California, Finance and Industry (Hayward)

Gazetteer/Almanac
John Hayward, Gazetteer of the United States of America… (Philadelphia: James L. Gihon, 1854), 29-34.
Finances. — The state debt in January, 1851, was $500,000, — existing in the shape of bonds of $500 and $1000 each, — drawing interest at the rate of three per cent a month. The means of meeting the public expenditure are derived chiefly from taxation. In 1850, the inhabitants of San Francisco and Sacramento were taxed at the rate of two to three per cent., principally, however, for municipal purposes. The state derives an income of $1,525,000 from the following sources: 1. A state tax of one half per cent, on $200,000,000, the estimated value of taxable property, amounting to $1,000,000; 2. A poll tax of $5 each on 50,000 inhabitants; and, 3. A miner's tax of $20 per month on 25,000 foreign miners,* — the two latter items producing about half a million of dollars; — and, 4. Duties on sales at auction, estimated at $25,000. The whole expense of the state government in 1850, including interest on the public debt, was $700,000, deducting which from the computed receipts, a balance of $825,000 remained in the treasury.
* This tax was repealed in the spring of 1851...

Manufactures.
— The only manufacturing branches at present carried on in California are such as chiefly pertain to the casual wants of the people; and these are confined to mechanical operations connected with the construction and repairing of houses, vessels, furniture, &c., the making up of clothing, and the fabrication of various articles needed by miners. Some considerable amount of gold is formed into jewelry, much of which is sent abroad; but no other commodities, to any great extent, are manufactured for exportation...

Internal Improvements. — But little attention has hitherto been given to this subject, beyond providing for the temporary accommodation of residents in the principal settlements. No railroads or canals of any importance have yet been constructed; although projects have been suggested for several improvements of this description. It is not probable that many years will elapse before ample and convenient means of communication will be established between the seaports and the mining districts; for the necessities of the people, and the nature of their pursuits, must soon demand far greater facilities of intercourse than any now existing...
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