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In Rome, Pope Pius IX issues a sweeping condemnation of liberalism, socialism, and the secular state

Pope Pius IX, detail
With pressure from the Ultramontane faction of the Church, Pope Pius IX issued his Syllabus Errorum, which catalogued in highly specific terms the doctrines afflicting the Western world that were perceived to be contrary to Catholic thought. Coming in for particular condemnation were the liberal secular state, as well as the doctrines of socialism, liberalism, and rationalism. One of the most important pronouncements of the century from Rome, it caused much comment and reaction. (By John Osborne) 
Source Citation: 
Sidney Z. Ehler, John B. Morrall (eds), Church and State Through the Centuries: A Collection of Historic Documents with Commentaries (New York: Biblo & Tannen Publishers, 1967), 281-285.