Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Financial and Industrial (Hayward)

John Hayward, Illustrated Gazetteer of the United States... (Philadelphia: James L. Gihon, 1854), 516-523.
Philadelphia is celebrated for its excellent markets, having the advantage of various and abundant supplies, not only from the interior of its own state, but also of New Jersey, lying across the Delaware. As a fruit market it is among the best in the world. The principal market-place is in Market Street, extending along the middle of the street from the Delaware to Eighth Street. There is another market further W., in the same street, between Schuylkill Seventh and Eighth Streets; and there are four or five others in different quarters of the city…
Among the principal hotels of Philadelphia are the United States Hotel, Jones's Hotel, Washington House, Columbia House, Congress Hall, Franklin House, and the Morris House, all in different parts 0f Chestnut Street. Besides these there are the Madison House, the Merchants' Hotel, the Mansion House, the White Swan Hotel, the Indian Queen, and many other excellent houses in various parts of the city.
    Philadelphia is abundantly [supplied] with water from the Schuylkill River. The present waterworks are known as the Fairmount Waterworks, the reservoirs being constructed upon the summit of a small mount which had received that name, on the western border of the district of Spring Garden, near the eastern bank of the Schuylkill, and about two miles from the centre of the city. These works were the first of the kind erected in this country, and, for simplicity of design and entire efficiency, are not exceeded by any that have been since constructed. The reservoirs, which are 4 in number, occupy about 6 acres upon the top of this mount, at the height of 100 feet above the water in the river, and 56 above the most elevated portions of the city. They are 12 feet deep, lined with stone and paved with brick, laid upon a bed of clay, in strong lime cement, water tight, and are capable of containing more than 22,000,000 gallons. One of these reservoirs is divided into three sections, for the purpose of filtration. The water is forced up from the river by a power obtained from the river itself, a dam being thrown across, 1600 feet in length, and a raceway cut in the solid rock, 400 feet long and 90 feet in width, by which a machinery of eight water wheels, operating an equal number of forcing pumps, may be driven night and day. Each of these pumps will lift about 1,250,000 gallons into the reservoirs in 24 hours. The machinery is covered by a building of stone. 238 feet long by 56 feet wide. The water is carried from the reservoirs to the city in 3 main iron pipes, one 20, another 22, and another 80 inches in diameter, and then is distributed through the streets by about 113 miles of iron pipe, from 6 to 10 inches in diameter. The average daily consumption of water in the city and districts, in 1851, was 5,690,744 gallons. Three thousand families are supplied from the public pumps, which take their water from cisterns filled from the aqueduct. These works have been constructed and maintained, up to 1852, at a cost of $1,707,550. The expenses of the year 1851 were $92,380. The whole cost for waterworks to the city of Philadelphia, including the previous works, and the experiments which have been abandoned, is $3,174,267. The amount received for water rents, in 1851, was $150,107. The total receipts since 1801 have been $2,953,316…
    The situation of Philadelphia between the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, makes it a kind of double port; that on the Delaware being its port of foreign commerce, and that on the Schuylkill, its port for the domestic or internal trade.  The principal harbor is upon the Delaware, where large vessels come up from the ware, where large vessels come up from the ocean, and where the foreign commerce centres.  Its imports, in 1851, amounted to $14,000,000.  The great business of the city was originally done upon the Delaware.  But since the opening of the coal trade, which has become extensive within the last 30 years, the business upon the Schuylkill has grown into great importance.  That river affords a convenient harbor for small vessels, and many wharves are built for their accommodation below the bridge, which was built in 1805, to connect the important suburbs on the W. side of the river with the city, was originally a toll bridge, but is now free.  There are two other bridges over the Schuylkill besides the suspension bridge before mentioned, on above the other below the city, built for the railroads, which also accommodate foot passengers and vehicles. By means of railroads and canals, an extensive communication has been established between Philadelphia and the south and west, affording great facilities of trade with the interior of the country. The principal of these are, the railroad to Baltimore, 97 miles, whence there is a wide communication S. and W.; the Columbia Railroad to Columbia, on the Susquehanna River, 82 miles, thence by the Pennsylvania Central Railroad to Harrisburg, the capital of the state, 28 miles, and thence by canal and railroad to Pittsburg, 399 miles from Philadelphia; the Philadelphia, Reading, and Pottsville Railroad, extending to Pottsville, in the region of the coal formation, 94 miles from Philadelphia. The following links of railroad are intended, when complete, to connect Philadelphia with the extreme western boundary of Missouri, viz.: from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, 358 miles; from Pitts- burg to the Indiana state line, 300 miles; from the Indiana line through Indianapolis, to Terre Haute, 150 miles; from Terre Haute to St. Louis, 160 miles; from St. Louis to Independence, 300 miles; which, when completed, will make a continuous railroad route of 1268 miles. Between Philadelphia and New York there are two routes, one by railroad throughout, and the other by railroad and steamboat, whence there are extensive communications E. and N, via Boston and Albany. The time, by either route, to New York is about 4 hours. As a comparison with this, it may be mentioned that, in 1766, a "third line" of stages from Philadelphia to New York was established, called the "Flying Machine." which was to go through in two days.
    The manufacturers of Philadelphia constitute one of its most important interests.  For the variety and amount of its products in the department, this city ranks first among the cities of the United States.  And many of them are of the most valuable description, and of exquisite texture and workmanship.

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