Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography

Wilson, James Grant and John Fiske. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888.
Source Type
Secondary
Year
1888
Publication Type
Book
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Curtin, Andrew Gregg,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1900), 2: 34.
Body Summary:
CURTIN, Andrew Gregg, governor of Pennsylvania, b. in Bellefonte, Centre со., Pa., 22 April, 1815; d. there, 7 Oct., 1894. His father came from Ireland in 1793, and in 1807 established near Bellefonte one of the first manufactories of iron in that region. Andrew studied law in Dickinson college law-school, was admitted to the bar in 1839, and soon became prominent. He early entered politics as a whig, laboring for Harrison's election in 1840, and making a successful canvass of the state for Clay in 1844. He was a presidential elector in 1848, and a candidate for elector on the whig ticket in 1852. In 1854 Gov. Pollock appointed him secretary of the commonwealth and ex-officio superintendent of common schools, and in the discharge of his duties Mr. Curtin did much toward reforming and perfecting the school system of the state. In his annual report of 1855 he recommended to the legislature the establishment of normal schools, and his suggestion was adopted. In 1860 he was the republican candidate for governor. The democrats, though divided in national politics, were united in Pennsylvania, but Mr. Curtin was elected by a majority of 32,000. In his inaugural address he advocated the forcible suppression of secession, and throughout the contest that followed he was one of the “war governors” who were most earnest in their support of the national government. He responded promptly to the first call for troops, and when Gen. Patterson, who was in command in Pennsylvania, asked for twenty-five thousand more, they were immediately furnished. Gen. Patterson's requisition was afterward revoked by the secretary of war, on the ground that the troops were not needed; but Gov. Curtin, instead of disbanding them, obtained authority from the legislature to equip them at the state's expense, and hold them subject to the call of the national government. This body of men became known as the “Pennsylvania Reserve,” and was accepted by the authorities at Washington a few weeks later. Gov. Curtin was untiring in his efforts for the comfort of the soldiers, answering carefully the numerous letters sent him from the field, and originated a system of care and instruction for the children of those slain in battle, making them wards of the state. He thus became known in the ranks as “the soldiers' friend.” Gov. Curtin's health began to fail in 1863, and he signified his intention of accepting a foreign mission that had been offered him as soon as his term should expire, but in the mean time he was re- nominated, and re-elected by 15,000 majority. In November, 1865, he went to Cuba for his health, and in that year declined another offer of a foreign mission. In 1869 Gen. Grant appointed him minister to Russia, and in 1868 and 1872 he was prominently mentioned as a candidate for vice-president. He returned home in August, 1872, supported Horace Greeley for the presidency, and subsequently joined the democratic party, by which he was elected to congress for three successive terms, serving from 1881 till 1887.
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Burns, Anthony,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), 1: 460.
Body Summary:
BURNS, Anthony, fugitive slave, b. in Virginia about 1830; d. in St. Catharines, Canada, 27 July, 1862. He effected his escape from slavery in Virginia, and was at work in Boston in the winter of 1853-'4. On 23 May, 1854, the U. S. house of representatives passed the Kansas-Nebraska bill repealing the Missouri compromise, and permitting the extension of negro slavery, which had been restricted since 1820. The news caused great indignation throughout the free states, especially in Boston, where the anti-slavery party had its headquarters. Just at this crisis Burns was arrested by U. S. Marshal Watson Freeman, under the provisions of the fugitive-slave act, on a warrant sworn out by Charles F. Suttle. He was confined in the Boston court-house under a strong guard, and on 25 May was taken before U. S. Commissioner Loring for examination. Through the efforts of Wendell Phillips and Theodore Parker, an adjournment was secured to 27 May, and in the mean time a mass-meeting was called at Faneuil hall, and the U. S. marshal summoned a large posse of extra deputies, who were armed and stationed in and about the court-house to guard against an expected attempt at the rescue of Burns. The meeting at Faneuil hall was addressed by the most prominent men of Boston, and could hardly be restrained from adjourning in a body to storm the court-house. While this assembly was in session, a premature attempt to rescue Burns was made under the leadership of Thomas W. Higginson. A door of the courthouse was battered in, one of the deputies was killed in the fight, and Col. Higginson and others of the assailants were wounded. A call for re-enforcements was sent to Faneuil hall, but in the confusion it never reached the chairman. On the next day the examination was held before Commissioner Loring, Richard H. Dana and Charles M. Ellis appearing for the prisoner. The evidence showed that Burns was amenable under the law, and his surrender to his master was ordered. When the decision was made known, many houses were draped in black, and the state of popular feeling was such that the government directed that the prisoner be sent to Virginia on board the revenue cutter “Morris.” He was escorted to the wharf by a strong guard, through streets packed with excited crowds. At the wharf the tumult seemed about to culminate in riot, when the Rev. Daniel Foster (who was killed in action early in the civil war) exclaimed, “Let us pray !” and silence fell upon the multitude, who stood with uncovered heads, while Burns was hurried on board the cutter. A more impressively dramatic ending, or one more characteristic of an excited but law-abiding and God-fearing New England community, could hardly be conceived for this famous case. Burns afterward studied at Oberlin college, and eventually became a Baptist minister, and settled in Canada, where, during the closing years of his life, he presided over a congregation of his own color. See “Anthony Burns, A History,” by С. Е. Stevens (Boston, 1854).
