The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans

Johnson, Rossiter. The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans. Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904.
Source Type
Secondary
Year
1904
Publication Type
Book
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., "Putnam, James Osborne," The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 8 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
Body Summary:
PUTNAM, James Osborne, diplomatist, was born in Attica, N.Y., July 4, 1818 ; son of Harvey and Myra (Osborne) Putnam, and a descendant, in the eighth generation, of John and Priscilla Putnam, who emigrated from Buckinghamshire, England, in 1634 and settled in Salem, Mass. He passed his freshman and sophomore years in Hamilton college, 1837-38, and entered the Yale junior class of 1839, and was graduated as of that class in 1865, receiving his A.M. degree the same year. He studied law in his father's office; was admitted to the bar in 1842; practiced in Buffalo, N.Y., and was postmaster of that city, 1851-53. He was married Jan. 5, 1842, to Harriet Foster, daughter of George and Harriet (Foster) Palmer of Buffalo; and secondly, March 15, 1855, to Kate F., daughter of the Rev. Worthington and Katherine (Green) Wright of Woodstock, Vt. He was a member of the New York state senate, 1854- 55, where he originated the bill that became a law, requiring the title of church property to be vested in trustees. He was defeated as the American party nominee for secretary of state in 1857; was a presidential elector from the state-at-large on the Lincoln and Hamlin ticket in 1860; U.S. consul at Havre, France, 1861-66; U.S. minister to Belgium, 1880-82, and US delegate to the International Industrial Property congress at Paris in 1881. He is the author of: Orations Speeches and Miscellanies (1880). In 1903 he still held the position of chancellor of the University of Buffalo, which he had occupied for many years.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
Body Summary:
BURNS, Anthony, fugitive slave, was born in Virginia about 1830. When twenty years old he made his escape and reached Boston, where he worked during the years 1853-'54. The fugitive slave law which had recently been signed by President Fillmore made possible his arrest, May 24, 1854. Burns was confined in the court house and his trial was opened on the morning of May 25, Richard Ы. Dana, Jr., Charles M. Ellis, and Robert Morris volunteering as his counsel. The case was adjourned to the 27th, and on the 26th a mass meeting was held in Faneuil Hall, which was addressed by Judge Russell, Theodore Parker, and Wendell Phillips; when news that a mob had gathered around the court house reached Faneuil Hall the meeting dissolved and its excited members rushed there. A door was forced, and in the struggle that followed one Bachelder was killed, while others were wounded, among them Rev. Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Finding the court house garrisoned by marines and soldiers, the besiegers retreated. On the 27th overtures were made to Colonel Suttle for the purchase of Burns. The colonel agreed to part with him for the sum of twelve hundred dollars, provided the money was tendered before 12 o'clock, P.M., May 27. The money and pledges were provided by the exertions of L. A. Grimes, pastor of the church for colored people, and the deed of manumission needed only the signature of the marshal, which he was prevented from affixing by District-Attorney Hallett. A decision was given by the commissioners, June 2, in favor of the slaveowner, and Burns was marched to the wharf surrounded by soldiers. There were fifty thousand spectators, but no attempt at rescue was made, the streets being lined with soldiers. ' In State street the windows were draped with black, a coffin inscribed with the legend, " The Funeral of Liberty," was suspended from a window opposite the old state house, and a U. S. flag was hung across the street draped with black and with the Union down. Burns was placed on board a U. S. cutter and taken to Richmond, when he was fettered and confined in a slave pen for four months, and treated with loathsome cruelty. He was then sold to a Mr. McDaniel, of North Carolina, who is entitled to credit for the kindness with which he treated Burns, and the resolute help he gave in restoring him to his friends at the north. The twelfth Baptist church in Boston, of which Burns was a member, purchased his freedom through the contributions made by the citizens. He returned to Boston, and by the benevolence of a lady was given a scholarship at Oberlin in1855; from there he entered Fairmont institute. In 1860 he was put in charge of the colored Baptist church in Indianapolis, but under the threat of the enforcement of the Black laws; with penalty of fine and imprisonment, he remained there only three weeks. Not long after he found a field of labor at St. Catherine's, Canada, where he worked with commendable zeal until his death, July 27, 1862.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., “Helm, Benjamin Hardin,” The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 5 (Boston:  The Biographical Society, 1904).
