Buchanan, James

James Buchanan, detail

James Buchanan, fifteenth president of the United States, was born near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania on April 23, 1791 to parents of Scotch-Irish descent. Buchanan attended the Mercersburg Academy until the fall of 1807, when he entered the junior class of Dickinson College. Upon graduation, Buchanan began to study law and dabble in politics. He quickly gained prominence, serving in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in 1814 and 1815 as a Federalist and then in the 1820s as a congressman. In 1831, Andrew Jackson appointed him minister to Russia. Later in the decade, Buchanan served in the U.S. Senate. By this time, he had gained national prominence in the Democratic party. He served as Secretary of State under James K. Polk and as minister to Great Britain under Franklin Pierce. In 1856, Buchanan was nominated for the presidency as a Democrat, with John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky as his running mate. Buchanan defeated Republican John C. Fremont in the electoral college, although he failed to get a majority of the popular vote in a three-way contest that included former President Millard Fillmore. Buchanan's presidency was a stormy one, filled with controversy and numerous domestic difficulties. Buchanan was earnest in his efforts to meet the crisis, but the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861 not only brought the start of the Civil War, but also seemed to cement historical opinion that he was one of the worst presidents in United States history despite being one of the best prepared. Frustrated and exhausted, James Buchanan retired to his estate, Wheatland, in Lancaster where he wrote his memoirs, the first presidential memoirs in American history. He died at Wheatland on June 1, 1868. (By John Osborne)

Life span
04/23/1791—06/01/1868
Dickinson Connection:
Class of 1809

Life Summary

Full name
  James Buchanan
Place of Birth
Birth Date Certainty
  Exact
Death Date Certainty
  Exact
Gender
  Male
Race
  White
Sectional choice
  North
Origins
  Free State
No. of Siblings
  10
No. of Spouses
  0
No. of Children
  0
Family
 
James Buchanan (Father), Elizabeth Speer Buchanan (Mother), Mary Buchanan (Sister, 1789-1791), Jane Buchanan (Sister, 1793), Maria Buchanan (Sister, 1795), Sarah Buchanan (Sister, 1798), Elizabeth Buchanan (Sister, 1800, died in infancy), Harriet Buchanan (Sister, 1802), William Speer Buchanan (Brother, 1805), George Washington Buchanan (Brother, 1808), John Buchanan (Brother, 1804), Harriet Rebecca Lane Johnston (Niece, 1830-1903)
Education
  Dickinson (Carlisle College)
Occupation
  Politician
  Diplomat
  Attorney or Judge
  Businessman
Relation to Slavery
  Slaveholder who freed slaves
Political Parties
  Federalist
  Democratic
Government
  President
  Jackson Administration (1829-37)
  Polk Administration (1845-49)
  Pierce Administration (1853-57)
  Buchanan Administration (1857-61)
  Diplomat
  US Senate
  US House of Representatives
  State legislature
Military
  US military (Pre-Civil War)

Census Snapshot

Slaveholding in 1860
  0
Children in 1860
  0
Occupation in 1860
  President of the United States of America
Political Party in 1860
  Democratic
Residence in 1860
Religion in 1860
  Presbyterian
Marital status in 1860
  Single

