxes, charges on sales of public lands, and other sources. It was estimated by the governor, in a late annual message, that the assessment of property for purposes of taxation, instead of being based, as heretofore, on a valuation of only about $30,000,000, would be more equitably made if based upon a cash valuation; in which case the value of taxable property, it is supposed, must exceed $100,000,000.
Surface, Soil, &tc. — Michigan proper presents a diversity of surface. It is mostly either level or slightly swelling, but is occasionally rough and hilly; and towards the central points, between the eastern and western shores, is elevated to a height of some six to seven hundred feet, forming rugged and irregular ridges. On the western side of this range of eminences, the land slopes gently and smoothly towards the lake, but again rises on the coast into steep and broken sand banks and bluffs. The northern half of this peninsula is as yet but sparsely peopled ; and its soil is regarded as inferior to that of the southern portion, although most of the lands in the interior are said to be, in general, well adapted to agricultural purposes. In the settled parts, the soil is quite productive; and flax, hemp, all the varieties of grains, garden vegetables, &c., are raised in abundance. The forests yield excellent timber, of almostevery description known in this climate ; as, the oak, walnut, hickory, elm, ash, maple, sycamore, white wood, hackberry, cotton wood, poplar, butternut, cherry, &c. There are also large tracts of pine, spruce, and hemlock-trees in the northerly parts of the state. Of the upper or northern peninsula, no very great amount of knowledge has yet been obtained, beyond what is, in some degree, connected with the recent geological survey of this region. It is but thinly inhabited by permanent residents, its soil promising but poor remuneration to the cultivator. Mountains, valleys, hills, plains, forests, and rivers variegate the surface. The most lofty of the elevations ascend to a height of 2000 feet; some of the forests embrace millions of acres of pines and other evergreens; and a hundred rivers, large and small, affording valuable mill sites, flow from the uplands into the lakes, on either side of the Porcupine Mountains, the grand ridge which towers as a sort of dividing barrier between Lakes Superior and Michigan.
Rivers. — The high lands in the central parts of Michigan proper give rise to several large streams, which generally run into the lakes on either side. The principal of these are Raisin and Huron, flowing into Lake Erie; the Rouge, Clinton, Black, Saginaw, Thunder-Bay, and Cheborgan, emptying into sundry straits and bays on the east; and the still larger rivers, St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, Monistic, Maskegon, and Grand, which connect with Lake Michigan on the west, and are partly navigable. Small lakes, yielding plenty of fine fish, abound in the southern counties of this peninsula. Excepting the Montreal and Menonomee, which form a part of the boundary, the rivers of the northern peninsula, though numerous, are comparatively inconsiderable, so far as they have yet been explored. The most important appears to be the Ontonagon River, which flows into Lake Superior.
Internal Improvements. — The Central Railroad, extending from Detroit to Lake Michigan, and the Southern Railroad, finished as far as Hillsdale, are the principal public works of this class within the state. They were both originally projected, and partially completed, under the authority of the state, whose property they were until 1846, when they were sold to certain incorporated companies. The Central was disposed of for $2,000,000, and the Southern for $500,000. Several branches extend in different directions from the above roads, embracing an aggregate length of some 70 miles. Other works have been projected, and will doubtless be prosecuted.
Minerals. — The northern peninsula of Michigan is known to be peculiarly rich in mineral treasures. In Ontonagon River, about the centre of the region, immense masses of native copper have been found; and there are doubtless vast beds of that and other minerals that yet remain to be developed. Iron and lead are known to exist in abundance.
Manufactures. — Several millions of capital are employed in various descriptions of manufactures; but the articles produced are such, in general, as are only required for domestic use, or home consumption. Wheat flour is, perhaps, the only manufactured commodity which is exported to any considerable amount from the state. In 1849, there were 228 flouring mills in the state, which manufactured 719,478 barrels of flour. There are some hundreds of saw mills scattered throughout the several counties, which prepare for market large quantities of lumber, and some portions of this product are also sent abroad.
Indians. — There are several tribes, or parts of tribes, of the red races, dispersed in different quarters of the state, the most numerous of which are the Chippewas, which compose upwards of one half of the Indian population, and reside mostly in the upper peninsula. The Ottawas are next in numerical order; then follow the Monomonies and Pottawatamies, with a few Wyandots. These, altogether, number nearly 8000. They occupy various localities, dwelling for the most part on tracts specially reserved for their use.
Population. — Michigan, like the other North-western States, is peopled by the representatives of divers lands and races. The natives consist of the descendants of the aborigines, of the first French settlers, and mestizoes, or the offspring of white and Indian progenitors. Among the foreign population are immigrants from Great Britain, Germany, and other European countries; and there are multitudes of settlers from New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Canada. Very few of the African race are found in the state.
Climate. — There is a marked dissimilarity between the climates of the upper and lower peninsulas of Michigan, arising from their different geographical positions. The former is subject to great extremes of heat and cold, to sudden and severe changes, while the latter enjoys a comparatively mild and uniform temperature. Long and cold winters, followed by short and hot summers, are the principal seasons in the upper peninsula; for the transitions are so rapid as to afford but a brief interval of spring or autumn. The contrast between the two portions of the state, in this respect, is owing, doubtless, to the varied influences of the winds from the lakes. The general adaptation of the climate to human health may be said to equal that of the central portions of Indiana and Illinois. Among the diseases most common are fever and ague, and other maladies originating in malaria. In some seasons, affections of the lungs, of the bowels, the limbs, &c., prevail to greater or less extent, depending upon atmospheric agencies. The goitre, or swelled neck, is a disease peculiar to the inhabitants residing on the lake shores.
Religion. — Of the religious denominations the Methodists are the most numerous. Presbyterians, Baptists, Episcopalians, and Roman Catholics constitute the bulk of the remainder. There are, however, a few congregations of Lutherans, Dutch Reformed, Unitarians, Universalists, &c.
Curiosities. — Among these may be classed the ancient forts or mounds, the relics of former races, many of which are found in this and the neighboring states, varying in form and dimensions, and containing remains of human bodies, arrows, medals, ornaments, strangely-shaped vessels, &c., but as yet yielding no clew to the development of their mysterious origin. Certain "garden beds," so called, are found in various parts of the state, evidently of very ancient Indian origin. In many instances they cover hundreds of acres, exhibiting traces of the most careful labor in the regularity of their outlines and compartments, and the fineness of their soil, as compared with the surrounding land.
Boundaries and Extent. — Bounded on the north by the boundary line between the possessions of the United States and Great Britain; east and south of east by said boundary line to Lake Superior, and by a straight line thence to the northernmost point of Wisconsin in said lake ; also along the western boundary of Wisconsin to the Mississippi River, and down the main channel of said river to the point where the line of 43£° north latitude crosses the same; south on said line, being the northern boundary of Iowa, to the north-west corner of that state, whence the boundary proceeds southerly along the western limit of Iowa, until it strikes the Missouri River; and west by the main channel of said river, as far as the mouth of White-earth River, and by the main channel of the latter until it strikes the boundary of the British possessions. The territory, at its northern extremity, reaches from east to west between the 90th and 103d degrees of west longitude, and comprehends an area of 83,000 square miles.
Government. — The government is, of course, temporary, subject to such alterations, and to such further division of the territory, as may be determined by act of Congress. All free white inhabitants, 21 years of age, are voters, and were eligible for any territorial office at the first election. A Council and House of Representatives compose the legislative assembly; the former consisting of 9 members, chosen for two years, the latter comprising 18 members, elected annually. The legislature may increase the Council to 15 members, and the representatives to 39. The governor is appointed for four years, by the President and Senate of the United States. The secretary of state, in like manner appointed, is acting governor in the absence of the executive magistrate.
Judiciary. — The Supreme Court is composed of a chief justice and two associates, appointed for four years by the President of the United States. Two of these constitute a quorum. This tribunal holds an annual session at the seat of government. There are three judicial districts, in each of which one of the justices must reside, and hold a District Court, having the jurisdiction of the United States District and Circuit Courts. Both courts possess chancery powers. The laws of Wisconsin, until repealed or modified, are valid in this territory.
Education. — To this subject all due regard is given. Two sections in each township are set apart for the support of schools. In all the settled places, school-houses are among the first edifices erected. In some towns public libraries are established, and courses of instructive lectures maintained.
Finances. — By returns from five counties in the territory, made in January, 1851, it appears that the assessed value of property in those counties amounts to somewhat over $800,000; and measures are in progress for completing the valuation of the residue. The salaries of the territorial officers, as in other and like cases, are provided for by the general government. By the act of organization, $20,000 were appropriated forthe erection of public buildings at the capital, and $5000 for the purchase of a territorial library.
Surface, Soil, &tc. — The face of the country, in the central parts of the territory, is gently undulating in its general character, and exhibits about equal proportions of prairie and timber land, intersected in every direction by clear and beautiful streams, tributary to the Mississippi and Minnesota or St. Peter's Rivers, and navigable always in the spring for flat boats. This region also abounds in lakes of pure water; and its soil is represented as being unrivalled in fertility. With some modification, the same remarks may apply to the other sections of the territory. The valley of the Red River of the north, extending south some 300 miles, from the northern boundary of the territory into the centre, is about 150 miles wide, and perfectly level, with the exception of a few tracts of wet prairie, and is admirably adapted to the culture of wheat and other grains. The soil, for the most part, throughout the territory, consists of a mixture of sand and black loam, and, being loose and porous, is peculiarly favorable to the rapid growth of bulbous and other roots. Potatoes have been known to yield 450 bushels to the acre. Vegetable crops of all kinds, and in luxuriant profusion, are brought earlier to maturity than in many regions farther south. In the valley of Minnesota River, the strawberry vine commonly attains a height of twelve inches. A large part of the territory is overspread with vast forests of excellent pine and other, trees of great value for building.
Rivers, &tc. — Almost the entire eastern boundary, by the Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers, is navigable water: steamboats ply upon the former, within the territory, for upwards of 300 miles. At the north-east, the territory is bounded by that immense expanse of waters, Lake Superior. The Minnesota winds through a delightful valley, in a south and easterly direction, and has been ascended more than 200 miles. The Big Sioux, and other tributaries of the Missouri, flow southerly and westwardly. The Red River of the north, taking its rise near the centre of the territory, flows northerly, and is navigable for some 400 miles before passing into the British possessions. The Missouri, which constitutes a great portion of the western boundary, affords navigation during nearly its whole course along the territory. There are many other fine streams, and numerous large lakes, all presenting facilities for inland commerce, such as are possessed by no one state or other territory in the Union.
Internal Improvements. — A canal, to connect Lake Superior with Lake Huron, has been much talked of, and probably at no distant day will be constructed; as such a work will secure uninterrupted water communication down the great chain of lakes to the Atlantic coast. The removal of obstructions in the Mississippi and other rivers — surveys for which purpose have been authorized by Congress — will add many hundred miles to the already immense extent of navigable waters lying within and around this territory. The aid of railroads will of course soon be called in, to complete that system of internal improvements which Nature herself seems to have suggested.
Minerals. — In this newly-settled country no explorations on any considerable scale, for the purpose of developing its mineral resources, have as yet been undertaken. There can be no doubt that this territory possesses its full share of geological treasures, which in due time will excite the attention and repay the industry of its hardy and enterprising people.
Manufactures. — The only manufacturing branches now carried on to any great extent are those which are connected with the business of house-building, especially the manufacture of lumber. Of this article, although the work was begun so recently, a sufficiency is produced, not only to supply the home demand, but to furnish annually some 20,000,000 feet of boards, logs, &c., for exportation to the markets below, on the Mississippi. A number of steam and saw mills have already been erected; and so numerous are the mill sites, and so immense the water power within the territory, that this pursuit, together with others to which these advantages
will apply, especially the manufacture of flour, must naturally add greatly to the public prosperity.
Indians. —There are several tribes, or parts of tribes, still inhabiting certain tracts at the northern and western parts of the territory. To some of these, the Chippewas and others, lands had formerly been ceded; but negotiations for the removal of the former have been entered into, and treaties for the extinction of the Indian title to other tracts have been provided for by Congress. Many of the most civilized are solicitous to become subjects of the laws of the territory, and to participate in its free institutions.
Climate. — Considering its high northern latitude, Minnesota enjoys a climate quite mild, in comparison with that of the more eastern states on the same parallel. The winters are less severe, except at some points in the neighborhood of the great lake; but the weather is uniform, regular, and subject to few or no sudden changes. The summers are temperate, and of sufficient length to bring forth and perfect the numerous agricultural products for whichthe soil is so well adapted. With abundance of pure water, and a salubrious atmosphere throughout the year, the people cannot but be favored with an uncommon measure of health.
Religion. — There are four beautiful church edifices in St. Paul, the capital, and several others in the towns of St. Anthony Falls and Stillwater. The several denominations of Christians consist of such as are usually found in the New England States.
Population. — The inhabitants of this territory, at the census of 1850, numbered but 6038, exclusive of Indians. But so desirable a country must soon attract towards it large reinforcements from the Northern and Eastern States. The tide of emigration, in fact, is already turned, and is moving with so strong an impulse in that direction, that long before the next decennial enumeration, Minnesota will no doubt have acquired the complement of inhabitants necessary to her admission as an independent state.
Boundaries and Extent. — This state is bounded north by Tennessee, east by Alabama, south by Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico, and west by Mississippi and Pearl Rivers, dividing it from Arkansas and Louisiana. It extends from 30° 10' to 35° north latitude, and from 88° 10' to 91° 35' west longitude, and contains 47,156 square miles, its extreme length being about 338 miles, and its breadth averaging 135.
Government. — The governor is chosen every two years by the people, and is eligible only for four in any period of six years. The Senate consists of 30 members, one half elected every two years; the term of service of each is four years. The representatives, 91 in number, are chosen biennially. The people also elect judges, state secretary and treasurer, chancellor, and sheriffs. White male residents in the state for one year, being 21 years of age, enjoy the right of suffrage. The legislature meets at Jackson, in the month of January, every other year.
Judiciary. — The state is divided into three judicial districts, in one of which, every two years, a judge of the High Court of Errors and Appeals is chosen for six years. Circuit Courts are held in seven different districts, by judges resident and chosen therein, and have original jurisdiction in all criminal cases, and in civil cases involving more than 50 dollars. The Court of Chancery has full equity powers.
Education. — There are several colleges in the state, which are generously endowed and in flourishing condition. Academies and other literary institutions are numerous and well sustained. Common schools are also established throughout the state. In 1840, there were 8360 white inhabitants above the age of 20 years who could neither read nor write.
Finances.—The receipts into the state treasury for the year ending 30th April, 1850, amounted to $379,402-63, and the expenditures during the same period to $284,999-58. The sources whence the revenue is derived are, a state tax, internal improvement, sinking and other funds. The chief items of expenditure are for judicial and legislative purposes. Among the enumerated items per last returns is one of 17 cents, as the contribution of the state for common schools — the support of these institutions being confided, under special laws, to the several counties. The state debt, incurred for banking purposes, amounted, in 1840, to $7,000,000.
Surface, Soil, &tc. — For about 100 miles inland, from the junction of the southern border of the state with the Gulf of Mexico, the surface is low and generally level, presenting a series of swamps and woodlands, overgrown with cypress and pines, with occasional open prairies, and flooded marshes. The land then becomes more elevated and uneven, and so continues to the northern extremity of the state, but nowhere rises to a height sufficiently lofty to deserve the name of a mountain. A vast tract of table land extends over much of the the state, terminating in the low coasts of the Mississippi River. This produces, in its natural state an immense growth of oak, rnaple, ash, and other timber, together with an undergrowth of grape-vines, spicewood, papaw, and other plants. The soil throughout is naturally very fertile, especially those alluvial lands on the river banks, which are not liable to inundation. The staple product of the state is cotton, which is raised in great abundance; and, by slight cultivation, the soil yields profusely Indian corn, rice, wheat, rye, and other grains, sweet potatoes, indigo, tobacco, melons, grapes, figs, apples, plums, peaches, lemons, oranges, &c.
Rivers. — Besides the Mississippi, which washes the western margin of the state by itswindings through a space of 530 miles, the Yazoo is the most considerable stream which flows wholly within the state ; this is 200 miles in length, passing through a healthy region, affording navigation for large boats some 50 miles, and emptying into the Mississippi near Vicksburg. Big Black River is of the same length, is alike navigable, and enters the Mississippi near Grand Gulf. Pearl River rises near the centre of the state, and in part divides it from Louisiana. There are several other rivers of considerable magnitude; as, the Tombigbee, Homochitto, Pascagoula, &c. The state has a sea-coast of 70 miles, but no harbor sufficient for the admission of large vessels. Pascagoula Bay, 65 miles long by 7 wide, affords some inland navigation; but its entrances admit no craft drawing more than 8 feet of water.
Internal Improvements. — Several railroads have been completed, or partially finished, within the state, and others have been projected. The most extensive work of this kind commences at Vicksburg, and proceeds in an easterly direction, partly across the state. Another extends from Natchez, and either intersects or is intended to intersect the former. The state presents numerous opportunities for advantageous public improvements, which in due time will doubtless be prosecuted.
Minerals. — Mississippi is probably not rich in mineral products; at least no extensive investigations of her resources in this respect have yet been made. Clay, of good quality, suited to the manufacture of pottery and bricks, abounds in various localities; and sundry descriptions of pigments have also been found. It is not known whether any coal formations, or any indications of metallic deposits, have yet been discovered.
Manufactures. — There are in the state a number of cotton factories, on a small scale, several mills of considerable importance for the manufacture of flour, and numerous other establishments, producing most of the articles required for domestic consumption or family use. The amount of capital employed for manufacturing purposes, in 1840, was less than $2,000,000.
Indians. — Large portions of the northern and eastern sections of the state are still held by the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians. These tracts include some of the best lands in the state, abounding in broad and fertile prairies, which are well cultivated by their owners, who possess also large numbers of cattle, horses, swine, and sheep. These Indians are intelligent and industrious, many of them being good mechanics. The females, also, are expert at spinning and weaving.
Population. — Between the years 1820 and 1830, the population of Mississippi increased more than 80 per cent.; and between the latter year and 1840, the increase was more than 175 per cent. Of a population of 175,000, upwards of one half were slaves. The people are almost exclusively engaged in agricultural employments. Population in 1850, 606,555.
Climate. — For the most part the climate is decidedly healthy. The low country is of course subject to the ordinary diseases which prevail throughout all similar regions in the Southern States. But in the upper districts, the atmosphere is pure, and the climate, though variable, is temperate and salubrious.
Religion. — The most numerous of the religious denominations are the Methodists and Baptists — the former, compared with the latter, numbering as 3 to 1. The Presbyterians are next in numerical order ; and the Episcopalians have several flourishing parishes.
Boundaries and Extent. — Missouri is bounded north by the State of Iowa; east by the Mississippi River, which separates it from the States of Illinois, Kentucky, and part of Tennessee; south by the State of Arkansas; and west by the Indian Territory, and by the River Missouri, dividing it from the Deserts of Nebraska. It extends from 36° to 40° 36' north latitude, and lies between 89° and 95° 45' west longitude. Its area is estimated at 67,380 square miles, being about 278 miles in length by 235 in breadth.
Government. — The governor and lieutenant governor are chosen, by a plurality of the popular votes, for four years, and are not eligible for two terms in succession. The lieutenant governor is ex officio president of the Senate. The legislature consists of a Senate, in number not less than 14 nor more than 33; and a House of Representatives, not to exceed 100 in number. The former are chosen for four years — one half every second year; and the latter every second year, in counties, to serve two years. The legislature meets biennially, on the last Monday in December, and the members receive three dollars per diem for sixty days of the session, after which their pay is reduced to one dollar — a feature that might be profitably adopted in other states.
Judiciary. — The Supreme Court, having appellate jurisdiction only, is composed of three judges, who hold office for twelve years. It holds two sessions annually. There are fourteen judicial circuits, with a like number of judges, who hold office for eight years. Circuit Courts are held twice a year in each county. These have exclusive jurisdiction in criminal matters, with power to correct the proceedings of County Courts and justices of the peace, subject to appeal to the Supreme Court. The supreme and circuit judges are appointed by the governor and Senate. County Courts are established for each county, and are composed of three justices
elected by the people for four years. Their jurisdiction is limited to matters of probate and to county affairs. There are, also, at St. Louis and some other cities, local tribunals,with the ordinary powers of Municipal or Police Courts.
Education. — Several colleges flourish in different quarters of the state, most of them under the special auspices of some religious denomination. A good number of academies and other literary institutions have also been established. The common and primary schools are tolerably numerous; but in 1850 there were over 20,000 white persons above the age of 20 years who could neither read nor write.
Finances. — The amount of the state debt is about $685,000 ; the interest whereon is some $73,000 annually. In 1843, the public debt was less than one half the above sum.
Surface, Soil, &tc. — The surface and soil are much varied throughout the state. In some quarters, the lands are undulating and hilly, not rising, however, to a height that can be described as mountainous. Other portions are swampy, and subject to inundations, though heavily timbered, and having an alluvial soil of great fertility. The soil upon the uplands is in general very productive, consisting both of prairies and extensive tracts of woodland; but these are interspersed with rocky ridges and elevated barrens. The low lands, bordering on the rivers, are extremely rich. Indian corn and other grains, hemp, flax, tobacco, and sweet potatoes, are among the products of the field. Cotton is raised in the southern section of the state. Among the forest-trees are various species of oak, walnut, locust, ash, cedar, &c. Yellow and white pine abound in some localities. Grapes are found in profusion among the underwood of the forests; and most of the fruits common to the latitude of the state may be successfully cultivated.
Rivers. — This state is watered by numerous large streams, besides the great Rivers Mississippi and Missouri, the former of which flows along the eastern margin of the state, a distance, including indentations, of 550 miles; while the latter strikes its south-west angle, passes southward along its western boundary, and, crossing its centre, after having traversed the territory 384 miles, enters the Mississippi near St. Louis. The Osage, af fording boat navigation for 660 miles, the Grand, Salt, Gasconade, Chariton, Maramec, and St. Francis, are rivers of considerable magnitude.