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1900), 2: 380.
Body Summary:
EVANS, Augusta Jane, author, b. in Columbus. Ga., 8 May, 1835. When a child she removed with her father to Texas, residing in San Antonio from 1847 till 1840, when the family settled in Mobile, Ala. She was educated almost entirely by her mother. While her parents lived in the frontier town of San Antonio the Mexican war was in progress, and that town was a place of rendezvous for the soldiers sent out to re-enforce Gen. Taylor. She afterward entered a school in Mobile, but delicate health compelled her to leave it. During the civil war Miss Evans was an active, zealous sympathizer with the south, and a benefactor to the soldiers that were stationed near her country home. An encampment a short distance from her residence was named in her honor, ''Camp Beulah," and there she was a constant visitor among the sick and the dying. Miss Evans married in 1808 L. M. Wilson, of Mobile. Her novels have become widely popular. She is the author of "Inez, a Tale of the Alamo," anonymous (New York, 1856); "Beulah," the novel that established her reputation (1859); "Macana" (Richmond. 1804); "St. Elmo" (New York-, I860): "Vashti" (1809); " Infelice" (1875); and " At the Mercy of Tiberius " (1887).
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Collins, Charles,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), 1: 691.
Body Summary:
COLLINS, Charles, educator, b. in North Yarmouth, Me.. 17 April, 1813; d. in Memphis, Tenn., 10 July, 1875. He was graduated lit Wesleyan university, Middletown. Conn., in 1837, taught the high-school in Augusta, Me., for a year, was president of Emory and Henry college, in Emory, Va., from its establishment in 1838 till 1852, when he became president of Dickinson college, Pa. From 1800 till his death he was proprietor and president of the State female college near Memphis, Tenn. He contributed many articles to Methodist magazines, and published a discourse on “Methodism and Calvinism Compared” (Philadelphia, 1849).
Citation:
Jaems Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., "Pennypacker, Elijah Funk," Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1900), 4: 719.
Body Summary:
PENNYPACKER, Elijah Funk, reformer, b. in Chester county, Pa., 20 Nov., 1804; d. in Phœnixville, Pa., 4 Jan., 1888. He was educated in the private schools in Burlington, N. J., taught there, and subsequently engaged in land surveying in Phœnixville, Pa. He then became interested in real estate, was in the legislature in 1831-'5, chairman of its committee on banks, and a principal mover in the establishment of public schools. In 1836-'8 he was a canal commissioner. He joined the Society of Friends about 1841, and thenceforth for many years devoted himself to the abolition movement, becoming president of the local anti-slavery society, and of the Chester county, and Pennsylvania state societies. He was an active manager of the "Underground railroad," and his house was one of its stations. With John Edgar Thompson he made the preliminary surveys of the Pennsylvania railroad. He aided the suffering poor in Ireland in the famine of 1848, and subsequently identified himself with the Prohibition party, becoming their candidate for state treasurer in 1875. He was an organizer of the Pennsylvania mutual fire insurance company in 1869, and was its vice-president till 1879, when he became president, holding office till January, 1887, when he resigned.  John G. Whittier says of him: "In mind, body, and brave championship of the cause of freedom he was one of the most remarkable men I ever knew."
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Stanton, Elizabeth Cady,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1903), 7: 478-479.
Body Summary:
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, reformer, born in Johnstown, N. Y., Nov. 12. 1815: died in New- York city, Oct. 26, 1902. She was the daughter of Daniel Cady and widow of Henry B. Stanton. (For a sketch of Mr. Stanton's life, see Annual Cyclopaedia for 1887, page 613.) She was graduated at Johnstown Academy and at Emma Willard's Seminary in 1832, and was married in 1840. In 1840 she removed to Seneca Falls, N. Y., and two years later she issued a call for the first woman's congress and began the woman-suffrage movement. She addressed the New York Legislature on the rights of married women in 1854, and in advocacy of divorce for drunkenness in 1860. In 1866, believing women to be eligible for public office, she offered herself as a candidate for Congress. For twenty-five years she annually addressed a congressional committee in favor of an amendment to the Federal Constitution granting enlarged privileges to women. Mrs. Stanton was president of the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1865-‘93, and honorary president of the Woman's Loyal League in 1861. In 1868, with Susan H. Anthony and Parker Pillsbury, she established a periodical entitled The Revolution, which was discontinued a few years later. Among her publications were The History of Woman Suffrage (with Susan B. Anthony and Matilda Joslyn Gage); Eighty Years and More (1895); and (with others) The Woman's Bible (1895).
