MAINE, one of the United States, lying on its north-eastern border, so called from Maine, a department of France, of which Henrietta Maria, queen of Еngland, was proprietor. It lies between 43° 5' and 47° 20' north latitude, and 66° 49' and 71° 4' west longitude from Greenwich, and is bounded north by Canada East, from which it is separated by the river St. John's, east by New Brunswick, from which it ¡s separated in part by the St. Croix, south by the Atlantic, west by New Hampshire, from which it is separated in part by Piscataqua and Salmon Falls rivers, and north-west by Canada East. Superficial area, 32,628 square miles.
Physical Aspect — On the seaboard the surface is generally level, though not very fertile. Some ten or twenty miles back the soil is sandy, gravelly, clayey, or loamy, seldom very rich, but tolerably fertile in some places, though often poor. In the tract lying north of this, extending from fifty to ninety miles from the sea, the same kinds of soil are found, but generally more fertile. The surface rises into large swells of generally good soil, between which, along the margins of the streams, are frequently rich "intervale," or alluvial lands; while in other places sandy or gravelly pine plains occur, or spruce or cedar swamps. In the central parts of the state, the surface is more broken; and in many of the river valleys the soiul is not exceeded in fertility in any of the other New England states. At the extreme north the country is less hilly, and is but little settled.
Mountains — On the western side of the state, a little to the eastward of the White mountains, in New Hampshire, an irregular chain of high lands commences and extends northeastwardly, more or less interrupted, to the easterly boundary of the state, terminating at an isolated peak, 1,683 feet in height, called Mars hill. Kotabdin mountain, which may be considered as a part of the above-named range, is much the highest land in the state, being 5,335 feet above the level of the sea. Agamenticus, which is of considerable elevation, is in York, near the southwest corner of the state.
Rivers, Lakes, and Bays — The principal rivers are the Penobscot, Kennebec, Androscoggin, Saco, Sheepscot, Damariscotta, Machias, Salmon Falls, Piscataqua, St. Croix, and the St. John's. The lakes, or ponds, are rather numerous, the most noted of which are Moosehead, Umbagog, Sebago, Schoodic, Chesuncook, Pemadumcook, and Mooselogmaguntic. The principal bays are Casco, Penobscot, Frenchman's, Englishman's, Machias, and Passamaquoddy.
Islands — The chief islands are Mount Desert, Deer, Long, Boon, Fox, and Cranberry.
Climate — Although the climate is subject to great extremes of heat and cold, the air in all parts of the state is salubrious and pure. Near the ocean and bays, the heats of summer are greatly tempered by the breezes;; and the rigors of winter, though severe, are more uniform and less trying to health than in many situations farther south. The range of the temperatures varies from 100° Fahrenheit to 27° below zero. Snow often lies upon the ground from four to five months in the year.
Productive Resources — The principal products of the state are horses, neat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, wool, butter, cheese, sugar, hay, wheat, rye, barley, oats, potatoes, and Indian corn. Among the other resources are lime, lumber, ice, and fish.
Manufactures — There are about twenty cotton, and double that number of woolllen factories in the state. Ship-building is also extensively carried on.
Railroads and Canals. — The railroads already completed in Maine are of essential value to the interests of the state. They extend about 500 miles, and connect Portland, the commercial capital, with important points in Miaine, and with Boston and Montreal. The only canal in the state is the Cumberland and Oxford canal, connecting Portland with Sebago pond, 20 miles, and by a lock in Sago river, navigation is extended to Long pond, 31 miles farther. It cost about $350,000.
Commerce.-— The commerce and navigation of this state are mostly confined to coasting and fishing. Its principal exports are lumber, stone, lime, fish, prepared meat, &tс. Its commerce with foreign states, in 1850, amounted to about two and a half millions of dollars; and the shipping owned within the state to somewhat over half a million of tons.
Education. — The common schools in Maine are supported by the districts in which they are located. They number over 5,000. The principal collegiate institutions are Bowdoin college, at Brunswick, to which is attached a medical school, and Waterville college, at Waterville. There are theological seminaries at Bangor and Redfield, and upward of 100 academies in various parts of the state.
Population.— In 1790, 96,540; in 1800, 151,719, in 1810, 228,705; in 1820, 298,335; in 1830, 399,955, in 1840, 501,796; in 1850, 583,188.
Government is vested in a governor, senate, and house of representatives, who are elected annually on the 2d Monday in September. The senate can not be less than 20, nor exceed 31 members; the house of representatives can not be less than 100, nor exceed 200 members. Seven councillors are elected by the legislature, to advise the governor in his executive duties. The judicial power is vested in a supreme judicial court, and such other courts as the legislature may establish. Judges are appointed by the governor, and hold their offices during good behavior, or until seventy years of age. The right of suffrage is vested in every male citizen, 21 years of age (except paupers, persons under guardianship, and Indians not taxed), who shall have resided three months in the state next preceding an election.
History — This state embraces a part of New France, as named by Verrazanni, in 1524; or a portion of Асаdia, as granted to De Monte in 1603; or a part of North Virginia, or the Plymouth Company, as claimed by thn English in 1606; or, more recently, a part of the territory of the "Council of Plymouth," chartered in 1620. In 1622, a grant was made to Ferdinand Gorges and John Mason, of all the country between Merrimack and Kennebec rivers, extending interior to the lakes and rivers of New France, or Canadas, which they called " Laconia." In 1629, that portion of this tract lying between the Merrimack and Piscataqua, extending sixty miles from the sea, was conveyed to Mason alone, and then first received the name of "New Hampshire." In 1633, Gorges obtained a royal charter, constituting him lord proprietor of the province; but, from his stately scheme of government, the people became dissatisfied, and asked protection of Massachusetts who took them under her jurisdiction in 1652, and called ¡t the county of Yorkshire. In 1677 she purchased the claims of the heirs of Gorges, as to both jurisdiction and soil. In 1606 Sir Edmund Andros was appointed royal governor over all New England. Plymouth, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island, immediately submitted to his jurisdiction. A few months after Connecticut was added, and in 1688 his power was further extended over New York, and New Jersey. In 1691, Plymouth, Massachusetts, Maine, Acadia, or Nova Scotia, were formed into one royal colony, under Governor Phipps, upon which Plymouth lost her separate government, contrary to her wishes; while New Hampshire, then under the protection of Massachusetts, was forcibly severed from her. Massachusetts obtained a confirmation of her charter, and, through long disputes with the Indians and the French, those additions to her territory were maintained under her jurisdiction until she became an independent state. The first settlement made in Maine was by the "Sagahahock colony," which consisted of one hundred planters, under the command of George Popham. They landed at the mouth of the Kennebec, in 1607 (thirteen years before the settlement of Plymouth), at the place now called Hill's Point, Phippsburg, and erected a few cabins, a storehouse, and some slight fortifications, naming their plantation "St. George." Seventy-five of the number were left to pass the winter, who lost their storehouse by fire, and their president by death; and the year following they abandoned the enterprise, and returned to England. The first permanent settlement was in Bristol, as early as 1620. Maine, from its first corporation, was a district of Plymouth, or Massachusetts, and was usually called the "province or district of Maine." Although it had long been sufficiently populous to become a state, and efforts had been made for that purpose, in 1785-'86, and in 18O2, it was not admitted into the Union before 1820, when it became a sovereign state. Tbe motto of its seal is "Dirige" "I direct," having reference to the north star on the crest of the coat-of-arms, which is a directing point to the mariner; it also implies that this state was the northernmost member of the confederation at the time of its admission.