Internal Improvements.—The people of Missouri are favored with extraordinary facilities for internal intercourse, especially by water communication. These advantages are prosecuted to an incredible extent between St. Louis and all the great commercial marts of the south and west, and intermediate places, by means of steamboats and other craft, which navigate the principal rivers for hundreds and even thousands of miles. Such facilities naturally suggest numerous projects of improvement; and a system of railroads and canals, in all probability, will ere long be superadded. At the session of the legislature in 1851, bills were passed, appropriating $2,000,000 for expediting the construction of the Pacific Railroad, and $1,500,000 towards completing the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad. This measure caused an immediate flow of emigration into the counties contiguous to the proposed routes. The city of Hannibal, in particular, one of the termini, received greater additions to its population within the spring of 1851 than it had acquired during the whole of the three preceding years.
Minerals. — Missouri is remarkably rich in mineral treasures, especially in the value of its lead mines. These are known to occupy an area of over 3000 square miles. They are situated within an average distance of 70 miles from the city of St. Louis. The ore is of that description denominated "galena," and is found, not in veins, but in separate masses. It yields from 80 to 85 per cent. 5,000,000 or 6,000,000 pounds are produced annually. Iron ore, of excellent quality, also abounds. In Washington county, there is a hill some 400 feet in height, three miles in length, and one mile wide at its base, known as the "iron mountain," which appears to be entirely composed of iron ore, yielding some 80 per cent, of the pure metal. There is also another eminence, about 300 feet high, one and a half mile wide at the base, consisting wholly of the species of iron ore called "pilot knob," and which is equally valuable. Copper, zinc, calamine, antimony, cobalt, nitre, plumbago, salt, &c., are among the mineral products of the same county and the contiguous region. Bituminous coal is abundant in various localities near the Mississippi.
Manufactures. — Iron, lead, and lumber are among the chief articles manufactured. There are also large numbers of grist mills, distilleries, potteries, brick, stone and marble yards, salt works, breweries, carriage and machine factories, and other establishments for the production of commodities requisite for home use, the whole employing a capital of several millions of dollars.
Indians. — There are no organized or distinct bands of Indians permanently settled within the state, most of the indigenous tribes having withdrawn to their allotted country beyond the western boundary of the state.
Population. — In 1810, the population was less than 20,000. During the following ten years, it had increased to upwards of 66,000. In 1830, it numbered 140,000; and in 1840, 383,000, including 58,000 slaves. Population in 1850, 684,132.
Climate. — The central and inland position of the state assures to its inhabitants extraordinary freedom from the sudden and trying changes which are felt by residents nearer the sea-coast in the same latitudes. The difference of temperature between the cold of winter and the heat of summer is great — the extreme range of the thermometer being from 8° below zero to 100° above. But the seasons, in their progress, are gradual and uniform, subject to few or no abrupt and violent transitions. The air is pure and salubrious, and the climate may be classed among those most favorable to health.
Religion. — The Methodists are the most numerous of the vanous religious denominations within the state. Next in numbers are the Baptists; then the Presbyterians, Roman Catholics, and Episcopalians. There are, besides, several congregations of "Cumberland" and "Associate Reform" Presbyterians, and a few Unitarian societies.
Nantucket, Ms., county and town. On an island of the same name in the Atlantic Ocean, about 30 miles S. of Cape Cod. This island is about 15 miles in length from E. to W., and about 4 miles in average breadth, containing about 50 square miles. It is mostly a plain, varying from 25 to 40 feet above the level of the sea, entirely destitute of trees and shrubbery, or any sign of them, although it was once covered with forest. The highest point of elevation on the island is 80 feet above the sea. The land is owned in common by proprietors, and not fenced, excepting a few house lots adjoining the town. As many as 500 cows and 7000 sheep used formerly to feed together in this large pasture. They are now excluded, however, by the proprietors from the common field.
In 1759, the title to this island was granted by Governor Mayhew, whose ancestor, Thomas May-hew, had obtained it of William, Earl of Stirling, at New York, in 1641, to 27 proprietors, many of whom settled at Nantucket. Among them was Peter Folger, — a man of great influence, whose daughter became the mother of Dr. Franklin,— and three men by the name of Coffin. Both of these names have numerous representatives on the island at the present day. The Coffin School at Nantucket originated in a donation by Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, of the British navy, who visited this place in 1826; and finding that a large part of the inhabitants were more or less remotely related to him, expressed a desire to confer on 59 his kindred some mark of his attachment. By his liberality, after taking measures to ascertain the preference of the people in regard to the way in which it might be most acceptably applied, a building was provided for a school of a high order, and a fund of about $12,500 invested for its permanent support. For many years past, great attention has been paid to education in Nantucket, and the public schools, as well as others, will not suffer in comparison with any in the state.
The town is situated at the bottom of a bay, on the N. side-of the island, made by two points of the beach, nearly three fourths of a mile apart, on one of which, called Brant Point, is a lighthouse. The harbor of Nantucket is good, with seven and a half feet of water at low tide on the bar at its mouth. The town is built on a site where the ground ascends more rapidly from the water than at almost any other part of the shore. It embraces nearly all the houses on the island, and is very compactly built. Many of the streets are very narrow, and the houses are mostly constructed of wood. There are many handsome buildings, however, both of wood and of brick; and some of the churches, of which there are nine or ten in number of various denominations, are tasteful edifices. There are several fine buildings for the public schools. The Nantucket Athenaeum, incorporated in 1834, has a commodious building, with an Ionic portico in front; erected in 1847, after the burning of the former edifice, in which are contained a library of over 2500 volumes, and a large number of interesting curiosities, chiefly from the islands in the Pacific Ocean. In the upper story is a fine hall for public lectures.
The whale fishery commenced at Nantucket in 1690; and this place is more celebrated than any other for the enterprise and success of its inhabitants in that species of nautical adventure. Indeed, it has been the mother of this great branch of wealth in America, if not in the world. The first establishments in New Bedford were started by persons from Nantucket. Of late a considerable diversion from this business has been occasioned by the tide of adventure setting to California; so that the statistics of the whale fishery, if taken now, would not perhaps exhibit fairly the amount of energy and of capital ordinarily embarked in it. In the year ending April 1, 1844, Nantucket employed 78 vessels in the whale fishery, the tonnage of which was 26,684 tons; 1,086,488 gallons of sperm and whale oil were imported, the value of which was $846,000. The number of hands employed was about 2000. The capital invested was $2,730,000, including the ships and outfits only.
There are manufactures, on the island, of vessels, whale boats, bar iron, tin ware, boots, shoes, oil casks, and candle boxes. The whole amount of the manufactures of oil and candles, in 1844, was $1,375,745.
On the night of the 13th of July, 1846, a fire broke out in the most compact part of the town, and in a few hours it destroyed not less than 350 buildings; among which were two banking houses, a church, the Athenaeum, seven oil and candle factories, &c. The loss was estimated at $900,000.
The village of Siasconset is situated at the S. E. extremity of the island, about 7 miles from the town, and contains about 70 houses. The cod fishery was carried on there a few years since, but of late it has been nearly relinquished. The houses, with few exceptions, are occupied onlyin the warm season. A fine hotel is maintained here, affording the most genteel accommodations during the season of company. The village is compactly built on a level grass plat, near the edge of a steep cliff, the land rising in the rear so as to cut off a view of the town of Nantucket. This place presents uncommon attractions in the warm season for invalids and persons seeking recreation. It has a fine bracing air and excellent water. In front of the village " the eye rests on a broad expanse of the Atlantic, and below, the surf, rolling and breaking^ gives animation to the scene by day, and lulls to repose by night."
An excellent steamboat plies between Nantucket and New Bedford, touching at Holmes Hole, on Martha's Vineyard, and Wood's Hole, 5 miles from Falmouth. The distance from Boston to Nantucket is 110 miles, of which one half is travelled by railroad, and the other half by steamboats.
NEBRASKA is the name by which an immense wilderness, lying among the north-western possessions of the United States, is now designated. It is bounded on the north by the British possessions; on the east by Minnesota Territory and the State of Iowa; on the south by the Indian Territory, (proper,) the State of Texas, and the Territory of New Mexico; and on the west by the Territory of Utah and Oregon Territory. The Missouri flows along its entire eastern frontier, and the Platte and Arkansas Rivers water its southern borders, while its western limits are formed by the Rocky Mountains. With a vast sweep from the north-west towards the central part of the country, and thence curving to the north, a portion of this lofty chain encloses, as it were, in an amphitheatre nearly one half of the whole region. It reaches from the 38th to the 49th degree of north latitude; its extreme south-eastern point lies in 95°, and its extreme north-western in 114° west longitude. It is between 600 and 700 miles in length, and from 400 to 500 miles in breadth, and contains an area of some 300,000 square miles.
All this broad expanse is yet to be subdivided, and gradually furnished with distinct forms of civil government, or remain as the barren heritage of the untamed races for whose behoof it seems naturally designed. At present, it is almost exclusively the abode of savages and wild beasts, and is traversed by civilized man only through the like necessity which impels him to cross the pathless ocean on his way to countries beyond. Its natural resources have never yet been developed, and little more is known of its topography, its waters, forests, plants, minerals, &c., than what has been gathered by dint of a few partial explorations, or by travellers in their hurried journeys towards Oregon and California.
From its geographical position it must be inferred that its soil, climate, natural products, and capacities for improvement do not differ essentially from those of the states and territories by which it is encompassed. But there are no authentic data from which may be compiled any satisfactory amount of statistical information in the premises.
Maps, exhibiting the outlines of its principal features, have from time to time been constructed and published, wherefrom the names and localities of the most prominent and striking objects — such as mountains, rivers, and lakes — may in some partial degree be ascertained. Reliable and accurate surveys are yet to be undertaken and accomplished by authority; until when the inquirer who would obtain exact details must be content with the meagre accounts of casual tourists, or the unauthenticated reports of adventurous visitors from the neighboring regions.
The manifold nations or independent tribes of aboriginal inhabitants sustain different relations to the people of the United States. Some of them, with whom treaties have been made, or negotiations held, are professedly friendly; while others are treacherously hostile, and almost irreclaimable. They are frequently at war with each other, and in all the arts of civilization are generally behind tlie Indians who reside farther south. The number of Indians occupying the country between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains may be estimated at not far from 250,000, including those who have emigrated from the eastern side of the Mississippi, and settled in the Indian Territory proper.
A view of the map of the country presents some striking lineaments, especially in the north-western quarter. The great basin, circumscribed as with a massive wall by the bold curvature of the Rocky Mountains, sends forth countless streams of varied extent, forming the sources of the Missouri River, and supplying the tract throughout with an abundance of watercourses, at remarkably regular distances. These streams are mostly dignified with names upon the maps; but whether their positions, dimensions, and tendencies are correctly delineated, is a question to be determined by future and more exact inspection. The southerly and easterly portions of the country are also amply furnished with those aquatic arteries and veins so necessary to the existence of a nation. The rivers already mentioned, as washing the eastern and southern boundaries, also receive innumerable branches; and there are some important streams which extend quite across from the very bases of the great mountain ridge on the west to the points of their junction with the Missouri, &c. Among the principal of these are the Platte, the Ni-obrarah, the Whiteearth, &c., with their numerous forks, all of which flow in an easterly direction.
"In 1719, a law was passed which ordained that every town having fifty householders, or upwards, shall be constantly provided with a schoolmaster to teach children and youth to read and write.
"In 1783, the voice of New Hampshire on the subject of education was expressed in language worthy of a free and sovereign state, and contained in the constitution of government then voluntarily adopted. It is as follows: 'Knowledge and learning, generally diffused through a community, being essential to the preservation of a free government, and spreading the opportunities and advantages of education through the various parts of the country being highly conducive to promote this end, it shall be the duty of the legislators and magistrates, in all future periods of this government, to cherish the interests of literature and the sciences, and all seminaries and public schools, to encourage private and public institutions, rewards and immunities for the promotion of sciences and natural history.'
"Since the adoption of the constitution, the acts of the government in favor of common schools have been liberal. They are now by law established throughout the state, and every child and youth may enjoy the benefits of education proffered by them. For their support, by a law of the state, about $100,000 is annually raised by a tax upon the people. The literary fund, amounting to $64,000, formed by a tax of one half per cent, on the capital of the banks, has been distributed to the different towns. The proceeds of this fund, and also an annual income of about $10,000, derived from a tax on banks, are appropriated to aid in support of schools, besides what is raised by the several districts themselves.
"There are, according to the last census of the United States, 2127 common schools, and 83,632 scholars attending them, being 1 in every 3 and 40/100 of the whole population of the state, and being a greater number, in proportion to the inhabitants, than is furnished from state in the Union, with but one exception. There are only 942 individuals in the state, over 20 years of age, who can neither read nor write, being only 1 to 307 of the population, and being a less number than in any other state, one only excepted.
“The number of academies and high schools in the state is about 70, being 1 to every 4000 inhabitants. The number of students attending them is 5799, being on an average more than 80 to an institution, and 1 to about every 50 of the inhabitants. This intermediate class of institutions between common schools and colleges is generally in a flourishing condition. Most of them are private corporations for public purposes, and need more funds for their support, that they may accomplish with greater energy the work devolving upon them.
"Dartmouth College, named after the Earl of Dartmouth, an early benefactor, is one of the most flourishing in the United States, and is situated in the south-west part of Hanover, about half a mile east of Connecticut River, on a beautiful and extensive plain, where there is a handsome village. It was founded by the Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, D. D., and chartered by royal grant in 1769. The funds, which are respectable, were obtained by donations from individuals, and by grants from the legislatures of New Hampshire and Vermont. The buildings are good, and six in number — all of them of brick except one, and most of them bearing names of benefactors."
Boundaries. — This state is bounded north by Eastern Canada, east by Maine, south-east by the Atlantic and the State of Massachusetts, south by Massachusetts, and west and northwest by Vermont. Situated between 42° 40' and 45° 16' north latitude, and 70° 35' and 72° 27' west longitude. Its length is 168, and its greatest breadth about 90 miles, and it comprises an area of about 7987 square miles.
First Settlers. — The first discovery of New Hampshire was in 1614, and the first settlements made by Europeans were at Dover and Portsmouth, in 1623; only three years after the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth.
Government. — The executive power is vested in a governor and five councillors, chosen annually by the people. The legislature consists of the Senate, comprising 12 members, chosen in 12 districts, and the House of Representatives, chosen annually in the month of March, every town having 150 ratable polls being entitled to send one, and an additional representative for every 300 additional polls. The legislature assembles annually at Concord, on the first Wednesday of June. All male citizens, of 21 years and upwards, except paupers and persons excused from taxes, have a right to vote for state officers — a residence of at least three months within the town being required to entitle the person to vote.
Judiciary. — The Superior Court of Judicature consists of a chief justice and two associate justices, who hold one term annually in each of the ten counties of the state, for the hearing and determining of questions of law, and petitions for divorce. This court is also vested with chancery powers.
The judges of the Superior Court of Judicature are, ex officio, judges of the Court of Common Pleas. This court, before whom all actions for the recovery of debts and the enforcement of contracts, and all jury trials, are brought, consists of one of the justices of the Superior Court, or one of the justices of the Circuit Court of Common Pleas and of two county judges, who are generally appointed from among the yeomanry, whose principal duty it is to attend to the ordinary business of the county, its roads, expenses, &c. Terms are held semiannually, in each of the counties.
Most of the religious denominations, which are found in the country at large, appear in New Hampshire, as might be anticipated from the freedom of religious inquiry and profession. In numbers, the Baptist denomination ranks next to the Congregationalists and Presbyterians. But the Episcopal branch of the church of Christ was early founded in the colony, and was greatly encouraged by several of the royal governors. The Methodists are numerous, and there are communities of Friends, or Quakers. But it is believed that the many important interests of society, in which good citizens may unite without infringing on a good conscience, are tending to soften the asperities of religious controversy, and to bring the community more and more into a state of mutual forbearance, if not of mutual esteem. Thus Bible societies, and societies for the promotion of temperance, the associations which spring out of the great cause of education, and those which relate to agriculture, mechanic arts, general science, and mutual improvement in knowledge, especially by lectures and the founding and use of social libraries, all tend to occupy healthily the powers of the mind, and produce or promote that condition of civilization which becomes a free, vigorous, moral, and Christian state.
That such advances are really making is evident to the observer. They have, indeed, been gradual, but actual. The early colonists were often almost disheartened at the prospect before them, and complained of the difficulty of procuring a subsistence. It is well remarked by Dr. Belknap, that they too much neglected the cultivation of the soil, whose productiveness they had not properly tested, while their chief attention was given to the fishery, the lumber trade, and the procuring of furs. Many temptations, too, were thrown in their way, as occurred to other settlers in New England, by invitations to settle elsewhere. Lord Saye and Sele urged the colonists to people Barbadoes, where he possessed an interest. Cromwell, at a subsequent period, invited the tried and faithful Puritans to settle in Ireland, where the province of Ulster had long been devastated, and stood in need of inhabitants; or to enter on his new conquest of Jamaica, and become West India planters. Few, comparatively, however, were prevailed on to go; and those who staid became more and more accustomed to the country, and attached to it.
And now, what is the result ? A healthy, active, intelligent, and industrious population is found, even among the mountain fastnesses of " the Granite State," not unaptly characterized as the Switzerland of America. They subdue the soil, and it yields its treasures; and if not in so great abundance of cereal grains, at least in valuable pasture — the grazing interest being very considerable throughout the state. Yet the improvements of modern agriculture are noticed and adopted. In islands of the beautiful Winnipiseogee — a favorable location, it must be confessed —136 bushels of Indian corn have been raised on the acre! * One would suppose that the fertility of the western prairie could offer little temptation to the farmer who might produce such a crop, and remain among his own paternal fields; especially when the contrast is made between the healthiness of a northern climate, in a high, hilly region, pure water flowing plentifully, all facilities for happily training a family; and a country where, indeed, labor is comparatively light, land cheap, and winters lose much of their rigor and length; but fever and ague sap the constitution, and send back the adventurer a lean, sallow invalid for life, or lay him prematurely in the grave.
Of recent years, the legislature has, in its wisdom, encouraged the investigation of the mineral treasures of New Hampshire. The employment of Dr. C. T. Jackson for this purpose has resulted in the discovery that this state is richer in this respect than any of its sisters. We do not say that it has the gold of California, — as, happily for its inhabitants, it has not, — nor that of North Carolina or Georgia; but the variety of its minerals is great, and the deposits of several of the most useful, if not most costly ores, are not infrequent. Grant that it abounds in granite and in ice. It has also a hardy and sagacious population, which can makethat ice and granite articles of profitable commerce.
The increase of manufacturing establishments, in which scientific skill is tasked to mould the raw material into useful fabrics and forms, renders the possession of water power a great desideratum. In few spaces of equal extent, it is believed, does there exist a greater water power than in this state. And human ingenuity will not be backward in turning this encouraging circumstance to profit. Statistics of several establishments will be found in the following work, under the heads of their respective localities.
Of all the features of the state, the White Mountains must be regarded as not only the most prominent, but the most interesting. Forming the highest land in North America east of the Rocky Mountains and the Andes, they have become a favorite resort of the tourist, who is in search either of health or pleasure. Dr. Belknap supposed that the highest peak would be found to be, when accurately measured, — which in his day it had not been, — over 10,000 feet high. But since that period it has been satisfactorily ascertained that it falls short of 7000. The ascent, perilous as it has been accounted, is often effected, and generally repays the task. But the remembrance of those dreadful avalanches, which, in one melancholy instance at least, produced havoc, and ruin, and loss of life, will long impress the imagination seriously, and give solemnity to the wild solitudes of the mountains.
The engineer will think and calculate otherwise. And his is, in fact, the prevailing view now taken of heights of land and bodies of water. The latter, which abound in the region of the White Mountains, not only give animation to a landscape, and irrigate for the agriculturist or cattle-breeder the lands in their vicinage, but, directed by the hand of Science, and duly restrained and managed, facilitate human labor, and lay a foundation for national wealth. For if, as one of this profession f argued, " rivers were made to feed navigable canals," the elevations where are found the sources of the Androscoggin, Saco, Mjerrimac, Connecticut, and many other streams, on whose banks and by whose waterfalls villages of manufacturers must rise, will not be contemplated by the practical improver without deep interest.
It is a great happiness, as well as honor, for the state, that its history has been so ably and respectably written, and at so early a period in the development of its resources. Dr. Belknap was eminently calculated to accomplish the work he undertook. It required research and patient labor ; but he could labor and persevere, though under great embarrassment and difficulty, unknown, probably, by his successors in the ministry, but requiring in his day all fortitude and faith. His education had providentially fitted him for his task. Brought up under the eye of the New England historian, the Rev. Mr. Prince, whose spirit of accurate and industrious inquiry is celebrated, he had the advantage of consulting his collections, and imbibed a taste for the employment. Prince followed Mather, and Mather drew from Hubbard, and he from Winthrop and Winslow. Belknap completes the chain to our own times; and his history is quoted with that respect and confidence which honor his name, still further honored by the state in being attached to a lately constituted county.
Deficiencies in his work are, indeed, noticed, particularly in articles of natural history and natural philosophy. But, with the progress in science that has since been made, and the facilities for observation which have since been secured, the supply of these deficiencies will be easy. Nor can it be so difficult as it was originally to secure the evanescent tradition of events. The late and lamented John Farmer, Esq., and his living associate, as well as other members of the Historical Society, have done much to perpetuate New Hampshire history, whether of the state or of smaller communities, or of individual men.
The state is restricted on the sea-coast, and has but one avenue to the ocean. The Piscataqua presents for future improvement advantages that a perspicacious and thriving people will not be long in ascertaining and employing. The railroad from Portsmouth to Concord, opening an easy access to the great north and west, will give to the beautiful harbor of Portsmouth a foreign and domestic commerce hitherto unknown.