Note Cards

Events

Documents

Subject
 
Date Title
09/08/1847 Carlisle (PA) Herald and Expositor, "A Bid for the South!," September 8, 1847
09/08/1847 Carlisle (PA) Herald and Expositor, "James Buchanan at Home," September 8, 1847
06/07/1856 Abraham Lincoln to Lyman Trumbull, June 7, 1856
09/08/1856 Abraham Lincoln, Form Letter to Fillmore men, September 8, 1856
12/10/1856 Abraham Lincoln, Speech at a Republican Banquet, Chicago, Illinois, December 10, 1856
01/01/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, "Black Republicanism in Missouri," January 1, 1857
01/01/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, "The Future Judged by the Past," January 1, 1857
01/01/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, “The Republican Platform,” January 1, 1857
01/03/1857 New York Times, "Kansas Affairs," January 3, 1857
01/16/1857 New York Times, “The Tariff Bill,” January 16, 1857
02/14/1857 New York Times, "The Joint Committee to Notify the President and Vice-President Elect," February 14, 1857
02/20/1857 New York Times, "Cabinet Rumors at Washington," February 20, 1857
02/28/1857 New York Times, “The Buchanan Cabinet,” February 28, 1857
03/09/1857 New York Herald, "The Decision in the Dred Scott," March 9, 1857
03/17/1857 Charleston (SC) Mercury, "The Agitation of the Slavery Question," March 17, 1857
03/19/1857 Carlisle (PA) American Democrat, "Resignation of Gov. Geary," March 19, 1857
03/28/1857 New York Times, “Governor Geary’s Last Interview with Mr. Buchanan,” March 28, 1857
04/10/1857 New York Times, “The Americans in Kentucky,” April 10, 1857
04/15/1857 New York Times, “Dissatisfaction at Walker’s Appointment,” April 15, 1857
04/30/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, "The Southern Press," April 30, 1857
05/04/1857 New York Times, “Kansas Politics,” May 4, 1857
05/14/1857 Richmond (VA) Dispatch, "England and America," May 14, 1857
05/14/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, “Kansas Given Over By The South,” May 14, 1857
05/25/1857 Charleston (SC) Mercury, "The Fate and the Folly of Compromises," May 25, 1857
05/27/1857 Charleston (SC) Mercury, "Southern Rights," May 27, 1857
06/25/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, "The Administration," June 25, 1857
06/30/1857 New York Times, “Kansas,” June 30, 1857
07/11/1857 New York Times, “Where is the South?,” July 11, 1857
07/25/1857 New York Times, "The New Troubles in Kansas," July 25, 1857
08/13/1857 Carlisle (PA) American Democrat, "Mr. Buchanan's Administration," August 13, 1857
08/13/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, “A Mistake,” August 13, 1857
10/01/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, “Inconsistency,” October 1, 1857
10/12/1857 New York Times, “South Carolina Senator,” October 12, 1857
10/15/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, "The Union," October 15, 1857
10/15/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, “Evils of Organism,” October 15, 1857
10/17/1857 New York Times, “The Fall Elections,” October 17, 1857
10/22/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, “Collapse of Abolitionists,” October 22, 1857
10/22/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, “Virginia and the South,” October 22, 1857
10/26/1857 New York Times, “Virginia Politics,” October 26, 1857
10/29/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, “Douglas’s Organ on Kansas,” October 29, 1857
10/29/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, “James Buchanan a Mystery to Himself,” October 29, 1857
10/30/1857 Boston (MA) Liberator, "Buchanan Democracy," October 30, 1857
10/31/1857 New York Times, “Important Rumor,” October 31, 1857
11/18/1857 New York Times, “The Republicans and Gov. Walker,” November 18, 1857
11/19/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, "Governor Walker," November 19, 1857