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Doles, George Pierce,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), 2: 196.
Body Summary:
DOLES, George Pierce, soldier, b. in Milledgeville, Ga., 14 May, 1830 ; d. near Cold Harbor, Va., 2 June, 1864. He was educated in Milledgeville, and at the beginning of the civil war was captain of a militia company called the "Baldwin Blues." His services and those of his command were at once offered to the governor of Georgia and accepted. He was made a captain in the 4th Georgia infantry, and in May, 1862, became colonel of his regiment. He followed the fortunes of the army of Northern Virginia, and at the battle of Gettysburg succeeded to the command of a brigade. His commission as brigadier-general bore date 2 Nov., 1862. During the overland campaigns he commanded a division in Gen. Ewell's corps, and was killed in the battle of Cold Harbor.
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., "Bagby, George William," Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: Appleton & Co., 1888), 1: 135.
Body Summary:
BAGBY, George William, author, b. in Buckingham со., Va., 13 Aug., 1828 ; d. in Richmond, Va., 29 Nov., 1883. He was educated at Edgehill school, Princeton. N. J., and at Delaware college. Newark, Del., leaving the latter at the end of his sophomore year. Subsequently he studied medicine and was graduated at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. In 1853 he became editor of the Lynchburg (Va.) daily " Express," and was for some time the Washington correspondent of the New Orleans "Crescent," Charleston " Mercury," and Richmond " Dispatch." From 1859 he was, until its suspension near the end of the war, editor of the "Southern Literary Messenger." and at the same time associate editor of the Richmond " Whig," and a frequent contributor to the "Southern Illustrated News." From 1 Jan., 1870. to 1 July, 1878, he was state librarian of Virginia. He lectured frequently, and met with success as a humorist in many parts of Virginia and Maryland. He was the author of many humorous articles published under the pen name of " Mozis Addums." His sketches were collected and published by Mrs. Bagby, as "The Writings of Dr. Bagby ".
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Villard, Henry,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1889), 6: 294.
Body Summary:
VILLARD, Henry, financier, b. in Spire, Bavaria, 11 April, 1835. His name was originally Gustavus Hilgard. He was educated at the universities of Munich and Wllrzburg, and came to the United States in 1853. He studied law for a time in Belleville and Peoria, Ill., then removed to Chicago, and wrote for papers. In 1859 he visited the newly discovered gold region of Colorado as correspondent of the Cincinnati "Commercial," and on his return published a volume entitled "The Pike's Peak Gold Regions" (1860). He also sent statistics to the New York "Herald" that were intended to influence the location of a Pacific railroad route. He then settled in Washington as political correspondent for eastern and western newspapers, and during the war was an army correspondent. He married Fanny, a daughter of William Lloyd Garrison, at Washington on 3 Jan., 1866, went to Europe as correspondent of the New York "Tribune," returned to the United States in June, 1868, and shortly afterward was elected secretary of the American social science association, to which he devoted his labors till 1870, when he went to Germany for his health. While living at Wiesbaden he engaged in the negotiation of American railroad securities; and, when many companies defaulted in the payment of interest, after the crash of 1873, he joined several committees of German bond-holders, doing the major part of their work, and in April, 1874, returned to the United States to represent his constituents, and especially to execute an arrangement with the Oregon and California railroad company. On visiting Oregon, he was impressed with the natural wealth of the region, and conceived the plan of gaining control of its few transportation routes. His clients, who were large creditors also of the Oregon steamship company, approved his scheme, and in 1875 Mr. Villard became, president of both corporations. He was appointed in 1876 a receiver of the Kansas Pacific railroad as the representative of European creditors, and was removed in 1878, but continued the contest he had begun with Jay Gould and finally obtained better terms for the bond-holders than they had agreed to accept. The European investors in the Oregon and San Francisco steamship line, after building new vessels, became discouraged, and in 1879 Villard formed an American syndicate and purchased the property. He also acquired that of the Oregon steam navigation company, which operated fleets of steamers and portage railroads on the Columbia river. The three companies that he controlled were amalgamated, under the name of the Oregon railway and navigation company. He began the construction of a railroad up Columbia river, and failing in his effort to obtain a permanent engagement from the Northern Pacific company, which had begun its extension into Washington territory, to use the Columbia river line as its outlet to the Pacific ocean, he succeeded, with the aid of a syndicate which was called a "blind pool," in acquiring control of the Northern Pacific property, and organized a new corporation that was named the Oregon and Transcontinental company. After some contention with the old managers of the Northern Pacific road, Villard was elected president of a reorganized board of directors on 15 Sept., 1881. The main line to the Pacific ocean was completed, with the aid of the Oregon and Transcontinental company; but at the time when it was opened to traffic with festivities, in September, 1883, the "bears" of the stock market arranged an attack on the securities of the allied companies, and Villard, in the vain endeavor to support the properties, sacrificed his large fortune, and on 4 Jan., 1884, resigned the presidency of the Northern Pacific railroad. After spending the intervening time in Europe, he returned to New York city in 1886, and has since purchased for German capitalists large amounts of the securities of the transportation system that he was instrumental in creating, becoming again director of the Northern Pacific company, and on 21 June, 1888, again president of the Oregon and Transcontinental company. He has given a large fund for the State university of Oregon, liberally aided the University of Washington territory, founded a hospital and school for nurses in his native town, and devoted large sums to the Industrial art school of Rhenish Bavaria, and to the foundation of fifteen scholarships for the youth of that province.