Though restricted on the sea-coast, and in this view not to be compared with her sister states of New England, the State of New Hampshire is yet second among them in extent of territory. That it may be filled with a prosperous, happy, exemplary population, who shall enjoy and improve the rich privileges of Christian freemen, which, in the good providence of God, now form their favored lot, and transmit them unimpaired to the latest posterity, is the writer's fervent wish and prayer.
NEW MEXICO (TERRITORY.) The region now comprehended within the limits established by Congress as the United States Territory of New Mexico formerly constituted a portion or portions of a Mexican province. During the war between the United States and Mexico, (1846,) General Kearney took peaceable possession of Santa Fe, the capital of the province, and established a temporary government therein. In the early part of the following year, a revolt against the American authorities took place, and six of the civil officers, including the governor, were barbarously murdered. Several battles were subsequently fought in different parts of New Mexico, in all which the combined forces of the Mexicans and Indians were repulsed. By the treaty of peace in 1848, the Mexican title was cancelled, and the immense country, of which this territory forms a part, became an adjunct of the United States. By the act of Congress, passed September 9, 1850, for defining the northern and western boundaries of Texas, &c., a territorial government for New Mexico was also established.
Boundaries and Extent. — New Mexico is bounded north by the Territory of Utah, and by a part of the scarcely explored wilderness called Nebraska; east by the State of Texas; south by a portion of Texas, and principally by the boundary line between the United States and the Mexican possessions ; and west by the State of California. Its eastern quarter extends from the 32d to the 38th degree of north latitude, and the residue of the territory from the 33d to the 37th. It lies between 103° and 116° west longitude, reaching from east to west about 600 miles, is from 240 to 360 miles in width, and comprises an area of some 200,000 square miles.
Government. — By the act establishing the territory, the governor is appointed by the President of the United States for four years, who must reside in the territory, and is also superintendent of Indian affairs. A secretary of state is appointed in like manner for the same term, who is acting governor in the absence of that magistrate. The legislature is composed of a Council, to consist of 13 members, chosen for two years, and a House of Representatives, consisting of 26, who serve one year. The legislature is elected by a plurality of the popular votes. Its session cannot exceed 40 days. All laws must be submitted to Congress for approval. The right of suffrage is held by all free citizens of the United States, resident for, a prescribed period within the territory. By the same act it was required that a census should be forthwith taken, in order to apportion the members of the legislature, according to the number of inhabitants. This was done in the spring of 1851, and the result showed a population of 56,984, exclusive of Indians. The ratio of representation has thereupon been fixed, for members of the Council at 4384, and for those of the House at half that number. The Legislative Assembly convened for the first time on the 2d day of June, 1851.
Education. — After the lands shall be surveyed under the direction of the general government, for the purpose of bringing them into market, two sections in each township are to be set off for the support of schools.
Judicially. — The judicial power of the territory is vested in a Supreme Court, District Courts, Probate Courts, and justices of the peace. The former is composed of a chief justice and two associates, either two of whom form a quorum. An annual term of the court is held at the seat of government. The judges hold office four years. Three judicial districts are established, in each of which a District Court is held by the justices of the Supreme Court. The above tribunals possess chancery as well as common law jurisdiction. Appeals are allowed to the Supreme from the District Courts, but in such cases there is to be no trial by jury. Appeals are also allowed from the final decisions of the Supreme Court of the territory to that of the United States, in cases involving a sum in controversy of $1000 and upwards, and also in cases affecting the title to slaves.
Finances. — The sources from which to meet the public expenditures, excepting those provided by Congress, will ordinarily consist of direct taxes, and the income arising from land sales, as is the case generally in all the new states and territories.
Surface, Soil, &c. — The face of the country presents much variety. Stupendous ranges of mountains — portions of the great vertebrae of the continent — traverse the eastern half of the territory from north to south, pierced occasionally by rugged and precipitous gaps, and sometimes by tracts of prairie, affording passage to travellers. This region includes the former provincial limits of New Mexico, and the oldest and most populous settlements. The country on the west of these elevations exhibits immense plains or plateaus, over which are scattered numerous isolated mountains and broken ridges of volcanic origin, the peaks of some of which rise to a great height. The valleys and slopes between the eminences in the eastern section consist generally of very productive land; and the river bottoms, especially near the southern boundary, comprise broad tracts of exceedingly rich soil, adapted to the culture of sugar, and of most of the products of that latitude. The portion of country lying on the Gila and Colorado Rivers, where these advantages are very apparent, will doubtless attract the early attention of settlers. The interior of the western half of the territory, so far as it has yet been topographically examined, is, for the most part, an arid and sterile desert, with the exception of some fertile spots and stunted forests along the margin of streams, or among the nooks of the high lands. The soil in this region seems to be either sandy or to consist of a light, porous clay, bearing a species of coarse grass, said to be good winter fodder for cattle. The country does not abound in timber, but in some locations is overgrown for miles with almost impenetrable thickets of mezquite and other thorny shrubbery. Corn, wheat, grapes, peaches, and other grains and fruits, are cultivated in a small way near the villages, and by some tribes of Indians in different parts of the territory; but it is only in the immediate vicinity of streams that the land may be considered productive, or even inhabitable by civilized beings.
Rivers. — The Rio Grande takes its rise many miles above the northern boundary of New Mexico, flows entirely across the territory, and, after passing for several hundreds of miles between Texas and the Mexican states on the west, discharges itself into the Gulf of Mexico. It is navigable during a great part of its course. The Gila and Colorado are also among the principal streams ; the latter a fine river, flowing from the north in a westerly direction, until it strikes the eastern boundary of California, from which point it proceeds southerly between that state and New Mexico, passes beyond their southern limits, and finally empties into the Gulf of California, affording steamboat navigation for 350 miles. There are numerous other streams, some of them very extensive, and most of them tributaries to the rivers already mentioned. The country, as a whole, is poorly watered, either for purposes of internal communication, for the propulsion of machinery, or for appeasing the thirst of men and animals.
Internal Improvements. — There are no public works of the character understood by this caption now existing in this territory, neither is it known that any are in contemplation, beyond that of constructing a road through it, from east to west, to facilitate the progress of emigrants into California. Surveys have been made with this view by military men under the authority of the United States, but the question of the construction of such a work remains undetermined; and it is further problematical whether, if a highway be decided on, it will ever assume the costly and important shape of a railroad. The enervating effect of the climate upon the inhabitants will probably tend to prevent for a long time any attempt at internal improvement by means of works of art.
Minerals. — Evidences of volcanic action abound upon the surface of all parts of the territory; and gold, silver, copper, and iron deposits exist in many places. Mines of the three former metals have been worked in past years to some extent, but discontinued within a short period. All the ordinary geological features peculiar to such a region are discoverable here. The character and composition, and the combinations of the masses which form the mountainous ridges, and other enormous protuberances scattered confusedly over the face of the country, refer to the fires below for the origin of their present appearance, at least, if not for the cause of the general barrenness of the earth around them.
Manufactures. — Nothing can yet be said of the manufacturing genius or industry of those who now constitute the people of New Mexico. Their ancestors, and those of the savages in the same region, were noted for little more in this line than the fabrication of a rude kind of pottery, and some few other sorts of household articles. The territory, or state, — as it may be hereafter, — will probably never become either a manufacturing or agricultural country for any important commercial purposes.
Indians. — The vast wilderness, of which the western half of the territory consists, is peopled by numerous tribes of Indians. Some of these are mild, peaceably disposed, honest, industrious, and hospitable, living in villages and permanent settlements, and obtaining their subsistence mainly by hunting, fishing, and tillage. Others wander about in hordes, living by plunder, and constantly engaged in thievish depredations and bloody warfare. With one of the most formidable tribes of the latter, the Apaches, Governor Calhoun, of this territory, has recently concluded a treaty, whereby they are restricted to such limits as may be prescribed by the United States government, and to form permanent settlements, the United States stipulating to furnish all necessary facilities for tilling the soil.
Population. — The census taken by the civil authorities of the territory showed a population of 56,984; but that of the United States, taken at nearly the same period, (1850-1,) gives a population of 61,547, exclusive of Indians, of whom, perhaps, it is impossible to obtain a correct enumeration.
Climate. — In those mountainous parts where water is easily accessible, the residents may be said to enjoy a good share of health throughout the year; but in other localities, at certain seasons, the heat is extremely oppressive, and the climate decidedly insalubrious. The winters are not uncomfortably cold for any great length of time; but, even at the extreme south snow is by no means uncommon, although the streams rarely freeze. During the march of Lieutenant Colonel Cooke from Santa Fe to San Diego, in the latter part of October, 1846, snow fell, and his party suffered for about two weeks with cold, though then at the southerly border of the territory. In the vicinity of Santa Fe, about latitude 36° north, on the 31st of December, 1846, the snow was five inches deep.
Religion. — The Roman Catholic, having formerly been the established religion throughout all Mexico, still maintains its ascendency in this territory. Other denominations, however, are now tolerated, under the laws of the United States.
Curiosities. — Among these, the most remarkable, perhaps, are the ruins of singularly constructed religious temples, and other large edifices, which are occasionally met with upon the sites of ancient Indian or Mexican villages, the inhabitants of which have long since passed beyond the reach of historical research, and left scarcely any traces even of legendary remembrance. The village of Pecos, not far from Santa Fe, furnishes one illustration among many of these extraordinary remains. In various quarters are found vestiges of mounds and other monuments, of strange forms and divers dimensions, the uses of which baffle inquiry or conjecture. Among the extraordinary natural phenomena may be enumerated the high volcanic peaks in the mountainous district near the' centre of the territory, and the character of some of the sandstone rocks composing the walls of many chasms and bluffs in the same region. From one of these, which had broken so as to leave a perpendicular face 180 feet in height, Lieutenant Abert, in the course of his topographical exploration in 1846, gathered a number of shark's teeth, shells, and bones of fish. The ruins of the singular structures left by the Aztecs, an ancient race, of common origin with the New Mexicans, once inhabiting several large districts in this territory, are also among the striking curiosities of the country. In their wanderings from a point near the centre of the present northern boundary, they left at different spots many ponderous memorials of their laborious skill, in the shape of immense edifices, designed to serve, it is supposed, as fortified habitations. Near the River Gila, in November, 1846, Captain Johnson, U. S. A., visited one of these ruins, called the "Casa de Montezuma," presumed to be many centuries old, an account of which is given in his journal, communicated to the war department by General Kearney, in 1847.
Besides the foregoing, there are in the city and county of New York a Superior Court and a Court of Common Pleas, each having three judges.
Climate. — There is, in this state, a considerable variety of climate. In the southern section, it is mild, but mutable, both in winter and summer. In the northern, the winters are more severe, but uniform, and the summers are pleasant. Westward of the mountainous ridges, the climate is more equable and salubrious than in like latitudes on the eastern side. At Albany, the temperature varies between the extremes of heat and cold generally more than 100°; that is, from 15° below zero to 90° above. At Canandaigua, there is nearly the same difference, the mercury sinking lower in winter, and rising to a less height in summer. On Long Island, near the Atlantic Ocean, the thermometer indicates a difference between the two extremes of about 90°; namely, from 4° below zero to 87° above. But, with the exception of occasional epidemics, not imputable, however, in general, to local causes, the climate of New York may be considered as one of the most healthy in the world.
Surface, Soil, &c.— The state exhibits much variety of surface. The eastern part is crossed by two chains of lofty hills, rising to an elevation of 1200 to 1700 feet. One of these ridges, entering from New Jersey on the south-west, strikes the Hudson River at West Point, is there divided by the stream, and resumes its prominence on the opposite shore, showing almost perpendicular walls on either side, as though cut in sunder by some sudden convulsion. These remarkable heights are known as the " Highlands…." A second range enters the state from the north-western side of New Jersey, and passes northward, forming the Shawangunk Mountains. A third, from the northerly part of Pennsylvania, proceeds in the same direction through a great portion of the state, with varied elevations, sometimes rising to a height of 3800 feet, and are known as the Catskill Mountains. The Adirondack Mountains, in the north-east part of the state, are still loftier, one of the peaks reaching to an altitude of 6460 feet. In the eastern quarter, as well as the southern, the surface is hilly, and occasionally much broken, though abounding in excellent grazing lands ; but the western section is generally level, and the soil admirably adapted to the growth of grain. Indeed, the soil throughout is of good quality ; and in some parts extremely rich and productive…. The forests yield excellent timber, in great variety and abundance.
Rivers, &c. — A number of noble streams pass through the state, or along its borders, in different directions; the chief of which are the Hudson, 324 miles in length, and navigable to Troy, 151 miles from its mouth; the Mohawk, which falls into the Hudson, near Troy, and is 135 miles long; the Genesee, which, after flowing 125 miles, occasionally over immense falls, affording prodigious water power, discharges itself into Lake Ontario, into which also flows Black River, a stream of 120 miles in length ; the Saranac, falling into Lake Champlain, after a course of 65 miles; the Ausable, 75 miles in length, entering the same lake; the Oswegatchie, 100 miles long, emptying into the St. Lawrence; the Oswego, reaching between Oneida Lake and Lake Ontario, 40 miles; the St. Lawrence, forming a part of the north-western boundary; the Delaware, after a course of 50 to 60 miles, crossing the south-western border; the Susquehanna, flowing through a considerable portion of the southern margin; the Alleghany, coming from Pennsylvania, and returning thither, after a sweep of 45 miles in Cattaraugus county; and the Niagara, with its far-famed magnificent cataract. Numerous tributaries, of various extent, are connected with all these principal rivers. Portions of the great inland seas, Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Champlain, lie within the limits of the state. Numerous others are wholly unbosomed therein, most of which may be considered as arms of Lake Ontario. Several of these minor sheets of water are of considerable magnitude, and many of them are celebrated for their romantic beauty. The facilities for commercial and manufacturing purposes, which are supplied by these various bodies of water, are of incalculable value to the people of New York. They form one of the bases of that grand series of internal improvements, of which the enlightened patriots of that state, in years not long past, were the memorable pioneers....
Religion. — Every variety of religious doctrine prevalent in other parts of the United States has its disciples in this state. The different Christian denominations may be classed, according to numbers, as follows: Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, Dutch Reformed, Episcopalians, Associate Reformed, Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Universalists, and Unitarians. There are also sundry congregations of Jews, Quakers, Shakers, &c.
NORTH CAROLINA is one of the Southern States of the American republic, and one of the thirteen which originally adopted the federal constitution. It was included in the extensive region granted, in 1584, by Queen Elizabeth, to Sir Walter Raleigh, under the general name of Virginia. Its earliest permanent settlement was commenced about the year 1650, by a company of fugitives from religious persecution in the more northern part of Virginia, who established themselves at a spot near Albemarle Sound. In 1661, another body of English emigrants, from Massachusetts, settled on the shores of Cape Fear River. The colonists suffered many hardships and much trouble for want of a recognized independent representative at the court of the parent country. This they obtained in 1667; but, not far from this date, the province comprehending the country now forming both North and South Carolina had been granted to Lord Clarendon and others, who undertook to introduce a grotesque form of government, prepared for the grantees by the celebrated John Locke. Among the singular features embodied in this constitution were provisions for establishing an hereditary nobility, for vesting the legislative power in a "Parliament," and for the exercise of executive authority by a chief magistrate, to be styled the "Palatine." After trial of this system for a few years, its practical defects became palpable, and it was abandoned in 1693. The colony, however, made but slow progress, having to contend with numerous vexations, not the least of which was the sanguinary hostility of the neighboring savages, by whom, in 1712, a murderous and destructive war was carried on, rendered sadly memorable by the horrible atrocities with which it was attended. In 1729, both the Carolinas were ceded to the king for the sum of £17,500, and by him formed into two distinct colonies, which have ever since remained thus separated, and which now constitute the States of North and South Carolina.
The people of this state, in the early stages of the American revolution, were distinguished for their patriotic devotion to the cause of national independence. They opposed the encroachments of the crown, in 1769, with success, and were among the foremost of the colonists to declare themselves free from all.. foreign control. In May, 1775, a military convention was held in the county of Mecklenburg, which passed a series of resolutions, displaying the spirit, and even embodying some of
the language, of the great Declaration of Independence issued to the world on the 4th of July of the next year. A state constitution was formed in 1776, which, with some amendments, still remains in force. Several severe battles were fought upon the soil of North Carolina in the course of the revolutionary war. The state adopted the federal constitution November 27, 1789, by a majority in convention of 118.
Boundaries and Extent. — North Carolina is bounded north by the State of Virginia, east and south-east by the Atlantic Ocean, south by South Carolina and Georgia, and west by the State of Tennessee. It extends from latitude 33° 50' to 36° 30' north, and lies between 75° 45' and 84° west longitude; is 430 miles in length, and varies in breadth from 20 to 180 miles, and contains about 45,000 square miles.
Government. — The executive and legislative officers are elected by the people, once in two years. The governor cannot serve more than four out of six years. He is assisted by a council of seven members, appointed by the General Assembly. The Senate is limited to 50, and the House of Commons to 120 members. The required qualifications of voters for the latter, besides having arrived at the age of 21, are, a residence in the county one year prior to an election, and the payment of taxes: to be entitled to vote for senator, the possession of 50 acres of land is required in addition. The right of suffrage is denied to all persons of negro blood.
Judiciary. — The judges of the Supreme Courts of law and equity, judges of admiralty, and attorney general, are chosen by the General Assembly in joint ballot. The latter holds office four years, and the judges during good behavior. The Supreme Court holds three sessions per annum, two at Raleigh, and one at Morgantown, the latter for the western part of the state. The sessions continue until all the cases on the docket are either decided or deferred for good cause shown. It has jurisdiction in all cases of law and equity brought by appeal or by the parties. The superior courts of law, and the courts of equity, which have complete equity jurisdiction, hold one session semiannually in every county of the state. About ten counties compose a circuit, of which the state is divided into seven. These are visited alternately by the judges, so as not to preside in the same circuit twice in succession.
Education. — The free school system in North Carolina has not yet attained a very near approximation to that of the New England, Middle, and some of the Western States. In 1840, there were but 632 common schools in the state, and these contained less than 15,000 scholars, while there were more than 56,000 adult white persons unable either to read or write. The census of 1850 shows no better result. There are two colleges, and about 150 minor literary seminaries: the oldest of the former was founded in 1791. Provision for the establishment and maintenance of asylums for the insane, and for the deaf and dumb, has recently been made by the legislature.
Finances. — The net amount of the state debt, arising from the loan of its credit to certain railroad companies, is somewhat short of $3,000,000. The receipts into the treasury, for some few years past, have very considerably exceeded the expenditures.
Surface, Soil, &c. — Along the Atlantic coast of the state, through a space of from 50 to 75 miles in breadth, the land is low, level, and swampy, intersected by many streams, which, from the nature of the surface, are neither rapid nor clear. Westwardly, beyond this tract, for a distance of some 40 miles, the land is more hilly and broken, and the soil sandy. Farther on, above the falls of the rivers, the country becomes elevated, and, in some places, mountainous. The highest mountain peak in the United States, east of the Rocky Mountains, is said to be Black Mountain, in Yancey county, which rises to a height of 6476 feet. There are other prominences, reaching to nearly as great an elevation. The soil in the district bordering on the sea-coast is generally poor, producing naturally no other timber than the pitch pine, from which are procured large quantities of tar, pitch, and turpentine, constituting the chief articles of export from the state. The contiguous and more elevated region is somewhat more productive, though the soil is thin and sandy. The swampy spots are well adapted to the culture of rice. In the uplands, and beyond the mountain ranges, the land is exceedingly fertile. Indian corn grows well in all parts of the state, and cotton is successfully cultivated in many places. The low country, especially on the river borders, produces spontaneously plums, grapes, strawberries, and other fine fruits; it is also well adapted to the growth of rice, the sugar-cane, &c. The table lands at the west yield a fine natural growth of walnut, oak, lime, cherry, and other timber. The pitch pine, of which the low lands produce such large quantities, is generally of a prodigious size, far exceeding the dimensions of this description of timber found in the more northern states. The celebrated Dismal Swamp, 30 miles in length by 10 in width, lies in the northern part of this state, and reaches into Virginia. This tract is covered with a thick growth of pine, cypress, juniper, and oak-trees. There are within the state upwards of two million acres of swampy land, which may be reclaimed and made to produce abundant crops of rice, corn, cotton, and tobacco.
Rivers. — The Chowan and Roanoke, taking their rise in Virginia, flow through a portion of the state into Albemarle Sound. Cape Fear River is the longest which runs entirely within the state, being 280 miles in length, and is navigable, for vessels drawing 11 feet of water, to Wilmington, 40 miles from the sea. The Yadkin is also another considerable stream. They are all, however, subject to obstructions by sand bars at their mouths, owing to their sluggish course through a long distance of low and level country.
Internal Improvements. — There are several railroads and canals in this state, most of which are connected with those of Virginia. One of the railroads extends from Wilmington, 161 miles, to Weldon, on the River Roanoke; another reaches from Raleigh, 85 miles, to Gaston, on the same river. The Dismal Swamp Canal, which commences in Virginia, is extended into North Carolina. A canal of five miles passes round the falls of the Roanoke.
Minerals. — The state contains gold, iron, and other valuable minerals; but the public attention is chiefly directed to the former. The region which is most prolific in gold occupies both sides of the Blue Ridge, in the western part of the state. The mines have been extensively wrought; and, for some years, thousands of persons have been engaged, with varied success, in the business. The ore is found occasionally in veins, sometimes in small lumps, but more frequently in grains or dust. The amount annually obtained has been estimated at some $5,000,000. Only a comparatively small part of this, however, finds its way to the United States mint, or is retained in this country, a considerable portion being transmitted to Europe.