11/26/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, "Gen. Walker and the Administration," November 26, 1857
12/14/1857 New York Times, "The Missing Walker," December 14, 1857
12/15/1857 New York Times, “Governor Walker in Washington,” December 15, 1857
12/17/1857 New York Times, “Secretary Stanton’s Call for an Extra Session of the Kansas Legislature,” December 17, 1857
12/18/1857 Abraham Lincoln to Lyman Trumbull, December 18, 1857
12/18/1857 New York Times, “The Fight in Congress,” December 18, 1857
12/23/1857 New York Times, “Opening of the Presidential Campaign of 1860,” December 23, 1857
12/24/1857 New York Times, “Governor Walker and General Cass,” December 24, 1857
12/28/1857 Abraham Lincoln, Fragment of a Speech, circa December 28, 1857
12/30/1857 New York Herald, “News from Kansas,” December 30, 1857
12/30/1857 New York Times, “Southern Democratic Sentiment Concerning Northern Democrats,” December 30, 1857
12/31/1857 Washington (DC) National Era, “Presidential Intervention Against Slavery,” December 31, 1857
01/04/1858 New York Herald, "Kansas," January 4, 1858
01/05/1858 New York Herald, "The Slavery Question in Congress," January 5, 1858
01/17/1858 John Murray Forbes to N. M. Beckwith, January 17, 1858
01/27/1858 New York Herald, "The Approaching Conclusion of the Kansas Comedy," January 27, 1858
02/26/1858 New York Herald, "Political Agitation in this Metropolis," Febraury 26, 1858
03/24/1858 New York Times, “Douglas’ Kansas Speech,” March 24, 1858
04/19/1858 John Wentworth to Abraham Lincoln, April 19, 1858
05/12/1858 Salmon Portland Chase to James Shepard Pike, May 12, 1858
06/01/1858 Norman Buel Judd to Abraham Lincoln, June 1, 1858
06/03/1858 New York Times, "Kansas Affairs," June 3, 1858
06/06/1858 John Wentworth to Abraham Lincoln, June 6, 1858
06/12/1858 Lyman Trumbull to Abraham Lincoln, June 12, 1858
06/16/1858 (Jackson) Mississippian State Gazette, "The Duty of Our Government," June 16, 1858
06/16/1858 Boston (MA) Herald, “Illness of President Buchanan,” June 16, 1858
06/16/1858 Lyman Trumbull to Abraham Lincoln, June 16, 1858
06/18/1858 Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Rumored Breaking Up of the Cabinet,” June 18, 1858
06/19/1858 Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Voice of Kansas,” June 19, 1858
06/23/1858 Raleigh (NC) Register, “The Northern Democracy Split to Pieces,” June 23, 1858
06/27/1858 New York Herald, “The Hon. Joshua R. Giddings vs. the Administration and the Slave Power,” June 27, 1858
07/08/1858 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Politics in Kane County,” July 8, 1858
07/13/1858 New York Times, "Senator Douglas at Chicago," July 13, 1858
07/14/1858 New York Times, "Presidential Candidates," July 14, 1858
07/17/1858 Gustave Philipp Koerner to Abraham Lincoln, July 17, 1858
07/20/1858 Milwaukie (WI) Sentinel, "Douglas in the South," July 20, 1858
07/21/1858 Bangor (ME) Whig and Courier, "Speech of Mr. Lincoln," July 21, 1858
07/26/1858 New York Herald, "Lecompton to be Rejected," July 26, 1858
07/29/1858 Charleston (SC) Mercury, "Douglas Tottering!," July 29, 1858
07/31/1858 Ripley (OH) Bee, "The Most Dangerous Foe," July 31, 1858
08/09/1858 Charleston (SC) Mercury, "The Lecompton Constitution Rejected," August 9, 1858
08/11/1858 New York Times, “Death of Lecompton," August 11, 1858
08/11/1858 Thomas C. Sharp to Ozias Mather Hatch, August 11, 1858
08/12/1858 Gustave Philipp Koerner to Abraham Lincoln, August 12, 1858
08/13/1858 New York Herald, “The Illinois Campaign,” August 13, 1858
08/18/1858 New York Times, “Democratic Prospects In Illinois,” August 18, 1858
08/19/1858 New York Times, "Hot Work in Illinois," August 19, 1858
08/20/1858 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Signs of Fright,” August 20, 1858
08/23/1858 New York Times, "Meeting of Douglas and Lincoln," August 23, 1858
08/25/1858 Schuyler Colfax to Abraham Lincoln, August 25, 1858
08/26/1858 Leavenworth (KS) Journal, "Cheering News," August 26, 1858
