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In Italy, the pro-Austrian Duke of Modena flees and a provisional government is formed

06/11/1859
For decades, the fiercely pro-Austrian Grand Duke Francesco V had been dependent on Austrian support to continue his reactionary rule of Modena. With much of his duchy under already under Piedmontese military occupation since May, he left for the Austrian lines. A provisional government was formed and Modena soon became part of a newly united Italy. (By John Osborne)
Source Citation: 
The Annual Register or a View of the History and Politics of the Year 1859 (London: F. & J. Rivington, 1860), 228-229.

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