John Hayward, Gazetteer of the United States of America… (Philadelphia: James L. Gihon, 1854), 110.
Education. — This important subject commands a full share of public solicitude in this state. Colleges and other literary and scientific institutions, of a high order, are established and well sustained in various quarters. Some of these are supported in whole or in part by different religious associations. The oldest, — Columbia, formerly King's College, — founded nearly a century since, is chiefly under the direction of the Episcopalians, who also maintain another college, and an eminent theological institute. The Baptists, Presbyterians, Lutherans, and Associate Reformed church have also their respective theological seminaries. A very large number of academies and high schools, generally sustained by individual subscriptions, are to be found in every part of the state. The common school system is honorably cherished by the bounty of the legislature; and consequently the blessings of free instruction are diffused among children of all classes, through thousands of grammar and primary schools, under positive requisitions of law. For purposes of general education, the most liberal funds have been provided, amounting to $1,900,000 annually, of which $800,000 are raised by a state tax. The school fund produces $300,000. The deaf and dumb, and the blind, likewise participate amply in these appropriations. There are in the state, probably, upwards of 50,000 persons, of adult age, who can neither read nor write ; most of whom, without doubt, are of foreign extraction.