DELAWARE (Fanning's, 1853)

Fanning's Illustrated Gazetteer of the United States.... (New York: Phelps, Fanning & Co., 1853), 102-104.
DELAWARE, one of the United States, the smallest in the Union in respect to population, and, next to Rhode Island, in territory also, lies between З8° 27' and 39 50' north lat. and 75 and 75° 40' west lon, from Greenwich, and is bounded north by Pennsylvania, east by the Delaware river and bay; and south and west by Maryland. Its length from north to south ¡s 90 miles, its greatest breadth 32 miles, and its superficial area 2,120 miles. It derives its name from the bay on which it lies, and which received its name from Lord Delaware (or de la War), governor of Virginia, who died upon its waters.
Physical Aspect. — The general aspect of this state is that of an extended plain, or several inclined plains, favorable for cultivation. Some of the upper portions of the county of Newcastle, however, are irregular and broken; the heights of Christiana are lofty and commanding; and the hills of Brandywine are rough and stony; but in the region toward Delaware river and bay there ¡s very little diversity of surface. On the table land, forming the dividing ridge between the Delaware and Chesapeake, is a chain of swamps, which give rise to various streams, that descend the slopes to either bay. Along the Delaware river, and some ten miles into the interior, the soil generally consists of a rich clay, well adapted to the purposes of agriculture; but between this tract and the swamps the soil is sandy and light, and of inferior quality. I n the county of Newcastle the soil is a strong clay; in Kent it is mixed with sand; and in Sussex the sand greatly predominates.
Rivers and Bays. — The principal streams, besided the Delaware river, which forms a part of the eastern boundary, are Brandywine, Jones, Christiana, Duck, and Mispillion creeks, and Choptank, Marshy Hope, and Nanticoke rivers. India river enters the Atlantic by a broad estuary, and Delaware bay washes the state on the east.
Climate — The climate is generally mild and healthy; but the two extremes differ in temperature more than might be expected in as little extent of latitude, and in so small a difference in relative height. The winters in the northern part are somewhat cold, but never severe. The summers are hot in those situations not tempered by the breezes from the bays.
Productive Resources. — The principal staple products are horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, poultry, eggs, swine, beef, pork, silk, wool, hay, butter, cheese, milk, wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, potatoes, peaches, and Indian corn. The county of Sussex exports large quantities of timber, obtained from Cypress swamps, or Indian river. Delaware contains but few minerals. Among the branches of the Nanticoke there are large quantities of bog iron ore, however, well adapted for castings. Before the Revolution it was worked to some extent, but since that period the business has declined.
Manufactures. — The manufactures of Delaware consist chiefly of woollen and cotton goods, leather, paper, iron, gunpowder, &c. Its flouring-mîlls are numerous and extensive, and its flour takes a high stand in the market.
Railroads and Canals.— The only railroads within the state are, the Frenchtown, from Newcastle to Frenchtown, 16 miles; the Philadelphia and Wilmington, and the Wilmington and Baltimore, which form part of the great line of travel from the northern to the southern Atlantic states. The Chesapeake and Detaware sloop canal, 14 miles long, is the only canal in the state. It extends from Delaware city to Back creek, and unites the waters of the two great bays from which it takes its name.
Commerce. — The foreign commerce of Delaware is very small. The amount of shipping owned in the state is about 17,000 tons, 15,000 of which is engaged in the coasting-trade.
Education. — There is but one college in Delaware, which is located at Newark, and was founded in 1833. There are about 30 academies, and 250 common schools in the state.
Population.— In 1790, 59,094; in 1800, 64,273; in 1810, 72,974; in 1820, 72,749; in 1830, 76,739; ¡n 1840, 78,085; in 1850, 91,535. Number of slaves in 1790, 8,887; in 1800, 6,153; in 1810, 4,177; in 1820, 4,509; in 1830, 3,293; in 1840, 2,605 ; in 1850, 2,289.
Government. — The legislative power is vested in a senate, of nine members, three from each county, chosen for four years, and a house of representatives, of twenty-one members, seven from each county, chosen for two years. The executive power is vested in а governor, chosen for four years, and ineligible ever after.
General election, biennially, second Tuesday in November, and the legislature meets at Dover on the first Tuesday in January. The judicial power is vested in a court of errors, superior court, court of chancery, orphan's court, oyer and terminer, general sessions, register's court, and such other courts as may be established by law. The right of suffrage is granted to every white male citizen, twenty-two years of age, after one year's residence in the state, and one month in the county where he votes, and having within two years paid a tax; also to those persons, qualified as aforesaid, twenty-one years of age, without payment of tax.
History. — Lord Delaware, governor of Virginia, first entered the bay known by his name in 1610. The Dutch from the New Netherlands (New York) soon afterward visited it and claimed jurisdiction. The first permanent settlement upon the Delaware was made by a colony of Swedes, in 1627, under the auspices of the Swedish West India Company. The Dutch asserted their claim by an appeal to arms, and, with a competent force, took possession of the country, in 1655, and attached it to the New Netherlands. When the latter came into the possession of the Duke of York, in 1681, William Penn, as stated in the history of Pennsylvania, purchased what is now the state of Delaware, and annexed it to Pennsylvania. Delaware had a legislature separate from that of Pennsylvania, but after 1703 one governor ruled both. It remained in this subordinate condition until 1776, when the inhabitants declared it a free and independent state, and organized a government under it. It was the first to ratify the constitution, which it did on the 7th of December, 1787. Its state constitution was adopted in 1792, and revised and amended in 1831. Motto of the state seal, "Liberty and Independence."

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