On the early morning of this day, after a demand to surrender had been refused, U.S. Marines stormed the engine house where Brown, his surviving raiders, and their hostages had been surrounded. One Marine and several raiders were killed in the assault but all hostages escaped unharmed. Brown was wounded and taken prisoner, along with four of his men. (By John Osborne)
John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002), 237.