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Johnson, Herschel Vespasian,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), 3: 443.
Body Summary:
JOHNSON, Herschel Vespasian, statesman, b. in Burke county, Ga., 18 Sept., 1812; d. in Jefferson county, Ga., 10 Aug., 1880. He was graduated at the University of Georgia in 1834, studied law, and practised in Augusta, Ga., till 1839, when he removed to Jefferson county. In 1840 he entered politics as a Democrat, and in 1844 he removed to Milledgeville, serving also in that year as a presidential elector. He was subsequently appointed U. S. senator in place of Walter T. Colquitt, resigned, serving from 14 Feb., 1848, till 3 March, 1849. In November of the latter year he was elected, by the legislature of Georgia, judge of the superior court for the Ocmulgee district, which office he occupied until his nomination as governor in 1853, when he resigned. He had in the mean time been a member of the Southern Rights party, but when Georgia resolved to acquiesce m the compromise measures of 1850 he was one of the first to declare that the causes that had led to the organization of that movement had ceased to exist. He was elected governor in 1853, and re-elected in 1855. In 1860 he was nominated for the vice-presidency on the ticket with Stephen A. Douglas. He opposed the secession of Georgia to the last; but when the fact was accomplished he cast his lot with his state, and was chosen to the Confederate senate. In 1864 he began the “peace movement” on the basis of state sovereignty. In September of the same year he held a conference with Andrew Johnson regarding reconstruction, and the following month presided over the Georgia constitutional convention. In January, 1866, on the restoration of his state to the Union, he was chosen as one of the two U. S. senators to which Georgia was entitled, but was unable to serve under the reconstruction acts of congress. He then resumed the practice of the law, and when his disabilities were finally removed he was, in 1873, placed on the circuit bench for the term of eight years, which office he filled until his death. As an orator, a constitutional lawyer, and a jurist, Judge Johnson took high rank.
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Creswell, John A. J,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), 2: 8.
Body Summary:
CRESWELL, John A. J., statesman, b. in Port Deposit, Cecil co., Md., 18 Nov., 1828. He was graduated at Dickinson college. Pa., in 1848, studied law, and was admitted to the Maryland bar in 1850. He was a member of the state legislature in 1860 and 1862, and assistant adjutant-general for Maryland in 1862-'3. He was elected to congress, and served from 7 Dec., 1863, till 3 March, 1865; and, having distinguished himself as an earnest friend of the Union, was elected as a republican to the U. S. senate in March, 1865, to fill the unexpired term of Thomas H. Hicks. On 22 Feb., 1866, he delivered, at the request of the House of representatives, a memorable eulogy of his friend and colleague, Henry Winter Davis. He was a delegate to the Baltimore convention of 1864, the Philadelphia loyalists' convention of 1866, the Border states convention held in Baltimore in 1867, and the Chicago republican convention of 1868. In May, 1868, he was elected secretary of the U. S. senate, but declined. On 5 March, 1869, he was appointed by President Grant postmaster-general of the United States, and served till 3 July, 1874.
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., "Edwards, John," Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1900), 2: 306.
