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Charles F. Jackson and T.W. Gilbreth, Report of an investigation of the cause, origin, and results of the late riots in the city of Memphis, submitted May 22, 1866

Freedmen's Bureau Office, Memphis, Tennessee, May 1866, artist's impression
Three weeks before, serious rioting over three days in Memphis, Tennessee killed 46 blacks and two whites, burned 91 homes, four black churches, and eight black schools. Shocked Freedmen's Bureau Commissioner, General Otis Howard dispatched one of his aides, Major T.W. Gilbreth, to lead an investigation personally. The local Bureau assistant commissioner, General Clinton Fisk had already set a report in motion and Gilbreth and Colonel Charles F. Jackson of Fisk's staff submitted a joint report, supported with dozens of affidavits. The report condemned both poor white citizens, the Memphis police, and other officials for their conduct during the riots and laid out in detail the extreme situation of racial hatred that was emerging in areas under the responsibility of the Bureau. A later congressional investigation into the riots confirmed that view. (By John Osborne)