08/27/1858 Joseph Medill to Abraham Lincoln, August 27, 1858
08/30/1858 New York Herald, “No Quarter to Douglas,” August 30, 1858
09/02/1858 (St. Louis) Missouri Republican, "Douglas - Lincoln," September 2, 1858
09/02/1858 Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "The Little Giant," September 2, 1858
09/16/1858 New York Times, “Opposition Ratification Meeting in Philadelphia,” September 16, 1858
09/18/1858 Ripley (OH) Bee, “More Insubordination,” September 18, 1858
09/20/1858 Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "Bad State of Things," September 20, 1858
09/22/1858 Lowell (MA) Journal and Courier, "The Senatorial Canvass in Illinois," September 22, 1858
10/01/1858 New York Times, “Mr. Buchanan’s Troubles,” October 1, 1858
10/07/1858 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Canvass in Iowa,” October 7, 1858
10/09/1858 New York Herald, “Treachery in Tammany,” October 9, 1858
10/12/1858 Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, “A Peep Behind the Curtain!,” October 12, 1858
10/18/1858 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Alton Debate," October 18, 1858
10/20/1858 New York Times, “A Georgia Douglas Man,” October 20, 1858
10/23/1858 New York Times, “Vice-President Breckenridge for Douglas,” October 23, 1858
10/25/1858 Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, "Divided We Fall," October 25, 1858
11/05/1858 New York Times, "The Illinois Election," November 5, 1858
11/09/1858 Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, “The Popular Majority,” November 9, 1858
11/10/1858 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Abraham Lincoln,” November 10, 1858
11/11/1858 Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "Rejoicing for Douglas," November 11, 1858
11/13/1858 Ripley (OH) Bee, “Retribution,” November 13, 1858
11/17/1858 Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, "A House Divided, &c.," November 17, 1858
11/23/1858 New York Times, “The President and the Filibusters,” November 23, 1858
11/27/1858 (St. Louis) Missouri Republican, “What the English Bill has Done for Kansas,” November 27, 1858
12/05/1858 New York Herald, “The Struggle Among the Virginia Democracy,” December 5, 1858
12/07/1858 New York Times, “The President’s Weakness,” December 7, 1858
12/08/1858 Raleigh (NC) Register, “Douglas Stock Rising,” December 8, 1858
12/09/1858 New York Times, “The Fillibusters [Filibusters] Again,” December 9, 1858
12/10/1858 New York Herald, “The Union of the Opposition Factions,” December 10, 1858
12/10/1858 New York Times, “The War Begun,” December 10, 1858
12/16/1858 Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, “Who are the Agitators?,” December 16, 1858
12/17/1858 New York Times, “The Amistad Case,” December 17, 1858
12/20/1858 New York Times, “Senator Douglas and the City Government,” December 20, 1858
12/22/1858 New York Times, “Who is President of Mexico?,” December 22, 1858
12/25/1858 New York Times, “Douglas and the Democracy,” December 25, 1858
12/31/1858 (St. Louis) Missouri Republican, “Senator Douglas,” December 31, 1858
01/05/1859 Recollection by Gustave Koerner, Senator Douglas Reelected, January 5, 1859
01/10/1859 Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Presidential Aspirants,” January 10, 1859
01/12/1859 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “For the Lambs of the Flock,” January 12, 1859
01/17/1859 New York Herald, “The Present Congress and the Next President,” January 17, 1859
01/18/1859 Memphis (TN) Appeal, “The Chicago Times, Senator Douglas and the Administration,” January 18, 1859
01/23/1859 Memphis (TN) Appeal, “President Buchanan against the Pension Bill,” January 23, 1859
01/23/1859 New York Herald, “Forney on a Short Allowance,” January 23, 1859
01/25/1859 New York Herald, “The Case of Douglas vs. Fitch," January 25, 1859
01/28/1859 New York Herald, “The Tarff Question in Congress,” January 28, 1859