Body Summary:
EDWARDS, John, lawyer, b. in Jefferson county, Ky., 24 Oct., 1815. He received a common-school education, studied law, and entered upon the practice of his profession. He was a member of the legislature of Indiana from 1845 till 1849, when he emigrated to California, and was at once made alcalde. He returned to Indiana in 1852, and was in the same year elected to the state senate. He removed subsequently to Iowa, was chosen a member of the State constitutional convention in 1855. and was in the legislature from 1856 till 1860. serving the last two years as speaker of the house. On 21 May, 1861, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel and aide-de-camp on the governor's staff. He organized and commanded state troops until May, 1862, when he became colonel of the 18th Iowa infantry. On 26 Sept., 1864, he was promoted to be brigadier-general of volunteers, and was mustered out of the service, 15 Jan.. 1866. After the close of the war he settled at Fort Smith, Ark., and was appointed U.S. assessor, 6 Aug., 1866. He was also elected a member of the 42d congress as a liberal Republican, but his election was successfully contested by Thomas Boles, who took his seat, 9 Feb., 1872.
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Inglis, John Auchincloss,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), 3: 350.
Body Summary:
[INGLIS], John Auchincloss, jurist, b. in Baltimore, Md., 26 Aug., 1813; d. there, 26 Aug., 1878, was graduated at Dickinson in 1831, studied law, and began to practise in Cheraw, S. C. He became judge of the court of common pleas and general sessions, and of the supreme court of appeals, and was also appointed one of the four chancellors of the state. He was president of the State convention that adopted the ordinance of secession, and drafted that document. His house and library were destroyed by Sherman's army in the burning of Columbia in 1864. In 1868 he removed to Baltimore, where he entered into practice, and in 1870 he accepted a professorship in the law department of the University of Maryland. In 1874 he was appointed judge of the orphan's court, and he was re-elected in 1875. Shortly before his death he was appointed by the board of trade a judge of the new court of arbitration. Judge Inglis was active in religious matters, and for several years before his death served as a ruling elder in a Presbyterian church in Baltimore.
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “McClintock, John,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1900), 4: 87.
Body Summary:
McCLINTOCK, John, educator, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 27 Oct., 1814; d. in Madison. Morris co., N. J., 4 March, 1870. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1835. Before his graduation he had begun to preach in the New Jersey conference of the Methodist Episcopal church. In 1836 he was appointed professor of mathematics in Dickinson college, Carlisle, Pa., where he remained twelve years, exchanging the mathematical chair in 1848 for that of Greek and Latin. In 1846 he began, in connection with George R, Crooks, a series of text-books of those languages, in which the method of “imitation and repetition,” now generally used, was first introduced. In 1848 he was elected by the general conference editor of the “Methodist Quarterly Review,” and this place he filled for eight years, during which time he gave that periodical a high literary and scholarly character. While in his hands the “Review” rendered especial service by its examination of the positive philosophy of Comte, and the detection of its errors. These essays attracted the attention of the French philosopher, and led to correspondence between him and their author. In 1856 Dr. McClintock was appointed, with Bishop Simpson, a delegate to the Wesleyan Methodist conference of England, and was also present in a similar capacity at the Berlin meeting of the Evangelical alliance the same year. Returning to the United States, he became pastor of St. Paul's church, New York city, in 1857, where he soon became known as one of the eloquent preachers of the metropolis. His charge of the church expiring by limitation in 1860, he sailed for Europe in June to become pastor of the American chapel in Paris, under the auspices of the American and foreign Christian union. Here he remained during the civil war, and did good service in diffusing information regarding the merits of the struggle. In these efforts he secured the aid of the Comte de Gasparin in France and the Rev. William Arthur in England. He also kept his countrymen informed of the fluctuations of European opinion by letters to the New York “Methodist.” After his return in 1864 he was again assigned to the pastorate of St. Paul's church, but, owing to failing health, he was compelled to resign at the end of a year. In 1866 he was made chairman of the central centenary committee having in charge the centennial commemoration of the origin and history of American Methodism. Daniel Drew, of New York, signified his intention of founding, in connection with that event, a biblical and theological school, and Dr. McClintock was chosen its first president. This institution, at Madison, N. J., known as Drew theological seminary, was opened in 1867. Dr. McClintock's style as a writer was characterized by clearness, directness, and precision. He received the degree of D. D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1848, and that of LL. D. from Rutgers in 1866. His chief literary work, to which a great part of the last twenty years of his life was devoted, is the “Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature” (12 vols., New York). It was begun by him in 1853, in conjunction with James Strong, but the first volume did not appear until 1867, and the fourth was only partially prepared at the time of his death. He also published a translation of Neander's “Life of Christ,” in connection with Prof. Carolus E. Blumenthal (New York, 1847); “An Analysis of ‘Watson's Theological Institutes’”(1850); “Sketches of Eminent Methodist Ministers” (1852); “The Temporal Power of the Pope” (1853); and a translation of Bungener's “History of the Council of Trent” (1855). Since his death have been issued “Living Words,” a volume of his sermons (1870), and “Lectures on Theological Encyclopaedia and Methodology” (1873). See his “Life and Letters” by Rev. George R. Crooks, D. D. (New York, 1876).