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HELM, Benjamin Hardin, soldier, was born in Elizabethtown, Ky., in 1830; son of John Larue and Lucinda Barbour (Hardin) Helm, and grandson of George B.  Helm and of Benjamin Hardin. He was graduated at the U.S. military academy in 1851, was assigned to the dragoon service at the U.S. cavalry school, Carlisle, Pa., and was afterward on frontier duty at Fort Lincoln, Texas. He resigned from the army in 1852, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1854, and [practiced] law in Elizabethtown, 1854-58, and at Louisville, 1856-61.  He was a representative in the state Louisville, 1856-61.  He was a representative in the state legislature, 1855-56, and state's attorney, 1856-58.  He was married in 1856 to Emilie, daughter of Robert S. Todd.  He joined the Confederate army in 1861 as colonel of the 1st Kentucky cavalry, and for bravery at Shiloh was made a brigadier-general, March 14, 1862.  He commanded the 3d brigade of Gen. Charles Clark's 1st division in the army of Gen. John C. Breckinridge in the unsuccessful attack on Baton Rouge, La., Aug. 5, 1862, where he had his horse shot and was wounded.  He commanded the 1st brigade in Breckinridge's division, D. H. Hill's corps in the battle of Chickamauga, where he conducted several brilliant movements, including a successful attack on Negley's infantry at Glass's Mill, Sept. 19, 1863.  He was killed while leading his brigade on the morning of the 20th in an endeavor to carry the Federal breastworks in order to protect his men exposed to a flank fire.  He died at Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 20, 1863.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., “Johnson, Bradley Tyler," The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 6 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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JOHNSON, Bradley Tyler, soldier, was born in Frederick, Md., Sept. 29, 1829; son of Charles Worthington and Eleanor Murdock (Tyler) Johnson; grandson of Col. Baker and Catharine (Worthington) Johnson and of William Bradley and Harriet (Murdock) Tyler; great-grandson of Col. Nicholas Worthington of Belvoir, and a descendant of Capt. Thomas Johnson, who was born in Yarmouth, Norfolk county, England, in 1644, and settled in Calvert county, Md., in 1690; and of Robert Tyler, who immigrated to Prince George county, Md., 1660. Col. Baker Johnson was a Revolutionary soldier and fought at Brandywine and Germantown. Bradley Tyler Johnson was graduated at the College of New Jersey, A.B., 1849, A.M., 1851; studied law at Harvard, 1850-51, was admitted to the bar, and [practiced] in Frederick, Md., 1851-61. He was elected state's attorney of Frederick county, November, 1851; chairman of the Democratic state committee, 1859, and delegate to the Democratic national convention in 1860, and supported the southern wing of the party. When the civil war broke out he organized a company at his own expense and served in the 1st Maryland (Confederate) regiment as its captain. He was promoted major, June 16, 1861; lieutenant-colonel, July 21, 18- 61, and colonel, March 18, 1862. He was commissioned brigadier-general of cavalry, June 28, 1864, and commanded his regiment in all the battles of the Shenandoah valley and in the seven days' battles around Richmond, Va. At Harrisburg, June 6, 1862, Colonel Johnson had his horse shot under him, and on the death of Gen. Turner Ashby, Johnson with his regiment "drove the enemy off with heavy loss," capturing Lieut.-Col. Thomas C. Kane of the Pennsylvania "Bucktails"; and in the battle of Cross Keys, June 8, 1862, by direction of General Ewell, he carried one of the captured bucktails, the insignia of their beaten foe, affixed to his colors as a trophy. On Aug. 28, 1862, he commanded the 2d brigade of Jackson's division and in the raid around Pope's army captured a messenger with important dispatches, that disclosed to Jackson the tactics of the Federal commanders. The remnant of his regiment, decimated by loss, was mustered out and he was assigned to Gen. T. J. Jackson's division. He commanded a brigade under Early in 1864, and took part in the attack on Washington. On July 3, 1864, at Leetown, he drove Mulligan across the railroad, and was in turn driven back by Siegel, who reinforced Mulligan, and on June 11 he warned Early of the reinforcement of Washington by two corps from General Grant's army, and Early withdrew from before the city. As an acknowledgment of his services in defeating the purposes of Kilpatrick's and Dahlgren's raids around Richmond, Feb. 28, 1864, Colonel Johnson's services were recognized in general orders, and he was presented with a sabre of Gen. Wade Hampton. He took heroic measures to feed the Federal prisoners in North Carolina while in command of the post at Salisbury, N.C., 1864-65. After the war he settled in Richmond, Va., and [practiced] law, 1865-79. He removed to Baltimore and continued his practice there, 1879-90. He was a member of the Democratic national convention, 1872; a member of the Virginia state senate, 1875-79, and president of the electoral college of Maryland in 1884. He is the author of: Chase's Decisions (1876); The Foundation of Maryland (1883); Memoirs of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston (1891); General Washington in the "Great Commanders" series (1894); The Confederate History of Maryland (1899); and the article: "Stonewall Jackson's Intentions at Harper's Ferry" in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 2 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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COLLINS, Charles, educator, was born in North Yarmouth, Maine, April 17, 1813. He was graduated at the Wesleyan university in 1837 and joined the Maine conference. He was transferred to the Holston conference in 1838, and helped to found and organize Emory and Henry college, Va., of which institution he was president, 1838- 52. In 1850 he was a delegate to the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal church, south. He was president of Dickinson college, 1852-60; and of the State female college near Memphis, Tenn., 1860-75, which he established. In 1851 the Centenary college, La., the Masonic college, Mo., and Dickinson college, Pa., each conferred upon him the honorary degree of D.D. He contributed to the Ladies' Repository, the Southern Methodist Pulpit, and the Methodist Quarterly Review, and edited The Northern Repertory and College Review (1845-52). He died at Memphis, Tenn., July 10, 1875.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., “ Birney, David Bell,” The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 1 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
Body Summary:
BIRNEY, David Bell, soldier, was born at Huntsville, Ala., May 29, 1825, son of James Gillespie Birney, abolition leader. He studied law in Cincinnati, Ohio, where his father was publishing a newspaper, and removed with him to Bay City, Mich., where he engaged in business. At the outbreak of the civil war he was practicing law in Philadelphia, but abandoned his profession to join the army. He recruited largely at his own expense the 23d Pennsylvania volunteer regiment, of which he was made lieutenant-colonel, and afterwards colonel, being promoted from this rank in successive steps to that of brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers. He served gallantly at Yorktown, Williamsburg, Manassas, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville, and upon the death of General Berry he succeeded him as commander of the division. His commission as major-general was received May 23, 1863, and at the battle of Gettysburg he commanded the 3d corps after General Sickles was wounded, and on July 23, 1864, was made commander of the 10th corps. He returned home with greatly impaired health, and died Oct. 18, 1864. 
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., “Stanton, Elizabeth Cady,” The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 4 (Boston:  The Biographical Society, 1904).