01/29/1859 New York Herald, “The Presidential Question,” January 29, 1859
01/29/1859 New York Times, “The Killing of the Pacific Railroad,” January 29, 1859
02/06/1859 New Orleans (LA) Picayune, “Letter from Washington,” February 6, 1859
02/07/1859 New York Times, “Another Virginia Insurrection,” February 7, 1859
02/08/1859 New York Times, “Extension of the Southern Revolt Against the Cuban Scheme,” February 8, 1859
02/11/1859 Bangor (ME) Whig and Courier, “Untitled,” February 11, 1859
02/15/1859 New York Times, “The Cuban Scheme at the South,” February 15, 1859
02/17/1859 New York Herald, “The African Slave Trade and the Law in the South,” February 17, 1859
02/18/1859 San Francisco (CA) Evening Bulletin, “The Douglas and Fitch Row in Congress,” February 18, 1859
02/21/1859 New York Times, "News By Telegraph," February 21, 1859
02/22/1859 New York Herald, “The Black Republicans and Mr. Douglas,” February 22, 1859
02/26/1859 New York Times, “The Political Future,” February 26, 1859
03/02/1859 Newark (OH) Advocate, “The Late Domestic Tragedy in Washington,” March 2, 1859
03/07/1859 Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Br. [Mr.] Buchanan and the Democratic Party,” March 7, 1859
03/07/1859 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Personal,” March 7, 1859
03/15/1859 New York Times, “The President and the Democracy,” March 15, 1859
03/17/1859 San Francisco (CA) Evening Bulletin, “How Old is President Buchanan?,” March 17, 1859
03/19/1859 New York Times, “Democratic State Convention at Harrisburg,” March 19, 1859
03/19/1859 Ripley (OH) Bee, “Untitled,” March 19, 1859
03/22/1859 Boston (MA) Advertiser, “Untitled,” March 22, 1859
04/06/1859 New York Herald, “The Late Scattering Elections,” April 6, 1859
04/07/1859 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Beginning of the Presidential Campaign,” April 7, 1859
04/15/1859 Charleston (SC) Mercury, "Correspondence of the Mercury," April 15, 1859
04/25/1859 New York Times, “A Party Portrait of Dictator Lopez,” April 25, 1859
04/28/1859 New York Times, “The President and His Visitors,” April 28, 1859
05/09/1859 New York Times, “Growing Ferocious,” May 9, 1859
05/11/1859 New York Times, “When Did He Die?,” May 11, 1859
05/12/1859 Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Langston Sentenced,” May 12, 1859
05/17/1859 New York Times, “Democratic Preparations for 1860,” May 17, 1859
05/18/1859 Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, “The Oberlin Slave Rescue Cases,” May 18, 1859
05/19/1859 Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Visit of the President to North Carolina,” May 19, 1859
05/27/1859 Boston (MA) Liberator, “Letter from the Hon. J. R. Giddings,” May 27, 1859
05/28/1859 (Concord) New Hampshire Statesman, “Expenses of the White House,” May 28, 1859
05/30/1859 New York Times, “The Virginia Election,” May 30, 1859
06/03/1859 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Popular Sovereignty in Kentucky,” June 3, 1859
06/06/1859 Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “The President’s Visit,” June 6, 1859
06/10/1859 Charleston (SC) Mercury, “An Episode in the Southern Tour of Douglas,” June 10, 1859
06/16/1859 Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, “The Utah Rebellion,” June 16, 1859
06/16/1859 New York Times, “Political Letters,” June 16, 1859
06/27/1859 Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Caught,” June 27, 1859
06/29/1859 New York Times, “Albany and Richmond,” June 29, 1859
07/24/1859 New York Herald, “Mr. Buchanan and the Succession,” July 24, 1859
07/25/1859 Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Folly,” July 25, 1859
07/31/1859 New York Herald,“Mr. Douglas and His Forthcoming Manifesto,” July 31, 1859
08/05/1859 New York Times, “An Unwise Letter,” August 5, 1859
08/23/1859 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Cook and His Enemies,” August 23, 1859