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Rankin, John,” Appleton’s Cyclopedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1900), 5: 180.
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RANKIN, John, clergyman, b. near Dandridge, Jefferson со., Tenn., 4 Feb., 1793; d. in Ironton, Ohio, 18 March, 1880. From 1817 till 1821 he was pastor of two Presbyterian churches in Carlisle, Ky., and about 1818 founded an anti-slavery society. Removing to Ripley, Ohio, he was pastor of the 1st and 2d Presbyterian churches for forty-four years. He joined the Garrison anti-slavery movement, and was mobbed for his views more than twenty times. About 1824 he addressed letters to his brother in Middlebrook, Va., dissuading him from slave-holding, which were published in Ripley, in the "Liberator," in 1832, and afterward in book-form in Boston and Newburyport, and ran through many editions. He assisted Eliza and her child, the originals of those characters in "Uncle Tom's Cabin, to escape. He founded the American reform book and tract society of Cincinnati, and was the author of several books, including "The Covenant of Grace" (Pittsburg, 1869). See his life entitled "The Soldier, the Battle, and the Victory," by Rev. Andrew Ritchie (Cincinnati, 1876).
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Walker, Jonathan,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1889), 6: 328.
Body Summary:
WALKER, Jonathan, reformer, b. on Cape Cod, Mass., in 1799; d. near Muskegon, Mich., 1 May, 1878. He was captain of a fishing vessel, in his youth, but about 1840 he went to Florida, where he became a railroad-contractor. He was interested in the condition of the slaves, and in 1844 aided several of them in an attempt to make their escape in an open boat from the coast of Florida to the British West Indies. After doubling the capes, he was prostrated by illness, and the crew being ignorant of navigation, they would all have been drowned had they not been rescued by a wrecking-sloop that took Walker to Key West, whence he was sent in irons to Pensacola. On his arrival there he was put in prison, chained to the floor, and deprived of light and proper food. Upon his trial in a U. S. court, he was convicted, sentenced to be heavily fined, put on the pillory, and branded on his right hand with a hot iron with the letters "S. S.," for "slave-stealer," a U. S. marshal executing the sentence. He was then remanded to jail, where he was confined eleven months, and released only after the payment of his fine by northern Abolitionists. For the subsequent five years he lectured on slavery in the northern and western states. He removed to Michigan about 1850, where he resided near Muskegon until his death. A monument was erected to his memory on 1 Aug., 1878. He was the subject of John G. Whittier's poem "The Man with the Branded Hand." See "Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America," by Henry Wilson (Boston, 1874).
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Conrad, Joseph,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), 1: 710.
Body Summary:
CONRAD, Joseph, soldier, b. in Wied-Selters, Germany, 17 May, 1830. He was graduated at the military academy of Hesse Darmstadt in 1848, and came to this country, settling in Missouri. At the beginning of the civil war he enlisted in the National service, and was made captain of the 3d Missouri infantry. He became major in September, and was engaged in the action of Carthage, the battle of Pea Ridge, and the siege of Corinth. After being mustered out, he re-entered the army as lieutenant-colonel of the 15th Missouri infantry, in May, 1862, became colonel in November, and was engaged in the battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge. During the Atlanta campaign he commanded a brigade in the Army of the Cumberland, and was brevetted brigadier-general for his services. He commanded the sub-district of Victoria in Texas until February, 1866, when he was mustered out of the volunteer service. In July, 1866, he entered the regular army, and was commissioned captain in the 29th infantry, transferred to the 11th infantry in April, 1869, and served with his regiment until October, 1882, when he was retired with the rank of colonel.
Citation:
James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Swett, Leonard,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1889), 6: 9.
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SWETT, Leonard, lawyer, b. near Turner, Me. 11 Aug., 1825. He was educated at North Yarmouth academy and at Waterville (now Colby university), but was not graduated. He read law in Portland, enlisted as a soldier in the Mexican war and at its close in 1848 settled in Bloomington, Ill. He travelled the circuit in fourteen counties, and was an intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln and David Davis. In 1865 he removed to Chicago. In 1852-'61 he took an active part in politics, canvassing the slate several times, and in 1858, at the special request of Mr. Lincoln, was a candidate for the legislature on the Republican ticket, and was elected by a large majority. This is the only official place he has ever held. When Mr. Lincoln became president Mr. Swett was employed in the trial of government cases, one of the most noted of which was that for the acquisition of the California quicksilver-mines in 1863. In the course of his practice Mr. Swett has defended twenty men indicted for murder, securing the acquittal of nineteen, and a light punishment for the other one. He has also been retained in criminal cases in nearly every part of the country, though his professional work has been mainly devoted to civil suits. His success is attributed to his careful personal attention to details and his eloquence as an advocate. He has rendered much gratuitous service to workingrnen, servants, and other poor clients. He delivered the oration at the unveiling of the statue of Abraham Lincoln in Chicago, Ill., 22 Oct., 1887, and at the Chicago Republican convention in June, 1888, in an eloquent speech, proposed Walter Q. Gresham, of Illinois, as a candidate for the presidency.
