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Peru and Chile negotiate an alliance against Spain, assuring full-scale war over the Chincha Islands dispute

South America, 1857, zoomable map
With tensions high along the entire south-western coast of South America due to the Spanish blockade over the Chinca Islands dispute, Peru sought and negotiated an alliance against Spain with Chile.  The Chilean Congress ratified the agreement on December 30, 1865, and, although there had been Peruvian-Spanish naval clashes for months previously, Peru officially declared war on Spain on January 14, 1866. (By John Osborne)
Source Citation: 
 "Peru," The American Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1865 ... (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1869), 699.