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STANTON, Elizabeth Cady, reformer, was born in Johnstown, N.Y., Nov. 12, 1815; daughter of Judge Daniel Cady (q. v.) and Margaret (Livingston) Cady; and granddaughter of Col. James Livingston (q. v.).   She was graduated from Johnstown academy, taking the second prize in Greek, in 1829, and from Mrs. Emma Willard's seminary, Troy, N.Y., in 1832.  She subsequently read law in her father's office, also acting as his amanuensis, and through this environment became interested in obtaining equal laws for women.   She was married, May 1, 1840, to Henry Brewster Stanton (q.v.), whom she accompanied to the World's Anti-Slavery convention at London, England, participating in the debate in regard to the admission of women as delegates to the convention.  While abroad, she formed a friendship with Mrs. Lucretia Mott (q. v.), with whom she issued the call for the first woman's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, N.Y., July 19-20, 1848, and which, after long and bitter opposition, inaugurated the woman suffrage movement.  In the same year she secured the passage of her "married woman's property bill," and in 1854 addressed both houses of the New York legislature on the unjust laws for women.  She again addressed the legislature in 1860, by request, advocating divorce for drunkenness, and in 1867 urged upon the legislature and the state constitutional convention the right of women to vote. She subsequently canvassed numerous states in behalf of woman suffrage; was; a candidate for representative in the U.S. congress in 1868, and from 1868 annually appeared before a committee of congress, advocating a 16th amendment to the constitution of the United States, granting suffrage to women.  She resided in Tenafly, N.J., 1870-90, and subsequently in New York city.  She was the mother of Daniel Cady Stanton, Louisiana state senator, 1870; Henry Stanton (Columbia, B.L., 1865), corporation lawyer; Hon. Gerrit Smith Stanton (Columbia, B.L., 1865); Theodore Stanton (Cornell, A.B., 1876, M.A.), journalist and author of "Woman Question in Europe; " Margaret Stanton Lawrence (Vassar, A.B., 1876), professor of physical training; Harriot Stanton Blatch (Vassar, A..B., 1878, M.A.), president New York Equal Suffrage league (1903-03); Robert Livingston Stanton (Cornell, B.S. 1880, Columbia, B.L., 1881).  Mrs. Stanton was president of the national committee of her party, 1855-65; of the Woman's Loyal league, 1861; of the National Woman Suffrage association, 1865-93, and honorary president, 1893-1903; and first president and founder of the International Council of Women, 1888.  In 1868, with Susan B. Anthony and Parker Pillsbury, she established and edited the Revolution, a weekly newspaper. She is the author of: The History of Woman Suffrage (with Susan B. Anthony and Matilda J. Gage, 3 vols., 1880-86, vol. 4, 1903); Eighty Years and More, autobiography (1895); The Woman's Bible (1895); and of contributions to periodicals at home and abroad. Her eightieth birthday (1895) was widely celebrated. She died in New York city, Oct. 2, 1902, the funeral address being delivered by the Rev. Moncure D. Conway,  and was buried at Woodlawn cemetery, New York city, where her husband was also buried, the Rev. Phoebe A. Hanaford officiating.  A memorial service was held in New York city, Nov. 19, 1902, William Lloyd Garrison delivering an address.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., “Lewis, Graceanna,” The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 6 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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LEWIS, Graceanna, naturalist, was born in West Vincent, Pa., Aug. 3, 1821; daughter of John and Esther (Fussell) Lewis; granddaughter of John and Grace (Meredith) Lewis, and of Bartholomew and Rebecca (Bond) Fussell; and a descendant of Henry Lewis, a native of Narbeth in Pembrokeshire, South Wales, who came with William Penn to Pennsylvania, in 1682, with his family which included his father, Evan Lewis. Graceanna attended the girls' boarding school at Kimberton, Pa., and later devoted herself to the study of natural history and to painting. She inherited anti-slavery views, her father's house being a station for fugitive slaves en route north by the "underground railroad." She was also an advocate of woman suffrage, and an opponent of war, in accordance with the principles of the Society of Friends of which her family on both sides had long been members. She was made a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; the Philosophical society of Westchester, Pa., the New Century club of Philadelphia; the Natural History societies of Lancaster, Pa., and Rochester, N.Y., the Woman's Anthropological society of America; the National Science club for women; an honorary member of the Woman's club of Philadelphia, and of the Woman's club of Media, Pa., and a life member of the Delaware County Institute of Science. She was also elected secretary of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Media, the Media Woman Suffrage association, and the Delaware County Forestry association; chief of the cultural department of the Media Flower mission, and superintendent of scientific temperance instruction for the Delaware County W.C.T.U. She exhibited a model in wax to accompany her "Chart of the Animal Kingdom" at the Centennial Exposition in 1876 and was commissioned to paint fifty representations of the leaves of forest trees for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. She published in 1869 a pamphlet intended to show The Position of Birds in the Animal Kingdom, and in 1877 Maria Mitchell, then of Vassar college, published, as president of the fourth Congress of Women held in Philadelphia, a second pamphlet on The Development of the Animal Kingdom, being a paper prepared by Miss Lewis for the congress. Her Chart of the Animal Kingdom was prepared previous to 1876, that of the Vegetable Kingdom was completed in 1855, and both were soon supplemented by a Chart of Geology with Special Reference to Paleontology. In addition Miss Lewis devoted many years in part to Microscopic Studies, including Front Crystals, Symmetric Forms, Lower Life Forms, and the Plumage of Birds; and in the preparation of a large number of illustrations for lectures on natural history in its varied departments. She also added to her other charts one On the Class of Birds, and another On the Race of Mankind. She illustrated her botanical studies by numerous water-color paintings of wild- flowers and branchlets of different species of trees, and in 1901 was publishing a series of fifteen Leaf Charts of the most important nut, timber and shade trees, whether native or foreign. Her charts were all improved from time to time with the progress of knowledge.