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James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “McKinney, Mordecai,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1900), 4: 137.
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McKINNEY, Mordecai, lawyer, b. near Carlisle, Pa., about 1796; d. in Harrisburg. Pa., 17 Dec., 1867. He was graduated at Dickinson college in 1814, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1817, and practiced in Harrisburg. In 1821 he was appointed deputy attorney-general for Miami county, and in 1827 he became associate judge of Dauphin county. He afterward gave his attention to the compilation of works on law, and published “The Pennsylvania Justice of the Peace” (2 vols., Harrisburg, 1839); “The United States Constitutional Manual” (1845); "Our Government: A Manual for Popular Use” (Philadelphia, 1866); “The American Magistrate and Civil Officer” (1850); “Pennsylvania Tax Laws” (Harrisburg, 1850); and “A Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania relative to Banks and Bankers” (1854).
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James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Parsons, Mosby Monroe,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1900), 4: 664.
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PARSONS, Mosby Monroe, soldier, b. in Virginia in 1819 ; d. in Camargo, Mexico, 17 Aug., 1865. He removed to Cole county, Mo., early in life, practiced law, was attorney-general of Missouri in 1853—'7, and subsequently became a member of the state senate. He was a captain in the U. S. army during the Mexican war, and received honorable mention for his service at Sacramento. At the beginning of the civil war he acted in concert with Gov. Claiborne F. Jackson in his endeavor to draw Missouri into the Confederacy, was active in organizing the state militia, and raised a mounted brigade which he commanded at Carthage, Springfield, and Pea Ridge, with the rank of brigadier-general, subsequently serving under Gen. Sterling Price until the last invasion of Missouri in 1864. The next year he went, to Mexico, joined the Republican forces, and was killed in an engagement with the imperialists.
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James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Osterhaus, Peter Joseph,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1900), 4: 603.
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OSTERHAUS, Peter Joseph, soldier, b. in Coblentz, Germany, about 1820. He became an officer in the Prussian army, and subsequently emigrated to the United States, settling in St. Louis, Mo. At the beginning of the civil war he entered the National service as major of the 2d Missouri volunteers. He took part in the actions at Dug Springs and Wilson's Creek, was made colonel of the 12th Missouri regiment, commanded a brigade under Gen. John C. Fremont, and took part in the expedition of Gen. Samuel R. Curtis into Arkansas in pursuit of Gen. Sterling Price, leading a division at Pea Ridge. He was commissioned brigadier- general of volunteers on 9 June, 1862, and commanded a division at Helena, Ark., with which he participated in the capture of Arkansas Post, and subsequently in the siege of Vicksburg. He was engaged in the operations at Chattanooga and the battle of Mission Ridge as commander of the 1st division of the 15th corps, and in the Atlanta campaign, the march through Georgia, and the campaign of the Carolinas he commanded that corps, being promoted major-general on 23 July, 1864. At the surrender of Gen. E. Kirbv Smith he acted as chief of staff to Gen. Edward R. S. Canby. He was mustered out on 15 Jan., 1866, and in the same year went to Lyons, France, as U. S. consul. He now (1888) resides at Mannheim, Germany, where he is director of a manufacturing association.
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James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Olney, Richard,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1901), 7: 207.
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OLNEY, Richard, statesman, b. in Oxford, .Mass., 15 Sept., 1835; was prepared for college at Leicester academy, Worcester county, and was graduated at Brown in 1856. He was also graduated at the Harvard law-school in 1859, and in the same year was admitted to the bar in his native state. In 1874 he served with success as a member of the Massachusetts legislature. Mr. Olney was in the successful practice of the law in Boston, until called to the office of attorney-general of the United States by President Cleveland in March, 18093, and on the death of Judge Gresham in June, 1895, he became secretary of state, continuing in office until 4 March, 1897. Mr. Olney then resumed the practice of law in Boston. Brown and Harvard gave him the degree of LL. D.
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James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., "Lee, Robert Edward," Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: Appleton & Co., 1887), 3: 668.