Manufactures. — Coarse fabrics of cotton and of wool are manufactured to some extent, principally for home use. There are numerous furnaces, forges, and smelting houses, for the conversion of the native mineral ores, iron, lead, and gold, into marketable shape. The manufacture of flour is carried on somewhat largely ; and among the remaining commodities manufactured in the state are hats and bonnets, hardware and cutlery, soap and candles, furniture and carriages, leather and saddlery, distilled and fermented liquors, &c.
Indians. — No distinct tribes, and but few scattered families, of the Indian race remain within the limits of North Carolina. As in most of the early settled states, the aboriginal proprietors of the soil have gradually given place to the advancing influences of civilization, and either become extinct, or sought out new hunting-grounds in remote and still unsubdued regions. At the last census, the inhabitants of Indian blood numbered only 710.
Population. — During the 40 years ending in 1830, the population of this state increased very steadily, though showing at each decennial census some differences in the ratio of augmentation. Between the above date and 1840, it remained comparatively stationary; but between the latter year and 1850, had increased from 753,419 to 868,903, about one third of whom are slaves.
Climate. — In some parts of the state, especially in the elevated country at the west, the climate is delightful, and quite healthy. In the low lands, towards the sea-coast, however, it is mostly otherwise, excepting in the winter season. The low and marshy surface engenders unwholesome vapors in the summer and autumn, and, consequently, fevers, agues, and other diseases incident to such localities, frequently prevail.
Religion. — The most numerous religious denominations are the Methodists and Baptists. These generally reside in the low country. At the west, there are many Presbyterians. The Episcopalians and Lutherans have a number of congregations in various parts of the state; and there are also several bodies of Roman Catholics, Moravians, and Quakers.
Oberlin is now a pleasant and thriving village, with a population of over 2000 souls, with stores, mechanics’ shops, &c., suited to the conditions of such a place. The sale of ardent spirits has never been permitted within its limits.
The houses in Oberlin are generally two stories in height, built of wood, and painted white ; giving to the place a striking resemblance to a New England town. The Presbyterian Church edifice is one of the largest in the state. Near it, upon a green of about 12 acres, stands the principal edifice of the college, named Tappan Hall, in honor of Arthur Tappan, Esq., of New York, an early and liberal benefactor of the institution. Facing the Green are Oberlin Hall, Ladies’ Hall, and Colonial Hall, all of which, with other buildings, belong to the institution. The distinguishing objects proposed in the establishment of this seminary are, “to secure the development of a sound mind in a sound body, by the aid of a judicious system of manual labor,” and to afford “thorough instruction, in all the branches of an education, for both sexes ; and to which colored persons, of both sexes, shall be freely admitted, on the terms of equality and brotherhood.” The institution possess 500 acres of land at Oberlin and 10,000 acres in Western Virginia. See Colleges.
Official Report of Deposits of Gold from California.
At the various U. S. mints in 1848, $44,177
" " " " 1849, 6,147,509
" " " " 1850, 36,074,062
" " " " 1851, 55,938,232
Manifested shipments to U. S. ports in December, 1851, which did not reach the mints in 1851, . . . . 2,910,214
Importations into Chili in1851, by official returnsfrom that country, . . $2,372,000
Shipments per steamers in1851, on freight to Europeand various countries,not including Chili,via Panama, so far as destination was declared on manifests, .... $3,600,000
Add estimate of shipments by the same course and to same quarters in 1851, for which the destination beyond Panama was not declared — 50 per cent, of above, ... 1,800,000
Known shipments by sailing vessels in 1851, to various foreign ports, ... 1,000.000
Add for amount not manifested, believed to be as large as.... 1,000,000
Total estimate of exportation to foreign countries in 1851. .... 9,772,000
The early foreign trade was very large, particularly in 1849, from Pacific ports. Remittances in this early trade were made chiefly in gold dust. The aggregate shipment to foreign countries for 1848, 1849, and 1850, is therefore assumed for the 3 years to be as large as that of 1851, .... 9,772,000
Total estimate of exports to foreign countries to December 31, 1851, which would not reach U. States mint, .... 19,544,000
Estimated amount taken overland to Mexico, and by passengers to Europe, East Indies, Australia, South America, (exclusive of Chili,) manufactured in California and United States, and otherwise retained by individuals leaving the country, and therefore not represented in the mint deposits, say 5 per cent, on above, .... 6,032,909
In hands of bankers, merchants, and traders in San Francisco, per tabular statement prepared December 31, 1851, .... 5,000,000
Estimated half month's yield at mines not brought forward December, 1851, say, 2,500,000 In hands of bankers and traders in other
parts of California and Oregon, December 31, 1851, ..... 2,500,000
In circulation—gold dust and California private coin, estimated at $20 per individual, and population estimated at 212,000, ....... 4,240,000
Estimated product to December 31, 1851.... 140,931,103
Estimated product from January 1 to June 30, 1852, .... 33,849,774
Total estimated product to June 30, 1852, . . . . . $174,780,877
Boundaries and Extent. — Bounded north by the State of Michigan and Lake Erie ; east by the States of Pennsylvania and Virginia, being separated from the latter by the Ohio River; south by said river, which divides it from Kentucky ; and west by the State of Indiana. The Ohio River washes the border of the state, through its numerous meanderings, for a distance of over 430 miles. The state contains 40,000 square miles, and measures 200 miles from north to south, by 220 miles from east to west. It lies between 38° 30' and 42° north latitude, and between 80° 35' and 84° 42' west longitude.
Government. — The constitution provides for the election of a governor biennially; but he cannot be elected for more than three terms in succession. Members of the Senate, 36 in number, are elected for two years, one half chosen annually. The House of Representatives is composed of 72 members, elected for one year. All these elections are by the people. The state secretary, treasurer, and auditor are chosen by the legislature, in joint ballot, for three years. The sessions of the General Assembly commence annually on the first Monday in December, at Columbus, the capital of the state. White males, 21 years of age, residents for one year in the state, and tax-payers, are entitled to the right of suffrage. The constitution has been recently revised and modified ; but its new features do not seem to be essential improvements in principle upon its former provisions.
Judicially. — The judges of the Supreme Court, of the Common Pleas Courts, and of the city courts, are appointed, by concurrent vote of the two houses of the legislature, for seven years. The oldest Supreme Court judge in commission officiates as chief justice. There are four of these judges, two of whom hold a court in each county once a year. The Common Pleas Courts are held in some counties three times in each year, in others only twice, by a president judge and three associates. There are Superior Courts established in Cincinnati and in Cleveland; also a commercial court in the former city.
Education. — On the admission of this state into the Union, it was stipulated, for certain considerations, that one thirty-sixth part of all the territory should be set apart for the maintenance of common schools. This liberal reservation makes ample provision for securing to coming generations the advantages of early instruction; and, thus far, the compact, on the part of the state, lias been faithfully carried out Good schools are diffused all over the land; and all needful attention and aid are given by the people to their support and improvement. There are many thousands of public grammar and primary schools in the state, some hundreds of academies or similar seminaries, and about twenty universities, colleges, and other institutions of a high order. The amount of the school fund owned by the state is above $1,700,000; and nearly $300,000 is annually apportioned to the several counties for school purposes. The number of persons over 20 years of age, who can neither read nor write, is about 35,000.
Finances. —The state revenues are chiefly derived from taxes of various descriptions, viz., on real and personal property, professions, pedlers, foreign insurance agencies, auctioneers, brokers, banks, joint stock companies, &c, also from land sales, canal tolls, dividends on state property, interest on surplus revenue and other investments, &c. The expenditures include appropriations for state government purposes, interest on foreign debt, common schools, repairs on public works, &c. The total amount of the state debt, at the close of the fiscal year of 1849, including nearly $17,000,000 foreign debt, was somewhat over $19,000,000. The difference between the receipts and disbursements for the same year showed a balance in the treasury of $554,000. Upwards of $3,000,000 worth of stock in various public works is owned by the state, which yields liberal dividends. The gross income of these works, in 1849, was over $740,000. The total value of taxable property was about $430,000,000, and the revenue from taxes on real and personal estates amounted to $1,260,000.
Surface, Soil, &tc. — Near the borders of Lake Erie, and for some distance in the interior of the northern part of the state, the surface is generally level, and occasionally somewhat marshy. The section of country in the vicinity of the Ohio River, in the eastern and southeastern quarters, is elevated and broken, although there are no lofty mountains in the state. But the entire region is a table land, reaching to a height of 600 to 1000 feet above the ocean level. The most level and fertile lands are situated in the interior, through which flows the River Scioto. Vast prairies lie near the head waters of that river, of the Muskingum, and the two Miami Rivers, upon which there is no growth of timber, but which yield abundance of coarse grass. The forests, in other parts, produce oaks, walnut, hickory, beech, birch, maple, poplar, sycamore, papaw, cherry, buckeye, and whitewood, in all their varieties. Pines are uncommon, and the whitewood is generally substituted. The staple agricultural product of the state is wheat, of which enormous quantities are annually exported. Rye, oats, buckwheat, Indian corn, and other grains, are raised in great profusion; and nearly every species of garden vegetable is cultivated successfully. It is estimated that nine tenths of the land is adapted to purposes of agriculture, and that three fourths of it is extraordinarily fertile. Fruits of all descriptions known in the same latitude grow luxuriantly in all parts of the state.
Rivers. — Besides the noble Ohio, which washes the south and south-east borders of the state, there are its numerous tributaries, some of which are streams of considerable magnitude, and extensively navigable. The Muskingum, which enters the Ohio at Marietta, affords navigation for boats through an extent of 100 miles. The Scioto, navigable for 130 miles, discharges itself into the Ohio at Portsmouth. The Great Miami, a rapid stream, after a course of 100 miles, joins the Ohio in the south-west corner of the state. The Little Miami, 70 miles in length, falls into the Ohio near Cincinnati. These rivers have many branches and forks, extending in various directions. A number of large streams flow northwardly into Lake Erie; as the Maumee, Huron, Sandusky, Cuyahoga, Vermilion, Ashtabula, Grand, and Black Rivers. These also have many branches.
Internal Improvements. — Many important public works have been undertaken and accomplished in this state. The Ohio Canal, 307 miles in length, extends from Cleveland, on the shore of Lake Erie, to Portsmouth, on the Ohio River; and there are connected with it sundry branches, one of which reaches 50 miles. This work, commenced in 1825 and completed in 1832, cost $5,000,000. The Miami Canal, 178 miles long, extends from Cincinnati, and connects with the Wabash and Erie Canal at Defiance. This is also intersected by several branches. The Mahoning, a branch of the Ohio Canal, commences at Akron, and extends 88 miles, to Beaver River. Two continuous lines of railroad extend across the state, from north to south — one from Cincinnati to Sandusky, the other from Cincinnati to Cleveland, which is also connected by railroad with Pittsburg, Buffalo, Sandusky, and Toledo. There are numerous important lines in progress, extending east and west, and, indeed, in
almost every direction.
Minerals. — Ohio does not present so great a variety of geological formations as are found in most other states. It is found that there are five distinct divisions of rocks, viz., blue limestone, the thickness of which is estimated at from 700 to 1000 feet; black shale, 250 feet; fine-grained sandstone, 350 feet; conglomerate, 200 feet; and coal series, 2000 feet. Indications of all these several formations are found in some counties; while in others those of only one or two of them are discoverable. The great coal region lies on the western bank of the River Ohio, and occupies not far from one fourth part of the whole state. The strata, as usual elsewhere, are interspersed with beds of iron ore; and immense quantities of both these materials are obtained from this quarter of"the state. It is affirmed, in a Cleveland journal of March, 1851, that 1200 square miles in Ohio are underlaid with iron; and that a tract explored in 1838 was found adequate to furnish iron throughout an extent of 61 miles long by 60 wide, one square mile of which would yield 3,000,000 tons of pig iron — so that this district would contain 1,000,000,000 tons. If 400,000 tons were taken from it annually, it would require 2500 years to remove the whole.
Manufactures. — The manufactures of this state are confined principally to articles the raw materials of which are of home growth, as wool, iron, leather, tobacco, flour, sugar, wax, lard, silk, potash, &c. All the usual collateral branches are also carried on to any required extent. Though not strictly connected with this item, it may be proper here to remark that millions of horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, and swine are raised within the state, and that great numbers of living animals, as well as vast quantities of packed beef and pork, are annually sent to eastern markets.
Population. — The people of Ohio are remarkable for industry, enterprise, and public spirit. They have " increased and multiplied," through accessions from the older states, and from Europe, in an almost incredible ratio. The growth of the population has been without parallel, until, perhaps, the recent thronging towards the golden land in the farthest west. From the time when the first census was taken, a period of only 60 years, the number of inhabitants has been augmented from 3000 to nearly 2,000,000.
Climate. — In general, the climate throughout the state is highly favorable to human health. The summer season, though warm, is regular, with the occasional and somewhat rare exception of a whirlwind or hurricane. The winters are not severely cold, nor subject to violent storms ; and the intermediate seasons are delightfully pleasant. It is true that in some of the marshy localities, giving rise to unwholesome vapors, the inhabitants are subject to those peculiar distempers always prevalent in such districts ; but even there, the range of disorders scarcely extends beyond fevers and agues.
Curiosities. — The remains of ancient Indian villages, mounds, and fortifications, discoverable in many counties of the state, constitute the most remarkable subjects of curious interest. Particular descriptions of these vestiges may be found in Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio, a work of 600 pages, octavo, full of minute detail, published at Cincinnati, in 1850. In the Scioto valley, within a compass of 12 to 15 miles around the city of Chilicothe, these extraordinary monuments are very numerous. A map, showing their respective positions, and an ample and very able account of a series of explorations made in that region, and elsewhere in the valley of the Mississippi, by Messrs. Squier and Davis of Ohio, between 1845 and 1847, may be found in the Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, vol. ii.
Judiciary. — The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, four District Courts, and Courts of Common Pleas for 24 districts, into which the state is divided. The former is composed of a chief and four associate justices, who retain their offices for 15 years. They hold a court in bank once a year in four several districts. The District Courts are invested with the civil jurisdiction of the Common Pleas in their respective districts, in all cases exceeding a certain amount involved: the judges of these courts are appointed for 10 years. Judges of the Courts of Common Pleas hold office for 5 years; and any two of them may hold a Court of Quarter Sessions in any county. Sheriffs, coroners, clerks of courts, registers of wills, and recorders of deeds are elected by the people for 3 years, and justices of the peace for 5 years.
Manufactures. — The people of Pennsylvania are largely engaged in this department of home industry, the products of which are probably greater in quantity and value than those of any other state in the Union. The most important manufactures are cast and wrought iron in all varieties, cotton and woollen fabrics, paper, furniture, machinery, hats, articles of leather, porcelain, glass, pottery, marble, flour, chandlery, distilled and fermented liquors, &c.
Religion. — The Friends or Quakers, successors of the first settlers, are probably more numerous in Pennsylvania than in any other state, having some 150 to 200 congregations. The Presbyterians, however, outnumber all the other denominations ; then follow in order the Methodists, Baptists, German Reformed, and Episcopalians, all of whom are numerous. There is also the usual variety of minor sects.
Among the literary institutions, one of the oldest and most respectable is the university of Pennsylvania. It comprises three departments, the academical, the collegiate, and the medical. The medical school connected with this university is the oldest and largest in the Union, having between 400 and 500 students. The university buildings are situated upon Ninth Street, between Market and Chestnut, and consist of two handsome edifices, 112 feet by 85, surrounded by open grounds, and enclosed in front by an iron railing. Jefferson Medical College, founded in 1825, has ample buildings on Tenth Street, between Chestnut and Walnut. The Pennsylvania Medical College is located on Filbert Street, above Twelfth. It was founded in 1839. Philadelphia is distinguished above all other cities in the country as the emporium of medical science and instruction.
Among the literary institutions of Philadelphia, the Girard College for Orphans holds a distinguished place. It was founded by the late Stephen Girard, who died in 1831, and bequeathed a large amount of his real and personal estate in trust to the "mayor, aldermen, and citizens of Philadelphia," for the establishment of an institution for the support and education of "poor male white orphan children," belonging either to that city, or to the state of Pennsylvania, or to the cities of New York and New Orleans, in the order of preference here observed, until the number so provided for should be full. Of the property bequeathed, $2,000,000, and more if necessary, were to be expended "in erecting a permanent college, with suitable outbuildings, sufficiently spacious for the residence and accommodation of at least 300 scholars, with the requisite teachers," &c., "the said college to be constructed with the most durable materials, and in the most permanent manner, avoiding needless ornament," &c. The will contained specific directions with regard to the structure and dimensions of the college edifice, and also the devise of a lot of land of 45 acres, on the ridge road in the N.E. part of the district of Spring Garden, as a site for its location. The buildings which have been erected are five in number, of which the centre building is the grand college edifice, and the two others upon each side are designed for the residences of the pupils and their instructors. The college edifice is one of the most superb buildings in the country. Its length is 218 feet, its width 160 feet, and its height 90 feet. It is surrounded by 34 columns of the Corinthian order, 55 feet high, including the capital and base, and 6 feet in diameter, standing 15 feet distant from the body of the building. These columns stand upon bases 3 feet high and 9 feet in diameter, and are crowned with gorgeous Corinthian capitals, upon which rests a full entablature. The entrances are at each end of the building, through lofty doors, decorated with massive architraves and sculptured cornices. The interior, excepting the portions required for the vestibules and stairs, is divided into four spacious rooms in each of the two stories, which are used for the purposes of giving instruction to the different classes of the pupils. No wood is used in the construction of this edifice, excepting for the doors. The other four buildings are each 125 feet long, by 52 feet wide, and two stories high, above their basements. The most eastern, including four distinct houses, is the one occupied by the families of the professors. The orphans are received into the college at any age between 6 and 10 years, and they may continue, if it is deemed desirable, until they are 18 years of age. When they leave, they are to be apprenticed by the city authorities to some useful trade or business. The institution is in full operation, with above 300 pupils in 1852. The amount of appropriations for defraying the current expenses of the institution for the year 1851 was $62,900. Of this sum $30,500 was for the clothing and subsistence of the pupils.
A singular restriction in the will of Mr. Girard, in regard to the clergy, is in these words: "I enjoin and require that no ecclesiastic, missionary, or minister, of any sect whatsoever, shall ever hold or exercise any station or duty whatever in the said college; nor shall any such person ever be admitted for any purpose, or as a visitor, within the premises appropriated to the purposes of the said college. In making this restriction, I do not mean to cast any reflection upon any sect or person whatsoever; but as there is such a multitude of sects, and such a diversity of opinion amongst them, I desire to keep the tender minds of the orphans, who are to derive advantage from this bequest, free from the excitement which clashing doctrines and sectarian controversy are so apt to produce. My desire is, that all the instructors and teachers in the college shall take pains to [instill] into the minds of the scholars the purest principles of morality; so that, on their entrance into active life, they may, from inclination and habit, evince benevolence towards their fellow-creatures, and a love of truth, sobriety, and industry, adopting at the same time such religious tenets as their matured reason may enable them to prefer." This restriction of Mr. Girard, as explained by himself, and taken in connection with his requisition to secure the inculcation of the purest principles of morality in the minds of the scholars, has justly been construed as not only not prohibiting, but rather rendering obligatory, the use of the Bible, and other means of general religious instruction and training in the school. In the rules for the government of the college, adopted by the board of directors, it is made the duty of the president "to conduct the family worship morning and evening, which shall consist of singing a hymn, reading a portion of Scripture, and prayer. He shall also be responsible for the performance of public religious services in the college on the forenoon and afternoon of every Sunday. These services shall consist of singing hymns, prayers, reading the Scriptures, and moral and religious discourses. The president is permitted to invite any member of the board of directors, or other competent layman approved by the board, to take his place, or assist him in the public worship. Prayers and hymns, or psalms, shall be prepared or selected by the president, with the approbation of the directors, which shall be framed so as to form a full and appropriate service, without sectarianism, but calculated to awaken or preserve true devotion."
The public schools of Philadelphia are organized upon a comprehensive and efficient system. By a law of the state passed in 1818, the city and county of Philadelphia was constituted a separate school district, in order that the benefits of one consistent scheme, adapted in the best manner to the circumstances and wants of such a population, might be secured. The schools, most of which, of course, are in the city, and incorporated districts, are divided into eleven sections. At the head stands a high school, and a model school. The next in rank are the grammar schools; then the secondary; and last, the primary schools. The high school is among the best institutions of the kind in the country. It provides instruction in the ancient and modern languages; in theoretical and practical mathematics; in natural history, natural philosophy, and chemistry; in mental, moral, and political science; and in writing, drawing, &c., and is designed to serve the highest ends of popular education. It is under the tuition of a principal and 10 professors. In all the other schools about 500 teachers are employed, four fifths of whom are females; and the aggregate of the pupils, who are between the ages of 5 and 15, cannot be less than 50,000, embracing a very large proportion of all the children of this age in the city. The average annual expense of maintaining the public schools is not far from $200,000. The school houses are substantial buildings, generally 3 stories high, and capable of accommodating from 600 to 1000 scholars each.