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., "Hamlin, Hannibal," The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 7 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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HAMLIN, Hannibal, vice president of the United States, was born on Paris Hill, Maine, Aug. 27, 1809; son of Dr. Cyrus and Anna (Liver- more) Hamlin; grandson of Capt. Eleazer Hamlin of Pembroke, Mass., who commanded a body of Continental minuteman, which included his sons, Africa, America, Europe and Asia, in the war of the Revolution; and a descendant of James Hamlin, who settled on Cape Cod in 1639. He was prepared for college at Hebron academy, but after 1829 when his father died he was obliged to devote his time to the care of the farm, teaching school in the winter seasons to provide for his mother and sisters. He had made some progress in the study of law, but found little time to prosecute it. He joined with Horatio King in the publication of The Jeffersonian, a local newspaper, which he sold to his partner at the end of a year and again took up the study of law in the office of Gen. Samuel Fessenden in Portland, and was admitted to the bar in 1833, settling at Hampden, Penobscot county. In 1835 he was elected by the Democrats a representative in the state legislature and served, 1835-40. He was speaker of the house for three terms, the youngest man to fill that position in Maine. He was defeated for representative in the 27th congress in the election of 1840, but was a representative in the 28th and 29th congresses, 1843-47. He signaled [signaled] his maiden Democratic speech in congress by announcing that he was an uncompromising foe to the extension of slavery, and after the speech he was congratulated by John Quincy Adams, former President of the United States, who greeted him with: "Light breaketh in the east! sir, light breaketh in the east!" His second notable speech was in opposition to the annexation of Texas, and during his second term he denounced the practice of dueling [dueling], offered and secured the passage of the celebrated "Wilmot proviso" through the house, and was named by the anti- slavery Democrats as speaker. He was thecandidate of the anti-slavery Democrats before the state legislature as U.S. senator in 1846, but was defeated by one vote after the legislature had balloted six weeks. He was elected a representative in the state legislature in 1847 and in May, 1848, was elected by a majority of one vote U.S. senator to till a vacancy caused by the death of Senator John Fairfield and which was at the time of his election held temporarily by W. B. S. Moor,appointed to the vacancy by Governor Dana. He was re-elected in 1850 for a full senatorial term after a dead-lock in the legislature for three months. He renounced his allegiance to the Democratic party on the nomination of Buchanan in 1856, became the Republican candidate for governor of Maine, and was elected by 25,000 plurality. He resigned from the senate on Feb. 6, 1857, to assume the governorship and was succeeded in the U.S. senate by Amos Nourse. He was again elected to the U.S. senate in 1857 and resigned the governorship Feb. 20, 1857, to take his seat in the senate, March 4,1857. He resigned the senatorship, Jan. 1, 1861, having been elected Vice-President on the ticket with Abraham Lincoln for President and was succeeded in the senate by Lot M. Morrill. He presided over the senate throughout the first term of Mr. Lincoln's administration. In 1864 his party gave the vice-presidential nomination to the south, the administration fearing the recognition of the independence of the southern Confederacy by Great Britain and France unless the Republican party took its vice-presidential candidate from a central southern state. He declined the secretaryship of the treasury offered him by President Lincoln; was appointed collector of the port of Boston by President Johnson in 1865 and resigned the lucrative office in 1866 as he disapproved of the policy of the President. He was again elected U.S. senator in 1869 and for the fifth time in 1875. He declined reelection in 1881, after a service of twenty-five years as U.S. senator, during which time he had held the chairmanship of the committees on commerce, post-offices and post-roads, and of foreign affairs. In 1881 President Garfield offered him the position of U.S. minister to Germany, Italy or Spain, and he accepted the mission to Spain, but resigned the post in 188.3. He was regent of the Smithsonian institution, ex officio, 1861-65, and by appointment, 1870-82, and was for a time dean of the board. He received the degree of LL.D. from Colby in 1859, and was trustee of the institution, 1857-91. He was the third citizen of the United States who had been elected and served as Vice-President to die on the nation's birthday. He was twice married, both of his wives being daughters of Judge Stephen Emery of Paris Hill, Maine. He died at the Tanatine Club rooms, Bangor, Maine, July 4, 1891.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., “Marshall, James William,” The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 7 (Boston:  The Biographical Society, 1904).
