The recent plebiscite in northern Italy had established that the vast majority of residents there wished to be annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia so as to join the swiftly moving march towards a united Italy. Almost immediately King Victor Emmanuel of Piedmont-Sardinia decreed from Turin that the provinces that made up Emilia, which included Bologna, Modena, Parma, were now a part of his kingdom. Tuscany followed four days later. (By John Osborne)
Great Britain, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, British and Foreign State Papers, Vol. 57 (London, H.M.S.O., 1871), 1029.