New York, Minerals and Climate (Hayward)

John Hayward, Gazetteer of the United States of America… (Philadelphia: James L. Gihon, 1854), 113-114.
Minerals. — The mountainous region at the north-east part of the state, south-west of Lake Champlain, is exceedingly rich in iron ore. This mineral is also abundant in several other localities, and is extensively wrought into pigs and various castings. In Clinton county, the ore is of extraordinarily fine quality, great quantities of which, in a manufactured state, are annually exported. Vast beds of lead ore are found in St. Lawrence county. At Ticonderoga, and at some other spots, abundance of excellent plumbago, or black lead, is found, and forms a valuable article of commerce. Indications of copper have been discovered in a few places. Salt and gypsum are obtained plentifully in several of the central counties eastward of Lake Ontario…. Quarries of excellent marble are being worked in Westchester county and the region contiguous. Few indications of coal have yet been found. Limestone, sandstone, and granite are abundant in several parts of the state.

Climate. — There is, in this state, a considerable variety of climate. In the southern section, it is mild, but mutable, both in winter and summer. In the northern, the winters are more severe, but uniform, and the summers are pleasant. Westward of the mountainous ridges, the climate is more equable and salubrious than in like latitudes on the eastern side. At Albany, the temperature varies between the extremes of heat and cold generally more than 100°; that is, from 15° below zero to 90° above. At Canandaigua, there is nearly the same difference, the mercury sinking lower in winter, and rising to a less height in summer. On Long Island, near the Atlantic Ocean, the thermometer indicates a difference between the two extremes of about 90°; namely, from 4° below zero to 87° above. But, with the exception of occasional epidemics, not imputable, however, in general, to local causes, the climate of New York may be considered as one of the most healthy in the world.
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