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MARSHALL, James William, cabinet officer, was born in Clarke county, Va., Aug. 14, 1822; son of James Pede and Susan (Orear) Marshall and grandson of Rush Marshall. He attended the schools of Clarke and Fauquier counties until 1837 when he removed to Mount Sterling, Ky., and engaged in business. He was graduated from Dickinson college, Carlisle. Pa., in 1848. He was adjunct professor of ancient languages at Dickinson, 1848-50, and full professor, 1850-62. In 1850 he was married to Jane Stevenson of Carlisle. He was U.S. consul at Leeds, England, by appointment of President Lincoln, 1861-65. He settled near Bound Brook, N. J., in 1865, and was appointed first assistant postmaster-general by President Grant in 1869, and was appointed postmaster-general in 1874 on the retirement of John A. J. Cresswell, and held the position until the appointment of Marshall Jewell in the same year, when he was re-appointed first assistant postmaster-general, serving until March 3, 1877, after which time he was not in public life.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., "Walker, John George," The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 10 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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WALKER, John George, soldier, was born in Jefferson City, Mo., July 22, 1822; son of John Walker, treasurer of Missouri. He attended the Jesuit college of St. Louis; was appointed 1st lieutenant of mounted rifles, U.S.A., on the outbreak of the Mexican war, and was promoted brevet captain in August, 1847. He took part in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, and was severely wounded at Molino del Rey. He served in the west and southwest; resigned his commission in the U.S. army, July 31, 1861 ; joined the Confederate States army and was appointed major of the cavalry corps. He was promoted brigadier-general, Jan. 9, 1862, commanded Loudoun Heights on the investment of Harper's Ferry, and was the first to open fire upon that place, causing the surrender of the Federal troops. He commanded a division in Longstreet's corps under Gen. Robert E. Lee in the Maryland campaign, taking part in the battle of Antietam, and commanded a division in the Red River campaign under Gen. E. Kirby Smith. He was promoted major-general, Nov. 8, 1863, and commanded the district of West Louisiana in the Trans-Mississippi department, June-August, 1864; the district of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, August, 1864-February, 1865, and commanded Wharton's cavalry corps, February-May, 1865. He commanded Forney's division, trans-Mississippi department until the close of the war when he went to Mexico and later to England. Returning to the United States he resided in Winchester, Va., where he engaged in mining and railway operations. He was U.S. consul-general at Bogota; and a commissioner to invite the South American republics to send representatives to the convention of American republics at Washington. He died in Washington, D.C., July 20, 1893.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 5 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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INGLIS, John Auchincloss, jurist, was born in Baltimore, Md., Aug. 26, 1813; son of the Rev. James Inglis. He was graduated at Dickinson in 1829, studied law and practiced in Cheraw, S.C., and subsequently in the state capital. He became judge of the court of common pleas and general sessions; was raised to the bench of the supreme court of appeals and became one of the four chancellors of the state. He presided over the secession convention of South Carolina in 1860 and drafted the ordinance adopted, Dec. 20, 1860. His house and library were burned in the destruction of Columbia by Sherman's army, Feb. 17, 1865. He practiced law in Baltimore, Md., 1868- 74; was professor in the law department of the University of Maryland, and in 1874 was appointed judge of the orphans' court and elected to the office in 1875. The board of trade of Baltimore made him a judge of the new court of arbitration in 1878. He was a ruling elder in the church of which his father had been pastor, 1802- 20. He died in Baltimore, Md., Aug. 26, 1878.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 2 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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McCLINTOCK, John, educator, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 27, 1814; son of John and Martha (McMackin) McClintook, natives of Ireland. He studied at Wesleyan university. Conn., for a short time in 1831; was a clerk in Philadelphia and bookkeeper in the Methodist Book Concern, New York city, 1828-32, and was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania. A.B., 1835, A.M., 1838. He entered the Philadelpliia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal church in 1835 ; was assistant professor of mathematics in Dickinson college, 1836-39, and professor of ancient classics, 1840-48. He was editor of the Methodist Review, 1848-56; a member of the general conferences of 1856 and 1868; delegate to the Evangelical alliance, Berlin, 1856; fraternal delegate to the Wesleyan Methodist conference of England, and to the Irish, French and German conferences, 1856, and the same year he was transferred to the New York conference. He was president elect of Troy university, 1857-58; declined the presidency of Wesleyan university in 1857, and was stationed at St. Paul's church, New York, 1857-60. He was married in 1836 to Caroline, daughter of Jabez Wakeman, of Jersey City, N.J., and secondly in 1857 to Catharine Wilkins (Stevenson) Emory, daughter of Dr. George Stevenson, of Pittsburgh, Pa., and widow of Robert Emory (q.v.). He was pastor of the American chapel at Paris under the American and Foreign Christian Union, 1860-63, and advocated in France and England the cause of the north. He was corresponding editor of the Methodist, 1860-64; was chairman of the centenary committee of Methodism, 1866. and in co-operation with Daniel Drew, he established the Drew Theological seminary at Madison. N.J., and was president of the seminary and professor of practical theology, 1867-70. The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred on him by the University of Pennsylvania in 1848, and that of LL.D. by Rutgers college in 1866. He edited Sketches of Eminent Methodist Ministers (1854) : Bungener's "History of the Council of Trent" and six centenary hymns by George Lansing Taylor (1866); wrote, with Prof. George R. Crooks, A First Book in Latin (1846), and A First Book in Greek (1848); and is the author of: A Second Book in Greek (1850); A Second Book in Latin (1853), and The Temporal Power of the Pope (1855), and, with James Strong, The Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (12 vols., 1867-82). He lived to see only three volumes published but his name is attached to the whole series. He wrote the introduction to "Anecdotes of the Wesleys" by J.B. Wakeley (1869). Living Words or Unwritten Sermons of the Late John McClintock, D.D., LL.D., with preface by Bishop James, was published in 1871, and Lectures, by the late John McClintock, D.D., LL.D, on the Theological Encyclopaedia and Methodology, edited by John T. Short, B.D., with introduction by James Strong, S.T.D., in 1873. He died in Madison, N.Y., March 4, 1870.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., "Forbes, John Murray," The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 4 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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FORBES, John Murray, merchant, was born in Bordeaux, France, Feb. 23, 1813; son of Ralph Bennet and Margaret (Perkins) Forbes, and grandson of the Rev. John and Dorothy (Murray) Forbes. His father was temporarily engaged in mercantile business in Marseilles and his wife with two children joined him in 1811, having taken passage from Boston in a merchant vessel which was captured and detained by a British man-of-war. Three months after John Murray was bom the family set .sail for Boston, were again captured, put under a prize crew and carried to Corunna, Spain. Sailing thence they were again captured and carried to Portugal and on the third trial they reached Boston in August, 1813. John Murray was educated at the Round Hill school, Northampton, Mass.. where he had as instructors George Bancroft and Joseph G. . Cogswell. He left school to take a position in the counting room of his uncles, James and Thomas H. Perkins, and in 1830 went to China as clerk in the house of Russell & Co. He returned to America in 1833 for the benefit of his health and on Feb. 8, 1834, he was married to Sarah S. Hathaway of New Bedford, Mass. In March, 1834, he returned to Canton, China, and became a partner in the house of Russell & Co. He returned to the United States in 1837 with a fortune gained in trade. He acted as agent lor the Canton house and engaged in business on his own account. In 1861 he used his influence in averting civil war and was appointed a peace commissioner by Governor Andrew. Finding no possibility of securing a peaceful solution to the troubles between the north and south he advised preparation for a long war and aided Governor Andrew in recruiting and equipping the troops from Massachusetts. He advised the issue of bonds and favored making them payable after a long term of years as a permanent loan and not for a short term as a passing emergency. He also advised transporting the first troops sent to Washington by boat rather tlian take the risk of passing through the border states on the railroad. He was sent to England by the government to try and prevent the fitting out of ironclad rams. He was largely interested in western railroads from 1846, and was a director of the most important railroads having a terminus at Chicago. He was a presidential elector in I860, 1868 and 1872, and a personal friend of President Grant. He supported the candidacy of Grover Cleveland in 1884 and was an advocate of free ships to sail under the American flag. He had a home at Milton, Mass., and as a summer home owned Naushon island off the southern coast of Massachusetts, which he made a model American estate. Mr. Forbes died at Milton, Mass., Oct. 12, 1898.