There are several valuable libraries and literary and scientific associations in Philadelphia, which owe their origin to the enlightened, inventive, and practical philanthropy of Dr. Franklin. One of these is the Philadelphia Library, founded in 1731, to which, in 1792, the valuable private library of Dr. Logan was added. This library now contains over 60,000 volumes. The building, erected in 1791, is on South Fifth Street, fronting upon the E. side of Independence Square. The American Philosophical Society, the oldest of the scientific associations in the United States, was founded principally through the exertions of Dr. Franklin, in 1742. Its hall, erected in 1786, is on South Fifth Street, below Chestnut. It has a rare and valuable library of 20,000 volumes, and a cabinet of minerals, fossils, and antiquities. The published Transactions of this society amount to several volumes. The Academy of Natural Sciences, incorporated in 1817, has a new and splendid hall in Broad Street, between Chestnut and Walnut. Its library contains about 12,000 volumes. Its cabinet, containing every variety of specimens in Natural History, is perhaps the best in the United States. The collection of birds is said to be the largest in the world, containing about 25,000 specimens. The Athenaeum has erected a beautiful structure on Sixth Street, below Walnut, 50 feet front by 125 in depth. It is an excellent specimen of the Italian style of architecture, treated with spirit and taste. The library contains about 10,000 volumes; to which, as well as to the reading room, strangers are freely admitted. Among the curiosities of literature in these rooms is a collection of pamphlets, bound in 148 volumes, which belonged to Dr. Franklin, some of them containing his marginal notes and remarks ; and also a regular series of the Journal de Paris, bound in volumes, continued during the whole eventful period of the French revolution. The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, founded in 1825, occupies rooms in the 3d story of the Athenaeum building. It has a library of nearly 2000 volumes. The Mercantile Library, on the corner of Fifth and Library Streets, has a library of over 12,000 volumes, founded in 1822, for the objects indicated by its name. There is also the Apprentices' Library, of about the same number of volumes, on the corner of Fifth and Arch Streets, open to youth of both sexes. The Franklin Institute, formed about 1830, for the promotion of the mechanic arts, has a library of between 4000 and 5000 volumes, situated on Seventh Street, below Market. Other institutions for the diffusion of knowledge, in a more local and limited sphere, likewise exist.
There are in Philadelphia about 160 churches of different denominations — Presbyterian, 25; Episcopal, 27; Methodist, 28; Baptist, 16; Reformed Presbyterian, 4; Associate Presbyterian 4; Associate Reformed, 2; German Reformed, 3; Lutheran, 5; Independent, 2; Dutch Reformed, 2; Roman Catholic, 12; Friends, 7; Jewish Synagogues, 3; Mariners, 2; Universalist, 2; Unitarian, 1; New Jerusalem, 1; Moravian, 1; Disciples of Christ, 1; and 12 of various denominations for colored persons. Only a few of the church edifices make pretensions to architectural beauty. Very many of them are without towers or steeples to distinguish them from the general mass of buildings. St. Stephen's Church, (Episcopal,) situated on Tenth Street, is a fine specimen of Gothic architecture, 102 feet long and 50 feet wide, with two octagonal towers 86 feet high. Christ Church, built in 1691, and enlarged in 1810, is the oldest church edifice in the city. It is situated on Second Street. It has a spire 196 feet high, erected in 1753, in which is a chime of bells. St. John's Church, (Roman Catholic,) situated on Thirteenth Street, below Market, is an elegant Gothic structure, with square towers on each of its front corners. The First Presbyterian Church, fronting on the S. side of Washington Square, is the handsomest church of this denomination. It is in the Grecian style of architecture, after the model of a temple on the Ilissus, having a portico of six Ionic columns in front. The Fifth Presbyterian Church, on Arch Street, is also distinguished for the beauty of its architecture. There are also other church edifices which are neat and handsome structures.
The United States Mint in Philadelphia was founded in 1790, and first occupied the building where the Apprentices' Library now is. In 1830 it was removed to the fine building which it now occupies, on Chestnut Street, below Broad Street. This edifice is of white marble, 123 feet long, having a portico of 6 columns, and 60 feet in length in the centre of its front, on Chestnut Street, and a similar one on the opposite side, which looks out upon Penn Square. Visitors are admitted to witness the interesting processes of assaying and coining the precious metals, on the forenoon of every day, upon application to the proper officers. The United States navy yard is located in the S. E. quarter of the city, fronting on the Delaware. The enclosure contains about 12 acres. Some of the largest vessels for the U. S. service have been built here. The Eastern Penitentiary, in the N. W. section of the city, not far distant from the Girard College, is one of the most imposing structures. It occupies a square of 10 acres, which is enclosed by a wall 30 feet high, upon the angles of which, and at the entrance, watch towers are erected, from which all parts of the enclosure can be observed. In the middle of this area is an octagonal tower, from which the ranges of cells extend on every side like radii, and from which the passages leading to them can all be 'Inspected by a sentinel posted at the centre. Each cell opens in the rear into a little yard, 18 feet by 8, surrounded by a wall 12 feet high. The discipline of this penitentiary is that of solitary confinement, each prisoner being kept in his separate cell and yard both day and night.
There are several theatres in the city, of which the largest are the Chestnut Street Theatre, the Walnut Street Theatre, and the Arch Street Theatre. Peale's Museum, founded by Charles Wilson Peale, in 1784, occupies the upper story of an edifice on the corner of Ninth and George Streets, 238 feet long and 70 feet wide. This is one of the most distinguished institutions of the kind in the country.
The ground so judiciously selected by its founder for the site of his new city having been previously claimed by three Swedish emigrants by the name of Swenson, under a grant from the Dutch governor of New York, Penn had to extinguish their claim by giving them in exchange a tract of land higher up on the Schuylkill. Late in the year 1682, assisted by Thomas Holme, a surveyor, he laid out the city proper on the land so purchased, with substantially the same outline and divisions which it now has. When he departed for England, two years afterwards, the city contained 300 houses and 2500 inhabitants. On board the ship, he wrote a farewell letter to his infant colony, replete with his characteristic benevolence. In this letter he says, "And thou Philadelphia, the virgin settlement of this province, what service and what travail has there been to bring thee forth! 0 that thou mayst be kept from the evil that would overwhelm thee; that, faithful to the God of thy mercies, in the life of righteousness, thou mayst be preserved to the end. My soul prays to God for thee, that thou mayst stand in the day of trial, that thy children may be blessed of the Lord, and thy people saved by his power."
It would seem that, from the first, Penn had the idea that a large city would be built up on the site which he had selected. Dr. Prideaux, in his work on the "Connection of the Old and New Testaments," after describing the plan of ancient Babylon, says, "Much according to this model hath William Penn, the Quaker, laid out the ground for his city of Philadelphia, in Pennsylvania; and were it all built according to that design, it would be the fairest city in America, and not much behind any other in the whole world." It is little, now that this beautiful design has been so happily executed, to say that posterity honors the judgment of the learned critic. Philadelphia is undoubtedly one of the fairest cities in America, or in the world.
In 1699, after an absence of 15 years, during which time, in consequence of the revolution in England which drove James II. from the throne, Penn had been deprived of his authority over Pennsylvania, and had it restored to him again, he revisited this country. Having made some changes in the government, he sailed again for England in 1701, where he remained until his death, in 1718. In 1719, the mayor and aldermen employed Jacob Taylor to stake out the 7 streets of the city, in order to prevent encroachments by building thereon. This year the first Weekly Gazette was published by Andrew Bradford. In 1727, Benjamin Franklin started another weekly paper, called "The Pennsylvania Gazette." In 1738, Benjamin Franklin instituted the first fire company in Philadelphia. In 1743, the first Lutheran Church was built, and the first Dutch Reformed Church in 1747. In 1749, agreeably to a suggestion of Dr. Franklin, a portion of Second Street, from Market Street to Chestnut Street, was paved; a horse having been mired there, and his rider having been thrown and broken his leg. At this time the city contained about 15,000 inhabitants; and for some time afterwards Fifth Street might be considered as its western limit. St. Paul's, the first Episcopal Church, was founded in 1760 ; and the same year, the Pennsylvania Hospital, and also the first public library, by the influence of Dr. Franklin. In 1773 the first stage coaches were established to run to New York; the previous lines having been post wagons. Now came on that series of events connected with the American revolution, in which this city so largely and honorably participated. In 1780 the Bank of Pennsylvania was established, for the purpose of supplying the army of the United States for two months, by a subscription of £300,000, by 90 persons; among whom were Robert Morris and Blair McClennachan, who subscribed £10,000 each. Dr. Franklin died on the 17th of April, 1790, leaving, among other public benefactions, £1000 sterling, to be loaned to unmarried mechanics, under 25 years of age, upon certain conditions adapted to secure and encourage individual enterprise and thrift. This constituted the foundation of the public fund known as the Franklin Fund, which now amounts to about $25,000. Dr. Franklin was born in Boston, January 17, 1706, and became a resident of Philadelphia about 1723. His practical wisdom and philanthropy originated many of its early economical improvements, and brought into being some of its most distinguished literary and humane institutions. His fame as a man, a patriot, and a philosopher is an everlasting legacy of honor to the city of his adoption. His unostentatious grave is in the N. W. corner of the churchyard of Christ Church, at the corner of Fifth and Arch Streets ; which is covered with a plain marble slab resting upon the ground, in strict accordance with the directions in his will, which were as follows: "I wish to be buried by the side of my wife, if it may be; and that a marble stone, to be made by Chambers, 6 feet long, 4 feet wide, plain, with only a small moulding round the upper edge, and this inscription —
BENJAMIN and DEBORAH FRANKLIN, 178-
— be placed over us both." The only change necessary to be made was in the figure 8, Providence having prolonged his life, beyond his expectations, until 1790.
Philadelphia received its charter from the proprietary, October 25, 1701. The government of the city proper is in the hands of a mayor, a select council of 12, and a common council of 20 members. One third of the select and the whole of the common council are chosen annually by the people, and the councils elect the mayor. The aldermen, 15 in number, are appointed by the governor to act, with the mayor and recorder, as judges, during good behavior; and the aldermen act as justices of the peace. The whole legislative power is in the councils, of which the select council is the upper house.
The several districts, or liberties, of Philadelphia, N. and S. of the city proper, are separate municipalities; having, at different dates within a comparatively modern period, received their respective charters of incorporation. They are governed each by a body of commissioners, elected for three years, one third of them being chosen annually.
The city is built on a broad level point of land, between the two rivers, and is enclosed by hills, which are filled with bituminous coal. This constitutes the fuel for the vast number of factories, the tall chimneys of which bristle the town, belching black clouds of smoke, that darken the air and stain the houses a dusky hue. In point of beauty, therefore, Pittsburgh has little that is attractive ; yet there is something interesting in the concentration of industry and enterprise which this dark city exhibits….The flourishing towns and villages which surround the city, afford pleasant sites for residence. Of these places, which are virtual suburbs of Pittsburgh, Alleghany city, on the opposite bank of the Alleghany, is the most important. The river is here spanned by n fine bridge 1,122 feet long, resting upon five stone piers; two bridges cross it at other points, and the Pennsylvania canal has a splendid aqueduct, 1,200 feet long, over the same stream. On the Monongahela are Birmingham and other settlements, which are connected by a bridge 1,500 feet long, and several ferries.
From its position, Pittsburgh is a great commercial as well as manufacturing emporium. It holds to Pennsylvanian the same relation as Buffalo does to New York, being the gate of commerce between the east and the west. Hither come a large number of steamboats, during the season of navigation, from New Orleans and the valley of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. The Pennsylvania canal, after traversing the whole state, and crossing the Alleghany on its great aqueduct, passes by a great tunnel under a hill near the city, and enters the Monongahela. Pittsburgh is connected with Lake Erie by the, Ohio and Pennsylvania and the Cleveland and Pittsburgh railroads, and with Philadelphia by the Grand Trunk railroad.
The city contains an elegant courthouse, 165 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 148 feet from the ground to the top of the dome, which affords a delightful view of the populous neighborhood and rich picturesque surrounding region ; also a prison, the Western University of Pennsylvania, finely seated on an adjacent elevation, and numerous churches, banks, hotels, and other prominent buildings. The Allegheny river affords a plentiful supply of water, which is distributed over the city by expensive and convenient water-works ; and the bituminous coal of the adjoining hills yields gas for illuminating the town.
The manufactures embrace almost every article of domestic necessity and convenience. Machinery, cutlery, glass, cotton, cloth, pottery, paints, and drugs, are a few of the vast and innumerable variety produced.
The population in 1800, was 1,565; in 1810, 4,768 ; in 1820, 7,248; in 1830, 12,542 ; in 1840, 21,115 ; in 1850, 46,601.
Portland is very pleasantly situated, on a peninsula at the W. extremity of Casco Bay, between Casco River on the S., and Back Cove, which makes up from the harbor, on the N. The length of this peninsula, from E. to W., is 3 miles, and its average width about three fourths of a mile, containing about 2200 acres of land. The ground on which the city is built rises, towards both its eastern and western extremities, into considerable elevations, which gives a beautiful appearance to the general, outline of the place, as it is approached from the sea. The city is regularly laid out, especially the more modern portions of it, and several of the streets are among the handsomest in any of our cities. It is built mostly with brick; and the dwellings, always neat, are, many of them, spacious and elegant. Beautiful elms and other shade trees adorn several of the more retired avenues. The main street extends through the whole city, E. and W., upon the ridge of the peninsula, reaching from hill to hill. One of the latest and most important improvements within the city is the opening of a new street along the heads of the wharves and docks, in such a manner as to form a connection between the termini of the principal railroad routes, and to give them a direct access to the shipping in the harbor, or to the large warehouses where the vessels are laden and unladen.
In 1839, Dr. Jackson, of Boston, under appointment of the legislature, made an agricultural and geological survey of the state. The mineral resources brought to light by this survey are not extensive or peculiarly valuable. Iron ore abounds in many localities. Anthracite coal is found in large quantities on the Island of Rhode Island, and also in Cumberland, and is fast coming into use. Limestone abounds in several towns, and is extensively and profitably wrought for use.
The state is divided into 5 counties, — Newport, Providence, Washington, Kent, and Bristol,— which are subdivided into 31 townships.
The settlement of the state by Europeans was commenced by Roger Williams and his associates at Providence, in the year 1636. The settlers came from Massachusetts, from which colony their leader had been banished for alleged political and religious heresies. In 1638, some of the religious followers of Mrs. Anne Hutchinson removed from Massachusetts to the Island of Rhode Island, in consequence of the proceedings had against them for their religious opinions. Samuel Gorton and his company commenced a third settlement at Warwick, in 1642. Neither of these companies had any charter from the English government. They were voluntary associations. Each company purchased its location of the Narragansett Indians inhabiting there. Neither of them had any patent from the English company, which claimed them by grant from the crown of England. They were separate, distinct colonies, independent of each other, and having no common bond of union, except what arose from their common origin, design, and dangers. In 1643, the Parliament of England granted a charter of civil government, under the name of "Providence Plantations, in New England, in America." This, with a slight interruption, constituted the fundamental law of the plantations until 1663, when Charles II., upon the petition of the inhabitants, granted them another charter, under the name of "the Governor and Company of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, in New England, in America." This conferred on the colonists the right to elect all their officers, and to pass laws for their government, without the intervention, positive or negative, of either king or Parliament. It also guaranteed to them liberty of conscience, in the most unlimited meaning of the term. This charter continued in force, with the exception of the few years when Sir Edmund Andros was the general governor of New England, until the American revolution. The people of this colony entered that struggle with great zeal. In May, 1776, the colony repealed the law, before that time in force, securing to his majesty the allegiance of his subjects. They abolished the oath of allegiance to the king, struck his name from all legal process, and directed all proceedings to be in the name of the colony, thus anticipating the Congress of the United Colonies on the question of independence.
The colony united with her sister colonies in holding the old Continental Congress, and was among the first to direct her delegates to sign the Articles of Confederation. To those articles this state adhered with great pertinacity, until after all the others had deserted them refusing to adopt the constitution of the United States until May 29, 1790. It has been said of Rhode Island with truth, that though "she was first at the fight, she was last to the feast."
As the charter of 1663 vested the right to elect all officers in the people of the colony, the Declaration of Independence required no change in the form of government. Elections were held after as well as before that event by force of laws passed pursuant to its provisions. It lost its binding force as an instrument emanating from the King of England, at the passage of the act of May, 1776, but it continued to be referred to as written evidence of the unwritten constitution of the state until very recently. With this explanation, it may be said, with truth, that this charter, with the usages which grew up under it, modified from time to time by the action of the legislature, continued to be the constitution of the state until the present written constitution went into operation, on the 2d day of May, 1843.
Under the charter, the right of suffrage was regulated by the General Assembly of the state, the charter being silent on the subject. In 1665, the General Assembly, in reply to a query on the subject proposed to them by the king's commissioners, declared, "that all men of competent estate, civil conversation, and obedient to the civil magistrate," were admitted freemen of the colony, on asking to be so admitted. There was no law declaring what should be considered as a "competent estate" until 1723, when the General Assembly by law enacted that no man should be admitted a freeman of any town, unless he owned lands in such town of the value of £100, or of the yearly value of 40s., or were the eldest son of such a freeholder. In 1729, the freehold qualification was raised to £200, or £10 yearly value; and in 1746, to £400, or £20 yearly value. Subsequently it was reduced to £40, or 40 s. yearly value, and thus it stood in 1776. Some of these changes undoubtedly arose out of changes in the value of the pound. In 1798, the freehold qualification was fixed at $134, or yearly value of $7. Thus it continued until the constitution of 1843.
By that instrument, the right of suffrage is conferred on every male citizen of the United States of the age of 21 years, who has his home and residence in this state for one year, and in the town where he claims to vote six months preceding his claim; who owns a freehold estate in lands or real estate of the value of $134 above all encumbrances, or which rents for $7 per annum. Every native citizen of the United States, of the above age and residence, who is assessed and has paid a tax of $1, or who has been enrolled and done military duty for one day at least, has the right to vote in the election of all civil officers, and on all questions, excepting only that unless he has been assessed and has paid a tax on property, valued at least at $134, he is not allowed to vote for the election of city council of Providence, or on any proposition to impose a tax, or for the expenditure of money in any town.
The legislative power, under that constitution, is vested in the Senate and House of Representatives. The Senate consists of the lieutenant governor and one senator from each town.The governor presides over the deliberations of the Senate, and has the casting vote. The House of Representatives can never exceed 72 in number. Each town is entitled at least to one, and no town can have more than one sixth of the whole number. The ratio of representation, with these exceptions, is based on population. The present ratio is one representative for every 1875 inhabitants.
The Senate and House of Representatives are styled the General Assembly. They hold two stated sessions annually, one at Newport on the first Tuesday in May, and the other on the last Monday in October at South Kingston, once in two years, and in the intermediate years alternately at Bristol and East Greenwich. In addition to these, there are generally two adjourned sessions in each year, one of which is held in the summer at Newport, and the other at Providence in January.
The governor, lieutenant governor, senators, representatives, secretary of state, attorneygeneral, and general treasurer are elected annually on the first Wednesday in April, their official term commencing on the first Tuesday in May. All the other state officers, except judges of the Supreme Court, are elected annually by the General Assembly in joint ballot of both houses, the governor presiding.
The judicial power in the state is vested in a Supreme Court, which holds two terms annuallyin each county, and in Courts of Common Pleas for each county, which also hold two terms in each year. The Supreme Court consists of one chief and three associate justices, any two of whor i make a quorum. Courts of Common Pleas are held by one of the associate justices of the Supreme Court. The judges of these courts are elected, like other state officers, by the General Assembly, but they hold their offices until they are declared vacant by a majority of all the members elected in each house at the May session.
In all the towns except Providence and Newport, the town courts are, ex officio, courts of probate, and the town clerks registrars of probate and of deeds. The Municipal Court of Providence exercises probate jurisdiction. The city clerk is register of deeds.
The industry and capital of the state were formerly devoted to agriculture and commerce. The latter was the favorite pursuit, as it led to greater wealth, and involved less personal labor. The peculiar situation of the state, and the commodiousness of its harbors, naturally turned the attention of its citizens to commercial pursuits. Rhode Island ships then visited all parts of the globe. They were the second, if not the first, to unfurl the stars and stripes in the Celestial Empire. For the last forty years, commerce has been gradually declining, until, at the present time, foreign trade is almost entirely confined to a few square-rigged vessels in the West India business. The number and tonnage of coasting vessels has increased during the same period. But capital and industry are pursuing new sources of wealth in manufactures and the mechanic arts. Calico printing was commenced here as early as 1794, on cotton cloth imported from the East Indies. Samuel Slater, the father of cotton manufactures in this country, set up his first cotton mill in the spring of 1796, in this state. Now, more persons are engaged in the various manufactures of cotton than in any other pursuit. The census of 1850 shows a great increase in the manufacturing interest, requiring vast expenditures.
Public provision was first made by law for the establishment of public schools in this state in the year 1800. It soon became very unpopular, and was repealed in 1803. In 1828, the General Assembly passed a new law on the subject, which, with various amendments, is still in force. At the passage of this act, the legislature made an appropriation of $10,000 per year for the support of public schools, but for several years past the appropriation has been increased to $35,000. The number of scholars registered in the state, during the last year, in the public schools, was 24,733; in the instruction of which 239 male and 270 female teachers were employed. The amount expended for instruction, repairs of school-houses, &c., during the same period, was about $97,000.
Those who are ready to brand this state with infamy for neglecting the cause of public education would do well to recollect that Rhode Island never had any resources for such an object, or even for the support of its government, except by taxation on its citizens. The small tracts of land which belonged to the state were disposed of at almost nominal prices, because the title to and jurisdiction over them were claimed by the adjoining colonies and others. Beyond the present boundaries the state never owned any land.
There is but one university in the state. That is located at Providence. It was incorporated in 1764, under the name of Rhode Island College. The name was changed to Brown University in 1804, in honor of the late Hon. Nicholas Brown, who was its most munificent benefactor.
The Butler Hospital for the Insane was incorporated in January, 1844, under the name of name of the Rhode Island Hospital for the Insane. It received its present name from the late Cyrus Butler, Esq., the generous donor of $40,000 to its funds in his lifetime. The institution is located at Providence, on the banks of the Seekonk River. On the 1st of January, 1851, there were 113 patients within its walls, — 50 males and 63 females.
Owing to the utmost liberty of conscience, which has ever prevailed in this state, there are congregations of almost every denomination of Christians within its limits. Roger Williams became a Baptist soon after the settlement of Providence, and founded a church of that denomination there. The church remained, though he left it in a few months, and became a Seeker. The first church established on the Island of Rhode Island was also a Baptist one. The Friends soon established themselves there. The leader of the settlers at Warwick, Samuel Gorton, was the founder of the sect of Gortonists or Gortoneans, now extinct. In some parts of the state, Sabbatarian principles prevail to a great extent, the consequence of which is a disregard of the Christian Sabbath. This circumstance has contributed to give the state that character for irreligion which some writers attribute to it. Notwithstanding this, and the jeers which have been indulged in by writers who should have known better, it is a fact, that there are as many religious societies, churches, and meeting-houses in this state, in proportion to its population, as in any other state in the Union.