09/06/1859 New York Times, "The News From Mexico," September 6, 1859
09/07/1859 New York Times, “The Presidential Malaprop,” September 7, 1859
09/10/1859 Ripley (OH) Bee, “Untitled,” September 10, 1859
09/12/1859 New York Times, “Breaking Up Rapidly,” September 12, 1859
09/21/1859 New York Times, “Gen. Scott’s Mission,” September 21, 1859
10/08/1859 New York Times, “Suspicious,” October 8, 1859
10/11/1859 New York Times, “A Shabby Trick,” October 11, 1859
10/14/1859 New York Times, “Buchanan vs. Forney,” October 14, 1859
10/18/1859 Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, “Riot at Harper’s Ferry,” October 18, 1859
10/19/1859 Entry by Edmund Ruffin, October 19, 1859
10/20/1859 Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, “Negro Insurrection!," October 20, 1859
10/25/1859 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Dissolution of the Union," October 25, 1859
10/27/1859 Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Governor Wise on the Harper's Ferry Insurrection," October 27, 1859
10/31/1859 Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "Political Effect," October 31, 1859
11/09/1859 New Orleans (LA) Picayune, "Frederick Douglass's Letter," November 9, 1859
12/01/1859 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Other Brown," December 1, 1859
12/06/1859 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "How a Brave Man Dies," December 6, 1859
12/08/1859 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Virginia Wants the Nation to Foot Her Bills," December 8, 1859
12/11/1859 New York Herald, “Judge Douglas and the Administration,” December 11, 1859
12/17/1859 Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “The Admission of Kansas,” December 17, 1859
12/23/1859 Newark (OH) Advocate, “Mr. Douglas and the Presidency,” December 23, 1859
12/28/1859 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The President’s Message,” December 28, 1859
01/19/1860 Washington (DC) National Era, "Prohibition of Slavery in Nebraska," January 19, 1860
02/04/1860 Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Election of Mr. Forney,” February 4, 1860
03/05/1860 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Pennsylvania,” March 5, 1860
03/13/1860 Boston (MA) Advertiser, “The Troubles in Texas,” March 13, 1860
03/17/1860 Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, “Kellogg on Douglas,” March 17, 1860
03/17/1860 T. E. Norris to Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, March 17, 1860
03/21/1860 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “At War With Mexico,” March 21, 1860
03/23/1860 Cleveland (OH) Herald, “War With Mexico,” March 23, 1860
03/26/1860 Charles Linsley to Robert Hunter, March 26, 1860
04/01/1860 New York Herald, “Seward’s Opinion on the Mexican Business,” April 1, 1860
04/19/1860 New York Times, “A Bomb-Shell for Charleston,” April 19, 1860
04/20/1860 Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Mr. Buchanan’s Letter,” April 20, 1860
04/21/1860 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Douglas Nomination,” April 21, 1860
05/11/1860 Newark (OH) Advocate, “How Mr. Buchanan’s Patronage Is Dispensed in Ohio,” May 11, 1860
05/15/1860 San Francisco (CA) Evening Bulletin, “The Great Mistake of the Buchanan’s Administration,” May 15, 1860
05/22/1860 New York Herald, “Extraordinary Activity of the Slave Trade,” May 22, 1860
05/23/1860 (Jackson) Mississippian, “Kansas in the Senate,” May 23, 1860
05/23/1860 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Lincoln as He Is,” May 23, 1860
05/25/1860 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune,“The Fillmore Men,” May 25, 1860
05/29/1860 Chillicothe (OH) Scioto Gazette, “"The Awful Horrors of the Middle-Passage,"” May 29, 1860
05/30/1860 Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Stop Quarreling,” May 30, 1860
07/04/1860 New York Times, “The Presidential Election,” July 4, 1860
