The Spanish authorities execute by garroting the Venezuelan-born Cuban filibuster Narciso López in Havana after a failed attempt to overthrow Spanish rule in Cuba. Several of his American followers, including Colonel William Crittenden of Kentucky are executed by firing squad. These events cause much consternation in the United States. (By Brian Bockelman)
"President's Message," New York Times, December 3, 1851, p. 5.