The only railroads erected in whole or in part in this state are the Boston and Providence, leading from Providence to Boston; the New York, Providence, and Boston, leading from Providence to Stonington; the Providence and Worcester, leading from Providence to Worcester. Besides these, several others have been recently incorporated, and will probably soon be built. The Providence and Worcester Canal will long be remembered, having proved a complete failure.
The banking capital of the state has for many years been enormously disproportioned to the population. It exceeds $12,000,000. Being, however, divided among nearly 70 banking institutions, it has generally been managed with safety to the public, and to the advantage of the stockholders.
In January, 1838, the legislature abrogated the use of capital punishment in all cases except for murder and arson. At the same time, they substituted imprisonment and fine for all kinds of corporal punishments before that time in use in the state. During that year, the state prison at Providence was completed. The buildings consist of a keeper's house, and a range of forty cells, two stories high, adapted to the Pennsylvania system of discipline — separate confinement at labor, with instruction. After a few years' experience, this system was abandoned, and the Auburn system substituted in its place. Since its establishment, 127 prisoners have been confined in it, of which number 37 remained its inmates in October, 1850.
Richmond, Va. City, port of entry, capital of the state and seat of justice of Henrico co. It is pleasantly situated on the N. side of James River, immediately below the falls, and at the head of tide water. It is 23 miles N. from Petersburg, and 117 W. from Washington. The population, in 1800, was 5737; 1810, 9785; 1820, 12,067; 1830, 16,060; 1840, 20,153; 1850, 27,483. This place was founded by an act of the state legislature in 1742; and the seat of government was removed here from Williamsburg, in 1780. At that time it contained about 300 houses. Directly opposite to Richmond, connected with it by two bridges, is Manchester, which may be regarded as a suburb of the city.
From its peculiarly-favorable situation, between the upper and the lower country, Richmond is one of the most healthy cities in the United States. Seldom, if ever, has it been visited with yellow fever, or any desolating epidemic. The city is divided into two unequal parts by a valley, through which passes the Shockoe Creek, to enter James River. It is chiefly built upon the more elevated grounds on either side of this depression, which present a beautiful variety of surface, and afford in many parts highly picturesque situations for dwellings and for public edifices. Shockoe Hill, on the W. part of the city, and Richmond Hill stand opposite to each other, with the creek between them ; and near the eastern limit is Church Hill, which is also a commanding eminence. Over these elevated grounds, and the valley between them, declining towards the river, the streets and buildings of the city are spread. The streets mostly cross each other at right angles, and are most commonly 65 feet in width. The city was laid out to contain about 3 square miles, much of which is not yet built up. As built, it covers an area about 3 miles long and three fourths of a mile wide. The city contains from 1500 to 2000 dwellings, something more than half of which are of brick, and the remainder of wood. Near the brow of Shockoe Hill, which is an elevated plain, and a favorite place of residence, is Capitol Square, a beautiful public ground, containing about 9 acres, surrounded by a handsome iron railing, ornamented with gravel walks, and shaded with a variety of trees. In the centre stands the State House, which has excited the admiration of travelers for its commanding position, and its chaste yet beautiful proportions. It was constructed after a model brought by Mr. Jefferson from Nimes, in France. It has a portico in front, with an entablature supported by lofty Ionic columns of fine proportions and imposing appearance. In an open hall, in the centre of the building within, is placed a marble statue of Washington, by Houdon, a French artist, which was erected in 1788, during the lifetime of Washington. The following is the inscription on its pedestal, from the pen of Mr. Madison : “The General Assembly of the commonwealth of Virginia have caused this statue to be erected, as a monument of affection and gratitude to -George Washington, who, uniting to the endowments of the hero the virtues of the patriot, and exerting both in establishing the liberties of his country, has rendered his name dear to his ,fellow-cititzens, and given the world an example of true glory.”
Contiguous to the State House is the City Hall, an elegant and costly edifice of Grecian architecture, having a portico with 4 Doric columns at each end, containing accommodations for the city courts, the common council, and various offices. The penitentiary, in the western suburbs of the city, is an immense building, surrounding a hollow square, 300 feet long and 110 feet broad. Several acres of ground enclosed, besides, are connected with it. The armory is another large edifice, 320 feet long and 280 feet wide. The almshouse, in the northern suburb of the city, has also a spacious edifice well adapted to its purpose. Among the charitable institutions of the city is a Female Orphan Asylum, supported partly by funds of the corporation, and partly by private munificence. There is likewise a public school for the education of poor children of both sexes, with a convenient edifice, which is under the superintendence of trustees appointed by the city council, and is sustained by annual appropriations from the literary fund of the state, and from the treasury of the city. Among the public institutions is the Virginia Historical and Philosophical Society, founded in 1831, and since incorporated.
Richmond contains from 16 to 20 churches of the various denominations; among which are 3 Episcopal, 2 Presbyterian, 3 Methodist, 3 Baptist, a Unitarian, a Campbellite, a Friends, a Roman Catholic, and a Jews' Synagogue. Some of these have large and elegant edifices. The Monumental Episcopal Church stands upon the site formerly occupied by the old Richmond Theatre, which was destroyed by fire during a performance, involving the destruction of many valuable lives, among which was that of the governor of the state, George William Smith. On the monument on its W. side is the following inscription: “In memory of the awful calamity that, by the providence of God, fell on the city on the night of the 26th of December, in the year of Christ 1811, whereby, in the sudden and dreadful conflagration of the Richmond Theatre, many citizens of different ages and both sexes, distinguished for talents and for virtues, respected and beloved, perished in the flames, and in one short moment public joy and private happiness were changed into universal lamentation, this monument is erected, and the adjoining church dedicated to the worship of Almighty God: that, in all future times, the remembrance of this mournful event on the spot where it happened, and where the remains of the sufferers are deposited in one urn, may be united with acts of penitence and devotion. Above 60 killed and many others maimed.” There is now one theatre in Richmond, but it is said not to be extensively patronized.
Among the most splendid and useful of the public works of the city are its waterworks, commenced in 1830, and completed at an expense of about $120,000. By 2 forcing pumps, worked by water power, 800,000 gallons of water, in 24 hours, are lifted from James River into 3 reservoirs containing 1,000,000 gallons each, from which it is distributed over the city in pipes, and at convenient points along these pipes are hydrants for the supply of the fire department.
Richmond is about 150 miles from the mouth of James River by the course of the channel, and 50 OF 60 above City Point, where the Appomattox empties into the James River. Vessels drawing 14 feet of water can come up to the bar 5 or 6 miles below the city, and those drawing not more than 10 feet come to its wharves at the ordinary tides. The tide rises at Richmond 4 feet. The channel of the river is winding, which, with the distance from the ocean, is a considerable impediment to navigation. Several steamboats are employed in towing vessels to and from City Point. About 100 vessels visit the port during the year. A line of 5 schooners sails once a week to Petersburg, and another line, of the same number, once a week for New York. 3 steamboats form a line for passengers to Norfolk; and 2 steampackets a line to Baltimore. The principal exports from Richmond are flour, tobacco, and coal, the annual value of which is between six and seven millions. A canal has been constructed from Richmond to Lynchburg, and beyond that place. It was first constructed to pass the falls in James River in 1794, and afterwards, in 1835, extended to Lynchburg. A railroad passes through Richmond from Fredericksburg to Petersburg, and thence to Weldon on the Roanoke River, where it connects with other southern railroads. It crosses James River, at Richmond, on a high bridge constructed for the purpose. The most important interest of Richmond, however, is comprised in its manufactures. In the falls, on the James River, extending about 6 miles, it possesses an immense water power, which, although largely improved, is capable of furnishing much greater advantages still to future enterprise. Upon these falls have been erected very extensive flouring mills, iron works of various descriptions, and a very large cotton factory.
The municipal government of Richmond is administered by a mayor, — who is elected by the city council, — a recorder, and 11 aldermen. The recorder and aldermen are chosen from 27 individuals elected by the people, and the remaining 15 compose the city council.
The falls in the Genesee River, at Rochester, have an entire descent of 268 feet, consisting of 3 perpendicular pitches and 2 rapids. After passing over one of the rapids, the stream plunges down the first great cataract, perpendicularly, 96 feet. Owing to the peculiar configuration of the ledge here, which recedes up the river from the centre to the sides, the water is poured over the precipice in 3 distinct sheets, giving an exceedingly picturesque beauty to this splendid waterfall. From a rock, called Table Rock, in the centre of this fall, the notorious Sam Patch made his last and fatal leap. Below the first cataract the river flows broad and deep for a mile and a half to the second, where it makes a perpendicular pitch of 20 feet; and thence pursues a noisy and rapid course for about 25 rods, to the third and last fall, over which it pours its volume down a perpendicular descent of 105 feet Through the entire distance from the upper to the lower fall, the river flows through a narrow ravine of more than 100 feet in depth. The river is here flowing N., and the railroad passes about 100 rods S. of the first fall; so that passengers in the cars are not apprised, by any thing which attracts their notice, of the interesting natural curiosity to which they are approaching.
The depression of the stream commences considerably above the first cataract, and in a distance of about 500 yards gives a fall of 12 feet, available for hydraulic, purposes. Canals have here been excavated on each side of the river for the mills. On the W. side the water is again taken out below the rapids for the same purposes. Another power of considerable amount is created by the feeder for the Erie Canal, which comes from the river nearly 2 miles above. The falls at Rochester afford a water power estimated equal to 1920 steam engines, of 20 horse power which would amount, according to the valuatior of steam power in England, to the great sum of $9,718,272, for its annual use. The leading purpose to which a portion of this immense power has been applied is the flouring business, which is carried on here on a very large scale, and which succeeds, legitimately enough, to the first business ever established at Rochester — that of a grain mill, erected by a solitary pioneer, then many miles distant from all other inhabitants. This man was an Englishman, a person of extraordinary enterprise, who had been the builder of Soho Square in London, but who, after proving pecuniarily unsuccessful in that undertaking, had sought to repair his fortunes in this country. Having purchased the land, he located himself upon these falls,-in what was then a wilderness, without civilized inhabitant for 50 miles to the eastward. In the year 1809, the author of this work, having penetrated to this spot, while as yet the nearest inhabitants on the E. or S. were about 30 miles distant, enjoyed the hospitality of this worthy gentleman, who, at that time, having been visited with affliction in the loss of his wife, which had left him with one only daughter as the companion of his loneliness, had become weary of his situation, and would have parted with his possessions, covering all which the city of Rochester now covers, with his improvements, his cabin, and his mill, for $400. The author has been told that the Eagle Hotel now stands upon the spot which this house once occupied.
Rochester is handsomely laid out on both sides of the river, though not with entire regularity. The E. and W. parts of the city are connected by three bridges. Buffalo Street, which passes over the central bridge, is a straight and broad street, running through the centre of the city. The Erie Canal passes, in a serpentine course, through the city, and is carried over the river by a splendid aqueduct. 804 feet long, resting upon 11 arches, erected at a cost of $80~000. The city is generally well built, chiefly with brick, and many of the blocks of stones, as well as private dwellings, are elegant structures. Some of the churches and other public edifices are handsome buildings. The principal hotels are the Eagle, American, New Mansion House, Congress Hall, Clinton, Rochester, Island House, &c. Some of the flouring mills and other manufactories are very large structures. Of these the Globe Buildings are the largest and most remarkable.
Though Sacramento has not suffered, like San Francisco, by fires, the low level of the plain on which it stands has exposed it" to disastrous floods, which have made it necessary to enclose the entire circuit of the city with a levee or dike.
The position of Sacramento makes it the grand depot for the supply of all the northern mines. It is also the point to which the overland emigration is directed. The banks of the river in this vicinity furnish one of the best farming regions in California, though the crops on the low lands are exposed to great ravages from the periodical floods. These advantages of situation are such as to make it certain that Sacramento will maintain its position, as being, next after San Francisco, the first city in the state. It has regular daily steamboat communication with San Francisco.
The gold diggings commence about 30 miles E. from Sacramento, at the entrance of the hills, which rise rapidly to the eastward, till they terminate in the high ridge of the Sierra Nevada. The gold was first discovered on the S. fork of the American River, about 50 miles from Sacramento, and all that neighborhood is still much resorted to by miners.
The peninsula between San Francisco Bay and the ocean consists chiefly of barren sand hills. The city of San Francisco lies just within the northern point of the entrance into the bay, upon a deep curve of the shore, and on the sides of three hills of sand, which rise steeply from the water, the middle one receding so as to form a bold amphitheatre.
The Bay of San Francisco was entered by Sir Francis Drake during his famous expedition to the Pacific, in 1578, before any settlements, except those at St. Augustine, had been formed on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It was known to the Spaniards 30 years earlier, but was neglected till their occupation of Upper California, which commenced in 1769, not long after which San Francisco was taken possession of, and was subsequently held by a small garrison, maintained in a little fort just at the entrance into the bay, a hamlet of a few houses growing up on the site of the present city. At the time of the transfer of California to the United States, in 1848, and even as late as April, 1849, San Francisco did not contain more than 30 or 40 houses. But the discovery of gold gave it a sudden impulse, and by the 1st of September, 1849, there were 500 houses, tents, and sheds, with a population, fixed and floating, of 5000 or 6000. Streets had been regularly laid out, and already there were 3 piers at which small vessels could discharge. New buildings, though of the most flimsy description, the oldest and most substantial of adobes or dried mud, the rest of boards and canvas, were held, as well as the city lots, at the most extravagant prices. The Parker House, an ordinary frame building, of 60 feet front, used as a hotel, rented for $110,000 yearly, and other buildings in like proportion or at rates still more extravagant. These enormous rents led to a rapid and immense increase of buildings, and, notwithstanding the very high prices of building materials and labor, by the beginning of 1850, San Francisco had become a real city, with some 20,000 inhabitants, spacious and convenient buildings, though mostly of wood, including extensive hotels and warehouses, many of the frames of which had been shipped round Cape Horn, and others from China. Speculation and prosperity went on increasing till the city received a severe check by three successive fires, by which a vast extent of frame and canvas buildings were swept away, and immense amounts of property destroyed. These fires led, however, to the erection of fire-proof buildings of brick. The city has also received a great extension by the filling up of shallow water lots by sand from the neighboring hills, upon which many solid and substantial buildings have been built; and though real estate has greatly declined from its former extravagant prices, to the ruin of many who thought themselves worth millions, the city continues to be improved by the erection of solid and substantial buildings. Great expenses have also been incurred by the city corporation in the improvement of the streets.
From its local situation in reference to the gold region, San Francisco must always remain the great seat of the ocean trade of California. Already it has extensive mercantile communications with all parts of the world. It is connected with New York by two lines of steam packets, one by the way of Panama, making the distance in about four weeks, a packet leaving either city every fortnight, and carrying the mail; the other, also a semi-monthly line, by the Lake Nicaragua, which accomplishes the distance in about four days' less time. The shortest passage from San Francisco to New York has been 21 days.
Not only is the trade with the Atlantic ports of the United States very great, but San Francisco has an extensive commerce with Chili, from which large supplies of flour are derived, and also with China, whence a great influx of emigrants is flowing to California.
The arrivals at San Francisco for the first six months of 1852, ending June 30, were 68 steamers, 108 ships, 101 barks, 130 brigs, 75 schooners, 40 sloops. Total, 522. Total tonnage,. 201,473. The clearances were 77 steamers, 94 ships, 141 barks, 130 brigs, 229 schooners, 76 sloops. Total, 747. Total tonnage, 222,805. The amount of duties paid is greater than at any port of the United States, except New York and Boston.
The arrival of passengers at San Francisco from July 1 to 29, 1852, was 9923; departures, 1140; for the first six months of the year 1852, the arrivals were 40,000. The present population of California is estimated at 240,000.
(Spelling as printed in the 1854 edition)
Boundaries and Extent. — This state is bounded on the north by the States of Kentucky and Virginia, on the east by North Carolina, on the south by Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, and on the west by the States of Arkansas and Missouri, from which it is separated by the River Mississippi. It lies between 35° and 36° 40' north latitude, and 81° 40' and 90° 15' west longitude; having an average length, from east to west, of some 430 miles, with a breadth of somewhat over 100 miles, and containing an area of 45,600 square miles.
Government. — By the constitution, as revised in 1835, the governor is elected every two years by a plurality vote of the people, and can serve only three terms in any four. The Senate is composed of 25 members, who are elected also biennially. The House of Representatives consists of 75 members, chosen in like manner for the same period; and the legislature convenes only once in two years. All free white citizens, resident in the county where voting for six months previous to an election, are qualified electors. The right of suffrage is not denied to colored persons, who are by law competent witnesses in courts of justice.
Judiciary. — Judges of the Supreme Court are elected, by joint vote of the legislature, for terms of twelve years, and judges of the inferior courts for eight years. There are three judges of the Supreme Court, (one for each of the judicial divisions of the state,) four chancellors, and fourteen judges of the Circuit Courts. There is also a Criminal Court for Davidson county, and a Common Law and Chancery Court for the city of Memphis. Justices of the peace are elected in districts for six years 5 sheriffs are chosen in counties for two years, and are ineligible for more than three terms in succession; registers hold office four years.
Education. — The school fund of Tennessee amounts to nearly $1,500,000. The interest of this fund is annually apportioned to all the districts wherein a school-house has been provided; but the system of free education, which is the glory of many other members of the Union, seems not yet to be fully understood or appreciated by the people of this state. Still, the inhabitants support somewhat over 1000 common or primary schools, — perhaps a tithe of what are needed, — 200 or 300 academies, some of which are of respectable rank; and six or eight collegiate institutions, of varied character and standing. The two oldest of these latter are Greenville College, in East Tennessee, and Washington College, Washington county, both founded in 1794; but the most prominent is the University of Nashville, founded in 1806. And, after all, the number of white adults within the state who can neither read nor write may be estimated at about 60,000.
Finances. — The receipts and disbursements of the state, for a few years past, have nearly balanced each other. From the returns for the biennial term ending October, 1849, the expenditures had amounted to some $800,000; to meet which the revenues had fallen short less than $12,000. The state holds productive property valued at near $5,000,000, and owes a debt of nearly $3,500,000. Its ordinary annual expenditure, independently of the school appropriations and interest on the public debt, is somewhat less than $300,000.
Surface, Soil, &tc. — The state is usually considered as being divided into three nominal sections, severally known as West, Middle, and East Tennessee. The former, situated between the Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers, presents an undulating surface generally, though in some parts nearly level, with a light but productive soil, finely suited to the cultivation of cotton, the chief staple in this quarter. The middle section is more uneven and hilly, though not mountainous; and the lands are of somewhat better quality. East Tennessee, bordering on North Carolina, is an elevated region, containing numerous lofty and picturesque mountains, mostly covered to their summits with noble forests. Here are the Cumberland and Laurel Mountains, and other conspicuous branches of the Alleghany range. The soil throughout the state, with the occasional exception of rough and broken tracts among the high lands, is very fertile, yielding generous crops of agricultural products. Timber of every variety common to the adjacent states is found in great plenty. In addition to the trees ordinarily composing the western forests, there are upon the mountains vast groves of magnificent pines, furnishing material for the extensive manufacture of tar, rosin, spirits of turpentine, and lampblack; the juniper and red cedar also abound; and the mulberry is so plentiful and thrifty, that the silk culture might be pursued, with great profit, to an unlimited extent. Peach and other fruit-trees, the vine, &c., are cultivated with ample success; and, besides cotton, excellent wheat, Indian corn, tobacco, potatoes of every kind, and all the usual varieties of vegetables, are raised in large quantities. A considerable portion of the cotton raised in this state is sent into contiguous states in the interior, for home manufacturing.
Rivers. — Tennessee is watered in various directions by many important streams. The great Mississippi flows by, and constitutes its entire western boundary. The Tennessee River crosses the state between the divisions called Western and Middle Tennessee. The Cumberland, a tributary of the Ohio, though taking its rise in, and returning to, the State of Kentucky, has its course principally in Tennessee. There are many other large navigable streams; and East Tennessee, particularly, possesses a vast amount of water power, admirably fitting it for a manufacturing country.
Internal Improvements. — There are five railroads, including branches, now being constructed within the state, embracing an extent of 600 miles, of which only about 30 miles are yet in operation. The estimated cost of these works is $600,000. The principal of these are projected continuations of various routes from Georgia, North Carolina, Louisiana, &c.
Minerals. — Gold, iron, coal, and salt are the most valuable among the divers mineral products of Tennessee. The former exists in the south-eastern quarter of the state, but to what extent is not wholly developed, no systematic explorations on a large scale having yet taken place. In the eastern and middle sections, iron ore is found in great quantities, and of superior quality. In the same quarters, also, there are immense beds of excellent coal. Salt springs are numerous, and there is an abundance of marble, gypsum, various pigments, nitrous earths, &c.
Manufactures. — These consist chiefly of goods for domestic consumption; although manufactured articles to some considerable amount are exported. There are cotton and woollen factories, iron works, machine shops, ropewalks, mechanics' establishments of all descriptions, potteries, distilleries, breweries, a great number of flour mills, grist mills, &c.; the whole employing a capital of some $6,000,000.
Indians. — Most of the tribes which heretofore occupied the territory have passed across the great dividing stream, and taken up their residence upon lands in the Indian Territory, in accordance with treaty stipulations. No bands of native Indians exist, as such, within the limits of the state.
Population. — There were, in 1800, somewhat over 100,000 inhabitants in this state. Since that period, the population has been found, at every decennial census, to have increased prodigiously. It has now reached an aggregate of 1,002,625 of which nearly a fourth part are slaves.