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Rossiter Johnson, ed., “ Daniel, Junius,” The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 3 (Boston:  The Biographical Society, 1904).
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DANIEL, Junius, soldier, was born in Halifax county.  N.C., June 27, 1828; son of John Reeve Jones Daniel. He was graduated from the U.S. military academy in 1851 and served on garrison duty in Kentucky and Missouri, 1851-52; and on frontier duty and scouting in New Mexico, I853-56. He was promoted first lieutenant May 31, 1857, and was on sick leave of absence, 1856-58. He resigned from the army Jan. 14, 1858, and became a planter in Shreveport, La.  In 1861 he joined the Confederate army as colonel and was the organizer and commander of several brigades.  He was promoted brigadier-general Sept. 2, 1862, and was placed in command of five battalions of North Carolina troops operating on the James river.  In May, 1863, he was transferred to General Lee's army and fought at Gettysburg, Wilderness and Spottsylvania.  On May 12, 1864, lie was wounded at the "bloody angle" in the battle of Spottsylvania, Va., and died May 13, 1864.
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Rossiter Johnson, ed., “Mott, Lucretia,” The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 7 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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MOTT, Lucretia, reformer, was born on Nantucket Island, Mass., Jan. 3, 1793; daughter of Capt. Thomas and Anna (Folger) Coffin ; granddaughter of Benjamin Coffin and of William Folger, and a descendant of Tristram (1642) and Dionis (Stevens) Coffin. She removed to Boston, Mass., with her parents in 1804, attended and taught in the Friends school at Nine Partners, N.Y., 1806-10, and there met James Mott (q.v.), to whom she was married at the,  home of her parents in Philadelphia, April 10, 1811. She conducted a school in Philadelphia with Rebecca Bunker, 1817- 18, and in 1818 became a minister in the Society of Friends. She eventually joined her husband, a supporter of Elias Hicks, and as a minister of the Liberal Quakers, journeyed through New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, and Indiana, preaching her faith and advocating the abolition of slavery. She was influential in organizing the American Anti- slavery society at Philadelphia in 1833, but being a woman could not sign the declaration adopted. She also aided in forming female anti- slavery societies, and in 1840 accompanied her husband to London, England, as a delegate from the American Antislavery society to the World's Antislavery convention to which they found, on their arrival, no women were to be admitted. She however made several addresses, and the fact that she was not recognized as a delegate led to the woman's rights movement in England, France and the United States. In 1848, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Martha C. Wright and Mary A. McClintock, she called the first convention at Seneca Falls, N.Y., for the discussion and improvement of the social, civil and religious conditions and rights of women. She thereafter devoted herself to this cause and made her last public appearance at the Suffrage convention held in New York city in 1878. She held meetings with the colored people; was a member of the Pennsylvania Peace society, and an active worker in the Free Religious associations formed in Boston, Mass., in 1868. She also aided in establishing the Woman's Medical college in Philadelphia. See "Life and Letters of James and Lucretia Mott" by Ann Davis Hallowell (1884). She died near Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 11, 1880.