07/07/1860 Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, “Decidedly Wrong,” July 7, 1860
07/18/1860 Raleigh (NC) Register, “The President on the Stump,” July 18, 1860
07/21/1860 New York Times, “The Herald in Harness,” July 21, 1860
08/09/1860 Ripley (OH) Bee, "The 'Irrepressible Conflict,'" August 9, 1860
08/11/1860 (Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “A Combination to Cheat the People,” August 11, 1860
09/06/1860 New York Times, “The Secretary at War Defended,” September 6, 1860
09/24/1860 New York Times, “Spain as an American Power,” September 24, 1860
09/28/1860 New York Times, “When to Secede,” September 28, 1860
10/26/1860 New York Times, “The Disunion Plot at Washington,” October 26, 1860
10/29/1860 Chicago (IL) Tribune, "The Union at the South," October 29, 1860
11/02/1860 New York Times, “Buchanan vs. Gen Scott,” November 2, 1860
11/07/1860 New York Times, "The Administration and Disunion," November 7, 1860
11/09/1860 Newark (OH) Advocate, "Lincoln's Administration," November 9, 1860
11/15/1860 Varina Anne Banks Howell Davis to Jefferson Finis Davis, November 15, 1860
11/17/1860 Chicago (IL) Tribune, "An Honest Confession," November 17, 1860
11/19/1860 New York Herald, “The Disunion Question,” November 19, 1860
11/23/1860 Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Kansas News,” November 23, 1860
11/23/1860 John Sherman to William Tecumseh Sherman, November 26, 1860
11/28/1860 New York Herald, "General Scott Wanted At Washington," November 28, 1860
11/29/1860 New York Times, “Political Assassination,” November 29, 1860
12/01/1860 Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “An Impossibility,” December 1, 1860
12/05/1860 New York Times, “Mr. Buchanan's Style of Conciliation,” December 5, 1860
12/08/1860 Chicago (IL) Tribune, "The Prime Cause," December 8, 1860
12/11/1860 New York Times, “The President’s Organ on the Crisis,” December 11, 1860
12/16/1860 New York Herald, “Not a Bed of Roses,” December 16, 1860
12/22/1860 (Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “A Presidential Election Without A Parallel,” December 22, 1860
12/25/1860 Bangor (ME) Whig and Courier, “Have We a Traitor at the Head,” December 25, 1860
12/27/1860 Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “The Clouds Lowering,” December 27, 1860
12/28/1860 Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Organize For Safety,” December 28, 1860
12/31/1860 New York Times, “Flight of a Great Criminal,” December 31, 1860
01/08/1861 Boston (MA) Herald, “The Crisis Approaching!,” January 8, 1861
01/14/1861 New York Times, “Disunion Leading the Way,” January 14, 1861
01/15/1861 New York Herald, “Ex-Secretary Floyd on the Crisis,” January 15, 1861
01/30/1861 Elihu B. Washburne to Abraham Lincoln, January 30, 1861
02/02/1861 Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “A Costly Administration,” February 2, 1861
02/09/1861 New York Times, “The Ultimatum Rejected,” February 9, 1861
02/23/1861 (Concord) New Hampshire Statesman, “What Will Lincoln Do?,” February 23, 1861
02/26/1861 New York Times, “Traitor Officers,” February 26, 1861
03/04/1861 Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "4th of March," March 4, 1861
03/04/1861 New York Times, “The Plot Against Mr. Lincoln’s Life,” March 4, 1861
03/07/1861 Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "The Inaugural Address," March 7, 1861
03/15/1861 Chicago (IL) Tribune, "Fort Sumter," March 15, 1861
04/07/1861 New York Herald, “Old Abe’s Backbone,” April 7, 1861
04/16/1861 New York Herald, “The Present Administration Doing What The Last Should Have Done,” April 16, 1861
05/13/1861 Boston (MA) Herald, “Union in California,” May 13, 1861
01/14/1862 Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Resignation of Secretary Cameron,” January 14, 1862
07/02/1863 Cincinnati (OH) Gazette, “Excitement in Lancaster,” July 2, 1863

Bibliography