Climate. — Tennessee is favored with a very mild and generally salubrious climate. In the eastern part, it is particularly so; and is not surpassed, in all the desirable attributes of a genial temperature, by any other region of North America. It is, of course, varied, in some measure, throughout the state. But, from its geographical position, it may be pronounced healthy in every section, and almost entirely exempt from those destructive epidemics by which some of the neighboring states are frequently afflicted.
Religion. — Methodists and Baptists constitute the larger portion of the religions denominations within this state. There are likewise large bodies of Presbyterians and Episcopalians, together with several congregations of Lutherans, Romanists, Friends, &c.
Boundaries and Extent. — This state is bounded on the north by portions of New Mexico, Nebraska, and the Indian Territory ; on the east by the Indian Territory, and by the State of Louisiana, from the latter of which it is partially separated by the River Sabine; on the southeastand south by the Gulf of Mexico; on the south-west by the River Bravo del Norte, dividing it from the Mexican possessions; and on the west by the same, and by New Mexico. It lies between 26° and 36° 30' north latitude, and extends from 94° to 105° west longitude. It is of very irregular form, and is computed to contain about 237,320 square miles; a portion of the original area claimed by Texas, when a republic, having been set off by Congress, at the time of its admission as a state, in the formation of the Territory of New Mexico.
Government. — The existing constitution of the state guaranties the right of suffrage to every free white male, 21 years of age, after a residence of one year in the state, and six months in the district where voting. The executive officers, who can serve but four out of any six years, are elected for terms of two years by a plurality of the popular vote. The secretary of state, treasurer, and comptroller are chosen also for two years, by the legislature in joint ballot. Senators are chosen for four years, one half the number retiring from office every two years; the whole number not to be less than 19, nor more than 33. Representatives, not to exceed 90 nor fall short of 45 in number, are elected biennially; and the sessions of the legislature are held at like intervals. Persons concerned in duels are disqualified from holding office. Grants of money for internal improvements, &c., cannot be made without the sanction of two thirds of both houses. The laws are to be revised once in every ten years. Homesteads are exempted from forced sales for debt. The real and personal property of a wife is protected from seizure for the payment of the husband's debts. Corporations are not to be created with banking powers. The state cannot subscribe for stock in private corporations, nor borrow money, nor contract debts in time of peace to an amount exceeding $100,000, unless by a two thirds vote of the legislature. No law for the emancipation of slaves can be passed, without consent of owners, arid the payment of full compensation. The introduction of slaves as merchandise may be prohibited. Owners of slaves may be compelled by law to treat them with care and kindness; and in cases of refusal or neglect, the slaves may be taken and sold for account of the owners. Slaves may have a trial by jury when charged with crimes greater than petit larceny, and are protected against abuse or loss of life equally with the whites, excepting when engaged in a revolt.
Judiciary. — The Supreme Court comprises a chief justice and two associates, appointed for six years, who hold sessions annually, between June and October, in not more than three places within the state. It has appellate jurisdiction, but is under legislative control in criminal cases and appeals from interlocutory judgments. The District Courts are eleven in number, each having its local judge, appointed for six years, and holding sessions semiannually. They have original jurisdiction in criminal cases, and in suits involving $100 and upwards. If punishments in cases of crime be not specifically defined by law, they are to be determined by the jury. In equity causes, each party has a right to demand a jury. Judges are nominated by the executive, and confirmed by a two thirds vote of the Senate.
Education. — The nucleus of a school fund has been formed, by a constitutional provision, requiring the reservation of ten per cent, of the annual state revenue derived from taxation, as a permanent fund for the maintenance of free public schools. Public lands granted forschool purposes cannot be leased for longer terms than 20 years, nor alienated in fee. The important subject of education has, however, as yet, occupied no great share of the public mind. Some schools, of tolerable repute, are supported in the most populous settlements; and a late writer asserts that there are, also, some colleges in the state ; but this report is scarcely
sanctioned by any collateral authority. It is supposed, nevertheless, that the state contains fewer free persons over 20 years of age, who can neither read nor write, in proportion to the whole population, than any other of the Southern States of the Union.
Finances. — Texas is burdened with a heavy public debt, partly entailed upon the state by the late republic. The ostensible amount of its liabilities, in December, 1849, as reported by the auditor and comptroller, was upwards of $11,000,000, the par value of which is rated at about one half that sum. The revenues of the state were estimated at $110,000, consisting of a tax of $92,000 upon real and personal property, valued at $46,000,000, and a poll tax amounting to $18,000. The average annual expenditures of the state may be set down at $100,000.
Surface, Soil, &tc. — The appearance of the surface of the country is described as that of a vast inclined plane, gradually sloping from the mountainous elevations in the west, towards the sea-coast on the south-east, and intersected by multitudes of streams, flowing in a southeasterly direction. It may be considered as omprehending three several divisions, each differing in some respects from the others. The first, commencing at the sea-coast, and extending inland from 50 to 100 miles, is a level and exceedingly fertile region, with a rich alluvial soil, exempt from those stagnant quagmires and lagoons which usually characterize the shores of the Southern States, beautifully wooded on the river borders, and abounding with extensive pasture lands, covered with an exuberant growth of native grasses and herbage. The next is a region of greater extent, presenting an undulating surface, composed chiefly of grassy prairies, interspersed with compactly timbered forests. The soil here rests upon a substratum of limestone and sandstone, and is of excellent quality. The third and loftiest region, situated among or near the great chain known as the Mexican Alps, consists partly of tracts of productive table land ; but the mountain sides are also prolific in almost every variety of trees and shrubbery, while the intervening valleys, enclosing rich bottom lands, are extraordinarily fruitful, capable of repaying the toil of the husbandman a hundred fold. Indeed, the entire area of this immense state may be said to present, naturally, one of the most admirable countries on earth for agricultural purposes. The state is well wooded throughout. Among the trees most common are live oak of superior quality, other descriptions of oak, hickory, elm, walnut, sycamore, many varieties of acacia, cypress, caoutchouc, &c. The uplands also produce ample supplies of cedar, pine, and similar forest-trees. Fruits and garden vegetables, of every desirable sort, are cultivated with great ease and success. Peaches, melons, grapes, and other fruits known in temperate climates, are raised in profusion; and figs, oranges, lemons, dates, pineapples, olives, and other tropical fruits abound in the southern parts of the state. The products of the field consist of cotton, (the great staple,) maize, wheat, rye, barley, and other grains, the sugar-cane, potatoes of each kind, &c. Rice and tobacco are grown to some extent in different quarters ; and among the indigenous plants are indigo, vanilla, sarsaparilla, and many medicinal shrubs. As a grazing country, Texas is exceeded by few or none of her sister states. Vast numbers of cattle, horses, mules, sheep, and swine are raised upon the prairie lands, receiving or requiring but little human care. Buffaloes and wild horses range the prairies in immense droves; and the deer, the bear, and other game, are every where abundant.
Rivers. — In addition to the rivers which form portions of the state boundary, the chief streams are the Neches, Trinity, Brazos, Colorado, San Antonio, Guadaloupe, and Nueces, with their countless tributaries, all flowing towards, and ultimately emptying into, the Gulf of Mexico, after passing generally through the estuaries so numerous along that coast. These bays, being commonly obstructed by sand bars or narrow strips of land, do not afford convenient harbors, except for vessels of small draught. Steamboats drawing 12 feet of water can enter and ascend the Sabine; and the Rivers Neches, Trinidad, and Brazos are navigable, or similar craft, from 50 to 300 miles. The San Antonio and Nueces afford no navigation of importance; and the Colorado, though a fine stream, is obstructed near its mouth by a large raft, which in course of time will probably be removed, when vessels may pass up to Austin, the state capital, 220 miles from the gulf. The Rio Grande del Norte, on the south-western border, is a noble stream of some 1800 miles in length, and is already becoming a great commercial channel, though occasionally impeded by shoals and rapids.
Internal Improvements. — Although admitting of unbounded improvements in facilities for internal intercourse, Texas can as yet boast of very few such advantages in the shape of railroads or canals. A railway, to connect Galveston Bay with the River Brazos, through Houston and Harrisburg, is in progress, and the iron for 30 miles of the route is already provided. Another is in contemplation, to extend from San Antonio to the Gulf of Mexico. A canal from Galveston Bay to Brazos is also in course of construction.
Minerals. — Silver mines formerly existed in the north-west part of the possessions of the late republic, but no deposits of that metal have been discovered within the limits of the present state. Excellent coal, and iron ore, abound in most of the inland districts. There are great quantities of nitre in the eastern quarter; there are multitudes of salt springs and lakes, from which large supplies of salt are procured ; and bitumen is found in various localities. In all parts of the state except the low alluvial region, there is plenty of granite, limestone, gypsum, &c.
Manufactures. — Nothing of great public importance has yet been effected in this branch of industry. Thus far the labors of the inhabitants have been principally confined to pursuits connected with agriculture, and to the preparation of their products for market as raw material. Few or no articles for exportation have as yet been fabricated in the state.
Indians. — The territory and its neighborhood is still infested by hordes or remnants of tribes of savages, most of whom subsist by predatory incursions, often of the most destructive and sanguinary character. Efforts are in constant progress to reduce these marauders, by various methods, to a state of comparative peace and amity; but until the country shall have become more densely peopled, this desirable result will not probably be effected.
Population. — The civilized inhabitants of Texas comprise emigrants from all the other states of the Union, besides the descendants of the original Spanish settlers, and persons in whom Mexican and Indian blood is blended. The former class, in all probability, compose a majority of the present population, which, by the census of 1850, was as follows: Whites, 154,100; free colored, 331; slaves, 58,161; — total, 212,592.
Climate. — Texas is represented usually, by those who have travelled or resided in it, as possessing a delightful climate ; and as being remarkably healthy in every part, with few exceptions at particular seasons. The wet and dry seasons, as in California, constitute the winter and summer. The former commences in December, and continues until March; the residue of the year, which is the dry season, comprehends spring, summer, and autumn. Severe cold weather never marks the winter season, and snow is very uncommon, except upon the mountain peaks. The heat of summer, although intense, is greatly modified by the regular and brisk breezes which prevail daily from sunrise until about 3 o'clock, P. M.; and throughout the year, the nights are said to be invariably cool. Between April and September, the temperature varies from 63° to 100° Fahrenheit, the average range at noon being about 83°. In summer, intermittent fevers are commonly prevalent in the low lands upon the Gulf coast, though rarely assuming an epidemic character.
Religion. — Among the descendants of the earliest settlers, the Roman Catholic is of course the prevailing religion, as in New Mexico. But since the revolution, which resulted in the severance of Texas from Mexican sway, other Christian denominations, of almost every class and name known in the older states of the Union, have multiplied and flourished; and the cathedrals erected by the devotees of the pope are now vastly outnumbered by the churches and other houses of worship occupied by Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, &c.
Trenton is situated at the head of sloop navigation, on the E. side of the Delaware River, opposite the lower falls. The Assunpink Creek here enters the Delaware. At the foot of the falls, or rapids, the Delaware is crossed by a fine bridge, 1100 feet in length, consisting of 5 arches, resting upon stone piers, which is considered a superior specimen of this species of architecture. It was built in 1806, at an expense of $180,000. The Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad is carried over the river on this bridge. The ground on which the city is built, as well as the surface of the town generally, is considerably varied. The districts of Mill Hill, Bloomsburg, and Lamberton, included in the borough of South Trenton, and extending about a mile down the river, may in a general description be regarded as a part of the city.
Trenton is regularly laid out, and has many handsome stores, dwellings, and other edifices. The public buildings in the city proper are the state house, the governor's house, a public library, a lyceum, and 7 or 8 houses of public worship. The state house is beautifully situated near the Delaware, commanding a fine view of the river and the surrounding country. It is 100 feet long and 60 feet wide, built of stone, and stuccoed to resemble granite. Several of the public offices are fire-proof buildings. The governor's house is a plain but commodious edifice. The public buildings in South Trenton are the court house, the state prison, and 4 or 5 churches. The court house is a handsome edifice of brick, stuccoed, in the Grecian style of architecture, with a portico of 6 Ionic columns on each end, and surmounted with a balcony. The state prison is well situated, near the Delaware and Raritan Canal, and the railroad from Philadelphia to New York. The walls, 20 feet high and 3 feet thick, enclose an area of 4 acres. The entrance is through the main building, in which reside the family of the warden and his assistants, to an observatory in the rear, from which diverge, at an angle of 45 degrees, on each side, the two corridors, in which are the cells for the prisoners. If the enlargement of this penitentiary is ever wanted, it is the design to add other radii, in conformity to the plan of these corridors.
The Delaware and Raritan Canal, which forms an inland navigation from Brunswick to this place, passes through the city. It is 42 miles long, 75 feet wide, and 7 feet deep, and is sufficient for the passage of small sloops. It crosses the Assunpink Creek, on a fine stone aqueduct. It was finished in 1834, at a cost of $2,500,000.
The Delaware is navigable for large boats above the falls at Trenton, as far as Easton, Pa. The New Jersey Railroad, between New York and Philadelphia, via Newark, Elizabethtown, and Princeton, passes through this place.
Trenton was first settled in 1720; and received a city charter in 1792. It will ever be memorable as the place where the favor of Providence began decidedly to smile on the American arms in the war of the revolution; for here, on the night of December 25, 1776, at a gloomy period of the war, Washington crossed the Delaware, with 2400 of the continental troops, and suddenly attacked and captured 1000 Hessians of the British army, "which greatly revived the spirit of the nation, and had an important influence on the final result of the contest." The ground on which the Hessians laid down their arms is a little to the N. E. of the state house.
Trenton is an admirable site for manufacturing purposes, possessing, as it does, an extensive water power, created by artificial means, from the falls on the Delaware, and the waters of the Assunpink Creek.
UTAH is a newly-organized territory among the distant western possessions of the United States, deriving its name from that of the Pah-Utahs, a numerous tribe of native Indians, heretofore and still, with other tribes, occupying large portions of the country. It formerly composed a very considerable share of the wide-spread wilderness known as Upper or New California, and was consequently considered a Mexican dependency. Very few settlements have ever been made or attempted within the present limits of this region; in fact, it has scarcely been deemed habitable by civilized beings. The territory, together with that of New Mexico, and of the lately-formed State of California, fell to the United States by right of conquest, during the war with Mexico, and was duly transferred by the latter, under the treaty of 1848.
By the act of Congress passed September 9, 1850, establishing a territorial government for Utah, the limits of the territory are defined as follows : Bounded on the west by the State of California; on the north by the Territory of Oregon; on the east by the summit of the Rocky Mountains; and on the south by the parallel of 37° north latitude, which forms the dividing line between this territory and that of New Mexico. It extends from the 37th to the 42d degrees of north latitude, and lies between the 107th and 120th degrees of west longitude; having a breadth of 300, and an average length from east to west of some 600 miles, containing an area of about 180,000 square miles.
It is provided by the same act, that this territory, when admitted as a state into the Union, shall be received with or without the toleration of slavery, as may be prescribed by its own constitution. All free white males, residents in the territory at the date of said act, were empowered to vote at the first elections, and made eligible to any office in the territory; after which the legislative assembly shall fix the qualifications of electors. The governor holds office for four years, and receives his appointment from the executive of the United States. He must reside within the territory, act as superintendent of Indian affairs, and commission all territorial officers. He may pardon crimes against the laws of the territory, and reprieve offenders against the United States laws, until the president's will be known. The President of the United States also appoints a territorial secretary for a like term, who administers the government in case of the governor's disability. A Council of 13 members, and House of Representatives, 26 in number, compose the legislative assembly. The former serve two years, the latter one year, and are elected by plurality of the popular votes. They are to be chosen in appropriate districts, and a due apportionment thereof is to be made by law. Legislative sessions are not to continue beyond 40 days. No laws interfering with the primary disposal of the soil, imposing taxes on United States property, or requiring extra taxes on property of non-residents, can be passed by the legislature. No law is valid until approved by Congress.
A Supreme Court, District and Probate Courts, and justices of the peace, constitute the judicial power of the territory. The former comprises a chief and two associate justices, to sit annually at the seat of government, and to hold office four years. A District Court is held by one of the supreme judges, at times provided by law, in each of the three judicial districts of the territory. Justices of peace cannot try cases involving land titles, or debts exceeding $100. Both the Supreme and District Courts have chancery powers, and common law jurisdiction. Appeals from a District to the Supreme Court cannot have trials by jury. An attorney and marshal are appointed by the United States government for a term of four years.
After a survey of the lands under authority of the general government, two sections in each township, equivalent to one eighteenth part of the whole territory, are to be set apart for the support of public education. It is trusted that the sinister disposal, in some of the new states and territories, of similar liberal provisions for this object, will in due time be guarded against, in this territory, by the friends of common schools.
Regarding the finances of this newly-formed territory, there are as yet no authentic reports. Those who have explored the northern part of the country, the number of whom is not great, describe it as mountainous, rugged, and generally barren, without forests, and destitute of valuable indigenous vegetation. Spots occasionally are presented which yield good grass for pasturage; and here and there may be found valleys of small extent, which are tolerably fertile. Towards the western boundary, near the bases of the Sierra Nevada, the soil is generally good. Numerous lakes, emitting streams of moderate size, lie along this region, affording convenient means for irrigation. But the central portion of the country, judging from the imperfect accounts which are at present accessible, is a wide sandy waste, producing, it is true, for a short season after the winter rains, a profusion of grasses and beautiful flowers, all which the succeeding summer heat reduces to an ashy desert. In other quarters, the country exhibits a rolling surface, with tracts of considerable fertility, often well wooded and watered, with frequent and extensive openings of prairie lands, and tracts of low grounds composed of a rich and loamy soil. Upon the whole, although a very large portion of the territory has never been subjected to cultivation, and still seems unfit for the permanent abode of civilized human beings, it is nevertheless susceptible of unlimited improvement; and the efforts of industry and science may yet convert it into "a land flowing with milk and honey."
The principal rivers within the territory, so far as they have yet been traced or partially examined, are named Rio de los Animas, Grand, White, Tampa, Vermilion, St. Mary's, Vintan, and Duchesne Rivers, most of which, with their smaller branches, flow from the northeast, and ultimately unite with the Great Colorado of the West. The latter appears to take its rise in the western slopes of the Rocky Mountains, near the north-east angle of the territory, and, taking a south-western direction, passes through New Mexico, forming part of the boundary between that territory and the State of California, and finally discharges itself into the Gulf of California. Great Salt Lake, a vast body of water lying near the centre of the northern boundary, is the source of numerous watercourses flowing north and east. Humboldt's River flows in a north-east direction, from a lake of that name near the mountains on the west. A river of some extent is connected with Nicollet's Lake, a large sheet, lying in the central part of the territory. A chain of lakes extends northerly from Humboldt's Lake, the principal of which are Carson's and Walker's Lakes. Pyramid Lake, which is of considerable magnitude, and several smaller collections of water, lie at the foot of the great mountain range which separates Utah from California. From each of these, several rivers stretch out in various directions, and are finally lost in the sands of the desert.
No regular mineralogical survey of this region has yet been undertaken, and its mineral resources, which are doubtless great, remain of course undeveloped. Coal, alum, and salt, are said to have been found in some localities. Excellent clay for the manufacture of pottery abounds in the central and northern parts; and satisfactory indications of iron ore have been discovered.
Besides the rude utensils and habiliments fabricated by the natives, there are no manufactured articles, of any note, produced within the territory; unless, indeed, the operations of the Mormons be considered an exception. This unique and erratic people, at their large settlement on Salt Lake, have erected various manufacturing establishments, including grain and lumber mills, woollen factories, potteries, &c. and are able to construct most of the farming or domestic implements, including fine cutlery, required for their own use. This settlement, prior to the organization of the territory, was called by the colonists " the State of Deseret." The only railroad yet projected in that country is to be forthwith commenced here, to extend from Mormon city eastward, to the base of a mountain, where are extensive stone quarries. The chief purpose of the road is to convey stone and other materials into the city, for building.
But little is known of the present condition and numbers of the native tribes that are constantly roaming through this and the neighboring regions. The character of these wanderers,generally, is no better than that of the wildest Arabs or Hottentots. Attempts are in progress to treat with some of the more approachable among them; and, where they can be reduced to a state less inconsistent with the true objects of human existence by no other means, large bounties in lands, or " tribute money," will doubtless be resorted to by the general government.
Excepting the colony composing the Mormon settlement, and the occupants of the few armed stations established by the United States, with perhaps an occasional ranchero occupied by Roman Catholic missionaries, there are no white or civilized inhabitants among the population of Utah. At all events, the enumeration is not yet completed; for Congress, by a supplement to the act for taking the seventh, census, foreseeing the difficulty of completing the same within the State of California, and the Territories of Oregon, New Mexico, and Utah, by the originally specified time, has authorized an extension of the period, at the discretion of the secretary of the interior. Years may therefore elapse before the completion of this work.
The climate of Utah is in general more mild than that of the states on the east included within the same latitudes. Upon the sterile deserts in the central and southern parts, the summer heats are intense, and the climate sickly. Nearer the more fertile districts on the west, the temperature is equable, with less difference between the extremes of heat and cold than is usually the case on the Atlantic coast. The elevated lands, to a certain height, are considered very healthy ; but travellers upon the mountain summits have frequently been attacked by fatal fevers and other alarming maladies. In the north, the winters are sufficiently moderate
to admit of hydraulic operations throughout most of the season.
The only religious organization, if it can be so called, which is now maintained in the territory, is that of the Mormons, or " Latter Day Saints." Besides their establishment at Salt Lake, they have formed a colony in Iron county, about 250 miles south, among the high lands near the boundary of New Mexico; a position, around which the country is well wooded and watered, abounding in iron ore, and promising plenty of coal.