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Rossiter Johnson, ed., "Conway, Moncure Daniel," The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 2 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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CONWAY, Moncure Daniel, author, was born near Falmouth, Va., March 17, 1832; son of Walker Peyton and Margaret Eleanor (Daniel) Conway. His father was presiding justice of Stafford county, and his mother a daughter of Dr. John Moncure Daniel, U.S.A., physician in the war of 1812, and granddaughter of Thomas Stone, signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was graduated at Dickinson college in 1849 and studied law in Warrenton, Va. He expressed his sympathy with institutions of the south in articles written for the Richmond Examiner, of which John Moncure Daniel, his cousin, was editor. He soon abandoned law for the Methodist ministry. His political and religious beliefs having changed, he entered the Unitarian divinity school at Cambridge, Mass., where he was graduated in 1854, and became minister of the Unitarian church in Washington, D. C. His anti -slavery sermons in Washington caused much excitement, and by a small majority he was requested to resign his Washington church in 1857, and was succeeded by W. H. Channing. In 1857 he took charge of the Unitarian church at Cincinnati, Ohio, and during the war settled his father's slaves, escaped from Virginia, at Yellow Springs, Ohio. In 1863 he visited England with a view to lecturing and writing in explanation of the connection of the anti-slavery cause with the war for the Union, and was appointed minister of South Place chapel, London, whose " Centenary History " he wrote in 1895. He returned to the United States in 1884. He was married to Ellen, daughter of Charles Davis and Sarah Pond (Lyman) Dana. He founded the Dial (monthly) in Cincinnati in 1860; edited the Boston Commonwealth (1861-63); contributed to Fraser's Magazine and the Fortnightly Review; was London correspondent of the New York Tribune, and afterward of the Cincinnati Commercial; and contributed to Harper's Magazine, "South Coast Saunterings in England" (1868-69). He was made a member of the Author's club, New York, and of the Phi Beta Kappa association; and in London he was a member of the Anthropological institute, the Folklore society, the Society of authors, the Omar Khayyam club and other clubs. He received the degree of L.H.D. from Dickinson college. Among his published works are : Tracts for Today (1858); The Rejected Stone (1861); The Golden Hour (1862); Testimonies Concerning Slavery (1863); The Earthward Pilgrimage (1870); Republican Superstitions (1872) ; Sacred Anthology (1874); Idols and Ideals (1877); Demonology and Devil-Lore (1879); A Necklace of Stories (1880); The Wandering Jew and the Pound of Flesh (1881); Thomas Carlyle (1881); Travels in South Kensington (1882); Emerson at Home and Abroad (1882); Pine and Palm (1887); Omitted chapters of History disclosed in the Life and Papers of Edmund Randolph (1888); George Washington and Mount Vernon (1889); George Washington's Rules of Civility (1890); Life of Hawthorne (1890); Prisons of Air (1891); Life of Thomas Paine (2 vols., 1892), which has been translated into French.
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Rossiter Johnson, ed., "McKinney, Mordecai," The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 7 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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McKINNEY, Mordecai, lawyer, was born near Carlisle, Pa., in 1796, son of Mordecai and Mary (Chambers) McKinney, and a grandson of Col. William Chambers. He was graduated from Dickinson college, Pa., in 1814, studied law with Judge Duncan of Carlisle, was admitted to the Dauphin county bar in May, 1817, and settled in practice in Harrisburg, Pa. He was district attorney of Union county. Pa., 1821-24; clerk to the county commissioners of Dauphin county, Pa., 1824-27, and was appointed associate judge of Dauphin county by Governor Shulze, Oct. 23, 1827. He subsequently turned his attention to the compilation and publication of law books. He was married to Rachel, daughter of William Graydon, of Harrisburg, Pa. He is the author of: The Pennsylvania Justice of the Peace (2 vols., 1839); A Digest of the Acts of Assembly of Pennsylvania from 1700 to 1840 (1841); The United States Constitutional Manual (1845); The American Magistrate and Civil Officer (1850, new ed., 2 vols., 1853); Pennsylvania Tax Laws (1850); A Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania relative to Banks and Bankers (1854); and Our Government: A Manual for Popular Use (1856). He died at Harrisburg, Pa., Dec. 17, 1867.
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Rossiter Johnson, ed., "Cocke, Philip St. George," The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 2 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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COCKE, Philip St. George, soldier, was born in Fluvanna county, Va., April 17, 1809; son of Gen. John Hartwell and Anne Blaws (Barraud) Cocke; grandson of John Hartwell Cocke; and grandson five degrees removed of Richard Cocke, who was a member of the house of burgesses in 1632 and progenitor of the main line of the Cocke family of Virginia. He was graduated at the U.S. military academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1833, and served at Huntsville, Ala., as lieutenant in the 2d artillery, 1832-33. He was promoted adjutant and resigned April 1, 1834. He was extensively engaged in planting, having large interests both in Virginia and Mississippi; and from 1853 till 1856 was president of the Virginia state agricultural society. In the civil war he commanded the fifth brigade, Virginia volunteers, of the Confederate army at Manassas, and before the end of 1861 was obliged to leave the army by reason of physical disability and nervous prostration. He was married to Sally Elizabeth Courtney Bowdoin, June 4, 1834. He died at "Belmead," Powhatan county, Va., Dec. 26,1861.
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Rossiter Johnson, ed., “Smalls, Robert,” The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 9 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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SMALLS, Robert, representative, was born in Beaufort, S.C., April 5, 1839; son of Robert and Lydia Smalls. He was a slave until May, 1862, when he procured his freedom, began the rigger's trade in Charleston, and soon drifted into a seafaring life, sailing about the coasts of South Carolina and Florida and acquiring a knowledge of the various inlets and harbors which he used to the advantage of the Federal army and navy in 1862-65. In 1861 he entered service on the Confederate steamboat Planter of Charleston Harbor, and May 13, 1862, while the officers were absent in the city, Smalls, in charge of the crew of eight colored men, ran the vessel down the bay and delivered her to the Federal authorities. He was pilot of the U.S. monitor Keokuk in the famous attack on Fort Sumter in April, 1863, when she was struck by Confederate balls 96 times. 19 shots passing through her; she sank next morning off Light House inlet. Smalls, with her commander, Ryan, after a narrow escape, was taken aboard the Ironsides. He was pilot of the U.S. navy until July, 1863, when General Gilmore took charge of the department of the south and Smalls was taken into the quartermaster's department and made pilot in charge of Light House and Stono inlets. On Dec. 1, 1863, when the steamer Planter, Captain Nickerson, loaded with supplies for the troops on Morris Inland, was coming through Folly Inland creek the Confederates from Secessionville opened fire upon her. Captain Nickerson deserted his post, and Smalls, who was on board as pilot, taking her through the creek, assumed command and carried her safely out of reach of the guns. For this act he was promoted to the rank of captain by order of General Gilmore, who had witnessed the attack from Morris Island, and placed in command of the Planter, which was used as a supply boat along the coast until September, 1866, when she was taken to Baltimore, put out of commission and sold. He was a member of the state constitutional conventions of 1868 and 1895; a member of the South Carolina house of representatives, 1868-70; of the state senate, 1870-75, and a Republican representative from South Carolina in the 44th, 45th, 47th, 48th and 49th congresses, 1875-79 and 1881-87. He was a Republican delegate to several Republican national conventions; was in the South Carolina state militia, 1865-77, rising from lieutenant-colonel to major-general, and he organized, 1879, and was captain of the Beaufort light infantry. He was appointed collector of the port of Beaufort in 1889 by President Harrison, in 1898 by President McKinley, and in 1903 by President Roosevelt.