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On 20 April, 1861, three days after the Virginia convention adopted an ordinance of secession, he resigned his commission, in obedience to his conscientious conviction that he was bound by the act of his state. His only authenticated expression of opinion and sentiment on the subject of secession is found in the following passage from a letter written at the time of his resignation to his sister, the wife of an officer in the National army: “We are now in a state of war which will yield to nothing. The whole south is in a state of revolution, into which Virginia, after a long struggle, has been drawn; and though I recognize no necessity for this state of things, and would have forborne and pleaded to the end for redress of grievances, real or supposed, yet in my own person I had to meet the question whether I should take part against my native state. With all my devotion to the Union, and the feeling of loyalty and duty of an American citizen, I have not been able to make up my mind to raise my hand against my relatives, my children, my home. I have therefore resigned my commission in the army, and, save in defence of my native state – with the sincere hope that my poor service may never be needed – I hope I may never be called upon to draw my sword.”
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James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Hoke, Robert Frederick,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1901), 7: 143.
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HOKE, Robert Frederick, soldier, b. in Lincolnton, N.C., 27 May, 1837. He was major of the 1st North Carolina infantry early in 1861, and major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel of the 33d North Carolina infantry and colonel of the 21st (formerly 11th) North Carolina infantry. He was appointed brigadier-general in the Confederate states army, 17 Jan., 1863, and major-general, 20 April, 1864. His brigade was in Early's division, Jackson's (afterward Ewell's) corps, Army of northern Virginia. He was at one time in command of the district of North Carolina. His division was composed of the brigades of Gens. Martin, Hagood, Clingman, and Colquitt, Army of northern Virginia. Since the war he has been actively engaged in business in North Carolina, and now is president of the Seaboard air line, Georgia, Carolina, and Northwestern railroad company.
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James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Smalls, Robert,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), 5: 553-554.
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SMALLS, Robert, member of congress, b. in Beaufort, S. C., 5 April. 1839. Being a slave, he was debarred from attending school, and was altogether self-educated He removed to Charleston in 1851, worked at the riggers trade, afterward led a seafaring life, and in 1861 was employed as a pilot on “The Planter,” a steamer that plied In Charleston harbor as a transport. In May, 1862, he took this vessel over Charleston bar, and delivered her to the commander of the U. S. blockading squadron. After serving for some time as pilot in the U. S. navy, he was promoted captain for gallant and meritorious conduct, 1 Dec., 1863, and placed in command of “The Planter,” serving until she was put out of commission in 1866. He returned to Beaufort after the war, was a member of the State constitutional convention in 1868, was elected a member of the state house of representatives the same year, and of the state senate in 1870, and was re-elected in 1872. He was elected to the 44th congress from South Carolina, has been re- elected to every succeeding congress except the 46th, for which he was defeated, and served, with this exception, from 6 Dec., 1875, till 1888. He has been major-general of state troops.
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James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Garrard, Theophilus Toulmin,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1902), 7: 447-48.
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GARRARD, Theophilus Toulmin, military officer, born in Manchester. Ky., June 7, 1812; died there March 14, 1902. He was a member of the Kentucky Legislature in 1843-'44, served in the Mexican War as captain of the 16th United States Infantry, and on the discovery of gold went to California in 1849. He was elected а member of the State Senate in 1857 and in 1861, and at the outbreak of the civil war entered the National service as colonel of the 3d Kentucky Infantry. He was promoted brigadier-general in March, 1864, and was mustered out of the service April 4 following. After the war he engaged in farming and the manufacture of salt.
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James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., “Still, William,” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1888), 5: 689.
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STILL, William, philanthropist, b. in Shamony, Burlington co., N. J., 7 Oct., 1821. He is of African descent, and was brought up on a farm. Coming to Philadelphia in 1844, he obtained a clerkship in 1847 in the office of the Pennsylvania Anti-slavery society. He was chairman and corresponding secretary of the Philadelphia branch of the “underground railroad” in 1851-'61, and busied himself in writing out the narratives of fugitive slaves. His writings constitute the only full account of the organization with which he was connected. Mr. Still sheltered the wife, daughter, and sons of John Brown while he was awaiting execution in Charlestown, Va. During the civil war he was commissioned post-sutler at Camp William Penn for colored troops, and was a member of the Freedmen's aid union and commission. He is vice-president and chairman of the board of managers of the Home for aged and infirm colored persons, a member of the board of trustees of the Soldiers' and sailors' orphans' home, and of other charitable institutions. In 1885 he was sent by the presbytery of Philadelphia as a commissioner to the general assembly at Cincinnati. He was one of the original stockholders of “The Nation,” and a member of the Board of trade of Philadelphia. His writings include “The Underground Rail-Road” (Philadelphia, 1878) ; “Voting and Laboring” ; and “Struggle for the Rights of the Colored People of Philadelphia.”
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