This important measure was taken with great firmness, moderation, and unanimity. Yet it was followed, as under existing circumstances might have been anticipated, by opposition on the part of New York, petitioning the Congress not to acknowledge the act; and on the part of New Hampshire, claiming several of the towns which had embodied themselves in the new state. Nor was it until after a variety of changes, and much negotiation, of which the details might fill a volume,* that these external concerns were adjusted, and Vermont became an integral part of the new American Union. That happy event took place, after a satisfactory settlement of all disputes with the states both of New Hampshire and New York, March 4, 1791. The general history of the state since is blended with that of the nation.
Under all their difficulties and embarrassments, in the adjustment of land titles, the subduing of the wilderness, the arrangement of their political concerns, and the horrors of warfare, the inhabitants had not neglected the claims of religion and good learning. The settlement of the ministry in the small towns, as they were successively formed and grew able to sustain it, was followed up with a good degree of zeal and perseverance. The condition of society seemed to require, and effectually obtained, a free toleration of religious sentiments, with no distinction in the claims of sect or denomination. An entire sundering of bonds between the church and the state was accomplished, and the result has seemed to show that then the religion of the gospel flourished best, when left to its own heavenly resources, and the zealous love and efforts of its sincere friends; human laws being only then appealed to, when infractions of special civil compacts rendered such appeal needful. Hence absolute contracts for the support of the ministry can be exacted by law, but the law does not compel any to form such contracts. Revivals of the power of religion have not been unusual. Nearly 20,000 communicants were found in June, 1848, connected with the 189 churches embodied in the " General Convention of Congregational Ministers and Churches," which then held its session at Brandon. And the statistics of other denominations, which are found in this state, as in the rest of New England, bear comparison with this result.
For the cause of education Vermont has done nobly; and she deserves the high honor of being ranked among the few governments that have wisely discerned and followed out with energy the permanent welfare of those who sustain them. The school system of the other New England states has been introduced into Vermont, where upwards of 2400 district schools are maintained by a local tax levied by the inhabitants on themselves, and attended by upwards of 50,000 pupils — being a sixth part of the whole number of inhabitants ; and besides these schools, the state has from time to time chartered a large number of academies ; several of which, however, have since ceased to exist, while several among them are sustained by different religious denominations and private benefactions.
To crown this system, Vermont has a " State University " at Burlington, now in a flourishing condition, and a college at Middlebury, possessing at least equal advantages. Both are high in public favor; the latter being attended by about 100 pupils, the former by 70. There is also a medical college.
Medical societies, and societies for benevolent purposes, have been greatly multiplied in the state. Its agriculture, manufactures, and, by means of Lake Champlain, its navigation also, have been encouraged, developed, and become greatly successful. As yet, no state survey *of its geology has been completed; but the progress of its railroads, so vigorously prosecuted, and promising such advantages in bringing the riches of the west to the sea-coast, will doubtless make apparent also, at an early period, the worth of such a measure.
In 1842 began the celebration of Forefathers' Day ; and that whatever was commendable in their character and spirit may, under the blessing of their and our God, flourish in this now thriving state, is our hearty wish and prayer.
VIRGINIA is the northernmost, save one, of that division of the United States usually denominated the Southern States. It lies between lat. 36° 33' and 40° 43' north, and extends from 75° 55' to 83° 40' of west longitude. Its length, from east to west, is 370 miles; its greatest breadth 200; and its exact area is officially stated at 61,352 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Pennsylvania; on the north-east by the River Potomac, which separates it from Maryland; on the east by the waters of Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean; on the south by North Carolina and a part of Tennessee; on the west by Kentucky; and on the north-west by Ohio.
Having been the seat of the earliest English settlement permanently established in North America, Virginia ranks as the eldest of the thirteen colonies originally compacted into the republic of the United States; and is therefore worthy of the frequently-bestowed appellation of "the Old Dominion." [Transcriber's note: Lengthy historical section redacted here] The first constitution of Virginia, in which her people took part, was formed in 1776. The previous dismemberments of the state, under various British monarchs, whereby Maryland, Pennsylvania, and the Carolinas had been gradually detached, were never formally confirmed by the people of Virginia until the adoption of this civil compact. Although those acts of the royal government had frequently been subjects of remonstrance, it was deemed advisable now to acknowledge them, that there should arise in future no cause of dissension among the members of the new confederacy. The constitution thus framed, in a season of critical emergency, without the advantages of leisure, deliberation, and of experience, (being the first in the whole United States,) was naturally imperfect. It was soon found to be unequal in its operations; and at the close of the war, much discussion arose upon divers projects for its improvement. It was not, however, essentially amended until 1830, when it underwent important modifications. Its principal features are as follow: the governor is elected by joint vote of the two branches of the General Assembly; his official term is three years, and he cannot be reelected for the next succeeding term; he is assisted in his executive duties by three counsellors of state, the senior of whom, in office, acts as lieutenant governor; the legislature comprises a Senate, consisting of 32 members, chosen for four years, (one fourth of whom are to retire each year,) and a House of Delegates, 134 in number, chosen annually by the people ; clergymen are excluded from participation in the civil government; the judges are chosen by the legislature. The Assembly convenes at Richmond, the capital, annually, on the first Monday of December. Every white male, 21 years of age, and possessed of a freehold valued at $25, or being a housekeeper, or head of a family, and having paid taxes, is qualified to vote for state or other officers; but subordinate officers, soldiers, marines, or seamen, in the national service, as well as paupers, and men convicted of infamous crimes, cannot exercise the right of suffrage. The manner of voting at all elections is the open or viva voce mode.
Virginia is now divided into 119 counties. Its seat of government is the city of Richmond, and its greatest commercial port is Norfolk. There are many other cities and populous towns in the state, more particular descriptions of which will be found in their proper order in this volume. Within even its present boundaries flow some of the finest rivers in America, the most important of which are the Potomac, Rappahannock, James, and Kanawha Rivers. It is also watered by the Ohio and its tributaries on the west. (See Rivers.) The surface of the state is greatly diversified; insomuch that those familiar with its topography have considered its soil and climate under several distinct zones or divisions. The eastern section is generally a low country, with a soil partly sandy and partly alluvial, abounding in swamps and unproductive tracts, and for the most part, especially towards the sea-coast and along the margins of rivers, noted for the prevalence of fatal epidemics during the season extending from August to October. From the head of the tide waters, the mountainous district commences. Here the soil becomes more fertile, and the climate more genial. Across this portion ofthe state stretch the widest bases of the stupendous Alleghanies — " the spine of the country." Between the numerous ridges, into which this vast chain is riven, there lie extensive and beautiful valleys, presenting a soil of the richest quality, a salubrious anddelightful climate, and the most picturesque and magnificent natural scenery. Beyond these lofty eminences lies a third section, extending to the Ohio River in one direction, and to the Cumberland Mountains in another, commonly distinguished as West Virginia. This, too, is an elevated and broken region, less productive in general than the middle section, and less populous, but enjoying an atmosphere quite as healthy, and waters equally pure.
The chief agricultural products of Virginia are wheat, Indian corn, and tobacco. Cotton is also cultivated considerably in the alluvial district contiguous to North Carolina; and in other quarters, hemp and wool are among the chief staples. All the varieties of grain, vegetables, and fruit, peculiar to the climate, are also raised; and these in great abundance where due attention is paid to their culture. In mineral wealth, Virginia is sufficiently rich to divert much capital from employment upon the surface to the development of actual or supposed treasures lying beneath. Iron, lead, copper, gypsum, salt, anthracite and bituminous coals are among the most plentiful and profitable of the rewards of these efforts and researches; although, in some localities, the more precious metals have become objects of inquiry; and numerous explorations, particularly in pursuit of gold, have been undertaken, (some of them quite recently,) with different degrees of success. The manufactures of the state are confined principally, with some exceptions, to the preparation of its staples for market, or for domestic consumption. The capital invested in all the branches of this department of home industry amounts to several millions. For all its purposes of trade, the commercial facilities of Virginiaare ample. Its sea-coast and principal rivers afford many excellent harbors; and its means of intercommunication, both natural and artificial, extending through all parts of the state, are well adapted to the convenience and requirements of the people. Much attention has latterly been paid to the improvement of river navigation, the construction of canals,railroads, &c.
Among the remarkable natural phenomena existing in Virginia, besides its mountainous ridges, in some places singularly penetrated by noble rivers, are a number of mineral springs, cascades, caverns, and, above all, the celebrated structure in the county of Rockbridge, between the Blue Ridge and the North Mountain, called the Natural Bridge, and described by Mr. Jefferson, as " the most sublime of nature's works." Many of the springs are so highly impregnated with salt, as to induce numbers of capitalists to enter into the manufacture of this article, and to erect salt works in various places ; at one of which, near Charleston, on the Great Kanawha River, about 3,000,000 bushels of salt are made annually. The medicinal springs of Virginia, to the waters of which many virtues have been ascribed, are much frequented by invalids. The extraordinary cascade in the county of Augusta, called the Falling Spring, where the water descends perpendicularly, though in a comparatively small volume, from a height said to be 60 or 70 feet greater than that of the cataract of Niagara, is to the curious traveller an object of great interest and wonder. The sheet of water, only some 15 feet broad at the top, is divided in two or three places, at the commencement of the fall, by the rock over which it passes, but is nowhere else interrupted until it reaches the valley immediately below. So directly does the stream descend, that a person may pass dry-shod between the base of the rock and the bottom of the fall. Another extraordinary specimen of nature's handiwork 'is the wild and magnificent torrent at Harper's Ferry, formed by the tumultuous rushing of the waters of the Potomac and Shenandoah through a gorge in the Blue Ridge, where they meet, and after momentarily beating with tremendous power against the rugged and rocky sides of the mountain, pass rapidly away together on their journey to the ocean. Several very curious caverns are found in the hilly regions, the most noted of which are Madison's Cave, on the north side of the Blue Ridge; another in Frederic county, near the North Mountain; and the " Blowing Cave " in one of the ridges of the Cumberland Mountains. The former of these has been a subject of much speculation with all philosophical visitors. A hill, 200 feet in height, rises perpendicularly from the margin of a branch of the Shenandoah River; one third of the way down from the summit, the cave opens, branches off in diverse directions, penetrates some 300 feet into the earth, and at two different points terminates in subterranean lakes of unmeasured dimensions. The roof is of solid limestone, 25 to 50 feet in height; and, being in a constant state of exudation, the ceaseless dropping of its calculous tears forms, upon the floor and sides, a profusion of grotesque incrustationsresembling pyramids and columns, gradually growing and changing in size and shape.
Not the least interesting spots in Virginia are Mount Vernon, on the Potomac, and Monticello, in Albemarle county; the former memorable as the long-loved home in life, and the chosen place of rest in death, of the illustrious Washington, and the latter as the splendid country seat of President Jefferson. No ostentatious memorials of those giant minds mark the abodes of their mortal remains. The tomb of the " father of his country" stands in a secluded copse at a short distance from the family mansion, in all the mournful and affecting dignity of unadorned simplicity. The spot of his nativity is designated in a like humble manner; it is in a retired part of the county of Westmoreland, on a plantation now in ruins, where may be seen, inscribed upon a modest stone, this brief memento: " Here, on the 11th of February, 1732, George Washington was born." Over the grave of Jefferson stands a simple granite obelisk, bearing, by his own direction, this concise epitaph: "Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, and Founder of the University of Virginia."
The subject of internal improvements has occupied a large share of the public attention. The state has a" fund of $3,000,000, the income of which, exceeding $280,000, is applied, under direction of a board of public works, to the advancement of useful projects for facilitating intercourse throughout the commonwealth. Among the most important of these undertakings is the construction of a series of canals and dams for the improvement and extension of the navigation of James, Kanawha, and New Rivers. Another great work is the Dismal Swamp Canal, 23 miles in length, whereby the waters of Chesapeake Bay are connected with those of Albemarle Sound. Sundry railroads, particularly in the eastern quarter of the state, have recently been opened, the whole comprehending an extent of over 300 miles; and others have been projected, or are already in course of construction. One line connects the with the Roanoke, passing through Petersburg, Richmond, and Fredericsburg; and another, commencing at Portsmouth, near Norfolk, secures an easy inland communication between the same rivers, at a lower point. There is also a railroad from Winchester to Harper's Ferry, where it meets the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
Considerations of state policy alone, perhaps, have prevented the organization of a system of universal education in Virginia. The subject, however, at the close of the revolution, engaged the earnest attention of some of the most sagacious minds. At that period, a revision of the civil code was in contemplation; and, among others, Mr. Jefferson projected and advocated a plan for the general diffusion of knowledge among all classes of people, not, of course, including slaves. The system proposed was progressive, embracing instruction of every grade, from the simplest elementary up- to the highest stage of classical and scientific acquirement. The poor were to be supplied, at the public charge, with all the advantages of the grammar schools; and from these a certain number were to be annually selected, according to merit, for advancement to the collegiate institutions, supported also by the state. It would appear that this project, partial and limited though it was, as compared with the course pursued in New England, did not meet with the requisite amount of popular favor. Education had seldom. if ever, been made a subject of legislation or discussion under the colonial government. The plan of establishing free schools, common to all, was therefore novel, and in some degree incomprehensible, as well as repugnant to the greater portion of men of wealth. As a whole, it was deemed too liberal and extensive. But, in 1796, that part of it which provided for elementary schools received the legislative sanction, although no measures were taken for carrying it into execution. In 1809, a fund " for the encouragement of learning" was established by law, to be derived from all fines, escheats, and forfeitures; and this fund was augmented, in 1816, by the addition of a very large share of the claim on the general government for military services during the then recent war. In 1818, the income of this fund amounted to upwards of $50,000, when the General Assembly set apart, as permanent annual appropriations, $15,000 for the maintenance of a university, and $45,000 for the education of the poor. Under this latter provision, the benefits of common schools were bestowed, with various degrees of success, upon large numbers of indigent children, who would otherwise, in all probability, have grown up in deplorable ignorance, vice, and misery.
A further extension of the system of primary schools was authorized in 1820, at the discretion of the school commissioners, founded, however, on the cooperation
of the inhabitants of the several school districts, who are required to defray some three fifths of the additional cost, on condition of receiving the residue from the state fund. There are numerous academies, or rather private schools, throughout the commonwealth; some of these are of a respectable rank, but they are designed chiefly for the children of those who can afford to dispense with the public bounty. Little or no attention was given to the education of females prior to the revolution; but there have been established since that event a large number of academies and high schools, devoted exclusively to the instruction of that sex. Of the still higher orders of educational seminaries, the most eminent are the University of Virginia, founded by Mr. Jefferson, near Charlottesville; the College of William and Mary, chartered by the English sovereigns of that name, in 1691, and erected by order of the Assembly at Williamsburg; Washington College, at Lexington, incorporated in 1782, and largely endowed by General Washington; and Hampden Sidney College, in Prince Edward county, founded in 1774. There are also several theological institutions, of comparatively recent date, under the patronage, severally, of Episcopalians, Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists.
The prevailing views upon the subject of religion are those held by almost every denomination of Christians in all other parts of the United States. In the early days of the colony, and during much of the subsequent time of its subjection to the sovereigns of Great Britain, the doctrines and discipline of the English church were those which generally predominated. But at the commencement of the American revolution, it was estimated that two thirds of the people had become dissenters; and the operation of the previously severe laws on the subject of religious faith and forms of worship was chiefly repealed or suspended by acts of the General Assembly, in 1776. The utmost toleration has since been recognized and affirmed by the legislative adoption of a bill drawn by Mr. Jefferson, in 1785, " for establishing religious freedom." At the present time, the most numerous sects are the Baptists and Methodists; next follow, in numerical order, the Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Lutherans, and Roman Catholics. There are also a few Unitarians, Friends, and Jews.
The actual outstanding public debt of Virginia, in February, 1850, was $7,924,994.11, exceedingby $545,539.11 the amount of productive property owned by the state; but the total value of funds of all descriptions, held by the state, is estimated at $11,854,814. There were, in 1848, six banks, with twenty-one branches, employing a capital of $10,283,633. Details of the value of exports and imports, with other statistics of the trade and commerce of the state, may be found in this work, under the appropriate heads.
In conclusion, it may be remarked, that no state of the American Union enjoys a more liberal share of natural advantages than has fallen to the lot of this favored commonwealth. Her central position, productive soil, vast mineral treasures, forests of valuable timber, navigable rivers, secure harbors, commodious ports, and a climate averaging a medium temperature, are among those signal blessings of its inhabitants that demand a corresponding return of gratitude to the Supreme Giver, and the widest diffusion of his bounties among such of his rational creatures as are entitled to " life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
COLUMBIA, DISTRICT OF. This tract, originally ten miles square, was ceded to the United States in 1790, by the States of Maryland and Virginia, for the purpose of being occupied as the seat of the federal government. The location was selected by President Washington, in conformity with a provision of the United States constitution. It is placed under the immediate jurisdiction of Congress, and, at the date of the cession, comprised the city of Alexandria, in Virginia, the city of Georgetown, Maryland, and the site on which now stands the city of Washington. The latter was established as the permanent capital of the Union, in the year 1.800, and is consequently the principal residence of the president, heads of departments, and other chief officers of the government, foreign ambassadors, &c. In 1846, the geographical dimensions of the District were reduced by an act of Congress, retro-ceding the city and county of Alexandria to the State of Virginia.
Boundaries and Extent. — The District, as at present limited, containing less than two thirds of the original land surface, is bounded on the north-west, north-east, and south-east, by the counties of Montgomery and Prince George's, in Maryland; on the south-west flows the Potomac, dividing it from Alexandria county, in Virginia — that portion of the District which reverted to the latter state by the act of 1846. The two cities, Washington and Georgetown, are situated respectively on the east and north-east banks of the river, and are connected by two short bridges crossing Rock Creek, a small branch of the Potomac. Washington lies in latitude 38° 53' 23" north, and longitude 77° V 24" west from Greenwich, and covers an area of somewhat over eight square miles. The area of the entire District is now estimated at sixty square miles.
Government. — By the withdrawal of the county of Alexandria, the District became confined to the northerly or Maryland side of the Potomac, where the laws of Maryland are in force, excepting when superseded by special acts of Congress; the power of legislating in the premises being vested in that body exclusively. The District has no local representative on the floor of the national legislature; but every member is deemed to be alike interested in its general affairs. The two cities have distinct civil organizations; they establish their own municipal laws, and regulate their own internal economy, in all matters not particularly provided for by Congress.
Judiciary. — The judicial tribunals consist of a Circuit Court of the District, with a chief judge and two associates; a Criminal Court for the District, with one judge ; and an Orphans' Court, with a judge and register. The Criminal Court holds three terms a year, commencing respectively on the first Monday
of March, the third Monday of June, and the first Monday of December.
Education. — Academies and grammar schools are tolerably well sustained, through private sources ; but the number of common and primary schools, supported at the public cost, might, with advantage, be increased. There is a college at Georgetown, maintained by Roman Catholics ; and another at Washington, called Columbian College, which is under the control of the Baptists.
Finances. — The public debt, at the close of the year 1840, amounted to one and a half million of dollars. The disbursements for public purposes, by the cities, often exceed the annual income, for various reasons; and, having few or no sources of revenue besides direct taxation, appropriations to meet deficiencies are not unfrequently made by Congress.
Surface, Soil, &c. — The land is generally hilly, but not mountainous. There are numerous alternating eminences and depressions, the former affording fine views, and the latter sometimes consisting of bogs and marshes. The soil is not naturally very fertile, being commonly sandy and clayey, but is doubtless capable of great improvement, with a due degree of attention to agricultural science by practical husbandmen. It produces much good timber, and most of the indigenous shrubbery and plants peculiar to the bordering states, many of which are very beautiful.
Rivers. — The beautiful Potomac laves the south-western margin of the District for some miles, and receives, at the south-eastern edge of the city of Washington, the waters of a considerable stream, called the Eastern Branch. These are the only rivers or streams of note which flow within or along the District. The Potomac affords navigation for vessels of a large class, from the Atlantic shore to the navy yard, Washington, at the confluence of that river and its branch, and for craft of smaller descriptions up to Georgetown.
Internal Improvements. — The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, one of the most important works of this kind in the country, commences at Georgetown. It was commenced in 1828, and connects the waters of the two great rivers whose names it bears. The United States contributed one million of dollars, the city of Washington a like sum, and the city of Georgetown two hundred and fifty thousand dollars towards its construction. Railroads pass from the city of Washington, both north and south.
Manufactures. — Within the present limits of the District, there are no manufactures of articles exclusively or chiefly for export; most of the operations in this department of industry being confined to the fabrication of articles for family use and home consumption.
Population. — The number of inhabitants in the District varies at different seasons - especially those in the city of Washington. During the sessions of Congress, the population of the capital is of course far more numerous than at other periods ; that of Georgetown is comparatively much less fluctuating.
Climate. — Throughout most of the year, the climate is favorable to human health. The air is generally salubrious, and the water pure. In some locations, at the hottest seasons, diseases peculiar to the neighboring regions are apt to prevail; but extensively fatal epidemics are not common.
Religion. — The numerical proportions of the respective religious denominations stand, relatively, in the following order: 1. Presbyterians; 2. Episcopalians; 3. Methodists; 4. Baptists; 5. Roman Catholics; 6. Quakers; and, 7. Unitarians.
Wilmington is the largest place in Delaware, and, next to Philadelphia, the greatest mart of trade in the basin of the Delaware River. The Christiana admits vessels drawing 14 feet of water to the city; and those drawing 8 feet can come up the Brandywine. Considerable shipping is owned here, and the whale fishery is carried on to some extent from this port.
But Wilmington is more distinguished for its various kinds of manufactures than for its maritime commerce. The falls of the Brandywine. In the immediate neighborhood, afford a valuable water power, which is rendered available to a great extent for the operations of machinery; applied to flouring mills, paper mills, saw mills, cotton, woollen, and various other manufactories. The flouring mills at Wilmington are among the largest in the United States. The making of gunpowder has been carried on here extensively for many years. Within 10 miles of this place, there is a large number of important manufactories, rendering it one of the largest manufacturing districts in the United States south of Philadelphia.