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Rossiter Johnson, ed., "Breese, Sidney," The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 1 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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BREESE, Sidney, jurist, was born in Whitesboro, Oneida county, N. Y., July 15, 1800. He graduated at Union college in 1818, studied law, and removed to Illinois in 1821, where he was admitted to the bar. He successively filled the offices of town postmaster, assistant secretary of state, state's attorney, and United States attorney for Illinois. He was a commissioned officer in the state militia and served as lieutenant of volunteers, during the Black Hawk war. He was appointed circuit judge in 1835, and judge of the supreme court of the state in 1841. In 1843 he was elected to the United States senate, as a democrat, serving until 1849, and during his senatorship, while chairman of the committee on public lands, he made a report favoring the establishment of a transcontinental railway. He was a member of the house of representatives of Illinois, and in 1850 was elected its speaker. In 1855 he was again appointed judge of the circuit court and was chief of the court. In 1857 he was elected justice of the supreme court of the state, and in 1873 became chief justice, holding the office during his lifetime. He was one of the originators of the Illinois Central railroad, and from 1845 to 1849 regent of the Smithsonian institution. He published a volume of " Decisions of the Supreme Court" (1829); a work on " Illinois " (1869); and another on the " Origin and History of the Pacific Railroad " (1869). He died at Pinckneyville, 111., June 27. 1878.
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Rossiter Johnson, ed., "Bissell, George William," The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 1 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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BISSELL, William Henry, statesman, was born at Hartwick, Otsego county, N. Y., April 25, 1811. He obtained an education through his own efforts, earning the money in winter that enabled him to attend school in the summer. He was graduated at the Philadelphia medical college in 1835, practised for two years in Steuben county, N. Y., and for three years in Monroe county, IL., and was elected to the Illinois legislature, where he made quite a reputation as a ready and able debater. He turned his attention to the study of the law, was admitted to the bar, practised in Belleville, IL., and was elected prosecuting attorney of St. Clair county in 1844. During the Mexican war he served as captain of a company in the 2d Illinois volunteers, and took an active part in the battle of Buena Vista. He represented Illinois in the national house of representatives in the 31st, 32d and 33d congresses, from December, 1849, to March 3, 1855, and hia emphatic opposition to the Missouri compromise involved him in a controversy with southern Democrats. The question as to the bravery of the soldiers from the north as compared with that shown by the south in the Mexican war led to a debate with Jefferson Davis, and resulted in Mr. Bissell being challenged by Mr. Davis. He accepted the challenge, and chose muskets as the weapons to be used at thirty paces. The friends of Mr. Davis interfered at this juncture and the duel was never fought. On the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, Mr. Bissell separated from the Democratic party and was elected governor of Illinois on the Republican ticket, serving by re-election from 1856 until his death, which occurred at Springfield, IL., March 18, 1860.
Citation:
Rossiter Johnson, ed., "Deas, Zachariah Cantey," The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 3 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904).
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DEAS, Zachariah Cantey, soldier, was born in Camden, S.C., Oct. 25, 1819; son of Col. James Sutherland and Morgood (Chesnut) Deas. His father was a state senator of South Carolina. His mother was a sister of James Chesnut, Jr., U.S. senator. In 1836 he removed to Mobile, Ala., and engaged in business. In 1847 he served in the Mexican war, and in 1861 joined the Confederate army as aide-de-camp to Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, and was on his staff during the battle of Manassas, July 21, 1861. He recruited and was elected colonel of the 22d Alabama volunteers. The government having no means of equipping the regiment for service, he purchased 800 Enfleld rifles, paying $28,000 in gold therefor. He was reimbursed in 1862, the government paying him the amount in Confederate bonds. He led the regiment at Shiloh and succeeded during the fight to the command of the brigade. He had two horses shot under him and was severely wounded the second day of the fight. With his regiment he participated in the battles of Munfordville and Salt River, Ky. At Murfreesboro, Tenn., his regiment was engaged the second day of the battle of Stone's River. Dec. 31, 1862-Jan. 3, 1863, and he superseded General Gardner as brigade commander, Dec. 31, 1863. His promotion to the rank of brigadier-general was signed Dec. 13, 1862, before this battle was fought. He led the brigade at Chickamauga, routed Sheridan's division and captured seventeen pieces of artillery. In this engagement the Federal general, W. H. Lytle, was killed, and General Deas lost forty per cent of his brigade. He also led the brigade at Missionary Ridge, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta and Jonesboro. In the engagements in Tennessee in 1865 he was wounded at Franklin and before Nashville, when he succeeded Gen. Edward Johnston in the command of a division. On the last day of this battle he had in his brigade only 244 men, although he left Dalton 2075 strong and had received 300 recruits. When the retreat was ordered his division numbered only 750 men. With these men he opposed Sherman's march through South Carolina, and when he reached Raleigh, N.C., he fell sick and was obliged to resign. After the war he lived in New York city, where he died, March 6, 1882.
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