Joyce Appleby et al., The American Vision (New York: Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 2003), 1080.
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) was decided before the Fourteenth Amendment. The Fourteenth Amendment provides that anyone born or naturalized in the United States is a citizen of the nation and of his or her state. In this case, the Supreme Court held that a slave was property, not a citizen, and thus had no rights under the Constitution. The decision was a prime factor leading to the Civil War.