Joseph Frazier Wall, "Carnegie, Andrew," American National Biography Online, February 2000, http://www.anb.org/articles/10/10-00264.html.
Carnegie made significant contributions in his three major areas of interest. As an industrialist, he emphasized the importance of cost of production over the value of profits, he pushed for verticality within his company structure, and he welcomed technological innovation. As a philanthropist, he attempted a scientific analysis of the art of giving, pioneered in the development of the modern philanthropic foundation, and placed education and free inquiry as primary fields of importance in creating a better society. Finally, as a pacifist, Andrew Carnegie pushed for a summit meeting of the great powers, Great Britain, the United States, and Germany, long before such meetings would become a common occurrence in the late twentieth century, and he correctly saw the arbitration of international disputes as the only rational option to the irrational recourse to war.