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In London, Britain, France, and Spain agree to a military intervention in Mexico to force payment of debts

Mexico, 1857, zoomable map
10/31/1861
Mexico had suspended interest payments on the nation's giant foreign debt in July 1861. The main European debtors, Britain, France, and Spain, signed a convention in London for an occupation of Mexican customs houses, beginning with Vera Cruz, to force continued payments.  A combined fleet sailed in December 1861. When the agreement broke down, France took the opportunity for a full scale intervention in Mexico in early 1862.  (By John Osborne)   
Source Citation: 
Brian R. Hamnett, A Concise History of Mexico (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 163-164. 

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