Secession

On
Date Event
John Anthony Quitman, Mexican War general and Mississippi advocate of secession, dies on his plantation in Natchez
New governor of Mississippi is inaugurated in Jackson and calls for a convention of southern states
South Carolina statehouse raises the idea of a "Southern Confederacy"
Senator Gwin of California hints in the Senate that his state could join the South if the Union breaks up
Southern students from Philadelphia's medical schools meet and vote to leave for the South
Southern students make a mass exodus from Philadelphia's medical schools
Governor Wise of Virginia meets with southern medical students returned from Philadelphia
Large political meeting in favor of the Union held in Maysville, Kentucky
- The Alabama Democratic Convention meets in Montgomery and formulates the "Alabama Platform"
South Carolina sends Christopher Memminger to discuss the sectional crisis with the Virginia legislature
Louisiana Governor Wickliffe recommends economic self-defense for the South
South Carolina Commissioner Christopher Memminger speaks for four hours before the Virginia legislature
Virginia rejects South Carolina's call for a convention of southern states
Virginia Democrats urge participation in the proposed convention of southern states
In Texas, devastating fires strike Dallas and other parts of Denton County
Texas newspaper editor accuses abolitionists of planning to launch a slave revolt in the state
South Carolina congressman calls for secession should Abraham Lincoln win the general election
Reverend Anthony Bewley, a white Methodist preacher, lynched in Fort Worth, Texas
In Maryland, Breckinridge supporter William Yancey of Alabama speaks before a large crowd in Easton
- Stephen Douglas makes his final campaign tour, through the Deep South
In Charleston, South Carolina, the city's elite militia unit offers its services to the state
South Carolina's political leadership meets to decide on secession should Lincoln win the presidency
- Stephen Douglas ends his presidential campaign with speeches in Georgia and Alabama
William T. Sherman, teaching in Louisiana, writes to his wife about local attitudes on the election
Crowd waiting outside the Charleston Mercury office cheer at news of Abraham Lincoln’s victory
In Charleston, South Carolina U.S. District Court Judge A.G. Magrath dissolves his federal court and resigns
Philadelphia Democrats urge the South not to take precipitous action over the Republican victory
In New York, Southern medical students enrolled in the city's schools meet to decide on their future
In Washington D.C., South Carolinian James Chesnut, Jr. becomes the first Southern senator to resign his seat
William T. Sherman writes to his wife from Louisiana about the election
Louisiana native Major Pierre G.T. Beauregard appointed as the next Superintendent of West Point
In Washington D.C., the second South Carolina senator, James Henry Hammond, resigns his seat
U.S. naval units secure the forts of the Florida Keys against secessionist takeover
In Alabama, a Montgomery meeting nominates William Yancey and Thomas Watts for the secession convention
As specie flows South, New York banks agree to work in concert to stabilize markets
- Financial disruption verges on panic and Virginia banks suspend specie payments
Philadelphia banks suspend specie payments
William T. Sherman writes to his wife from Louisiana that she stay in Ohio
- The coldest night of the year does not cool secessionist fervor in the South Carolina state capital
In Louisville, Kentucky, a large Unionist meeting resolves to support the Constitution and seek compromise
Governor John J. Pettus of Mississippi calls for a state convention to consider secession
In Columbia, the Governor of South Carolina delivers his annual message to the state legislature
Texas Governor Sam Houston calls for all Southern governors to meet in conference at Austin
Commander of federal forces in Charleston, South Carolina asks again for area forts to be manned
Thanksgiving Day is celebrated across the country
Philadelphia textile manufacturers put their factories on half-time production
Abolitionist meeting to commemorate John Brown broken up in Boston
President Buchanan's annual message to Congress is delivered to Capital Hill
In Washington, the U.S. House creates its "Committee of Thirty-Three" on the sectional crisis
South Carolina voters elect delegates to its Secession Convention
Buchanan's Secretary of the Treasury recommends secession to his home state of Georgia
Secretary of the Treasury Howell Cobb resigns from the Buchanan Cabinet
In Washington DC, President Buchanan meets with the South Carolina congressional delegation
Congressman John Sherman urges his brother William to return to Ohio from Louisiana
Midshipman William Barker Cushing writes of "the huge weight of the crisis" on the U.S. Naval Academy
Philip Francis Thomas of Maryland becomes Secretary of the Treasury, replacing Howell Cobb
Southern senators and congressmen meet in Washington and produce the "Southern Manifesto"
Mass meeting in Philadelphia's Independence Square endorses the Union and conciliation with South
Secretary of State Lewis Cass resigns over the non-reinforcement of federal forts in South Carolina
President Buchanan designates January 4, 1861 as a national day of fasting and prayer
Francis Pickens is elected as the new governor of the state of South Carolina
Philadelphia's mayor instructed to transmit recent city resolutions for conciliation to South Carolina
In Columbia, South Carolina's Convention on secession opens with a morning session
Mississippi secession commissioner William L. Harris urges Georgia legislature to support secession
Commissioners from Mississippi and Alabama speak to the South Carolina Secession Convention
South Carolina governor asks President Buchanan's permission to occupy Fort Sumter with state troops
South Carolina's Convention on secession moves to Charleston to avoid smallpox outbreak
Governor Hicks refuses to call the Maryland legislature to hear the Mississippi secession commissioner
Buchanan's Secretary of the Interior arrives in North Carolina to lobby that state for secession
South Carolina governor orders militia to patrol Charleston Harbor between Forts Moultrie and Sumter
President Buchanan sends Caleb Cushing to ask South Carolina to postpone its Secession Convention
Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky introduces his Compromise in the United States Senate
Mississippi secession commissioner tells a large Baltimore crowd that "slavery was ordained by God"
U.S. Senate confirms well-known Democrat lawyer Edwin M. Stanton as Attorney-General
Senator Andrew Johnson of Tennessee defends the Union on the floor of the U.S. Senate
South Carolina secedes from the Union and declares itself "an independent commonweath"
New Orleans celebrates the secession of South Carolina
Speaker of the U.S. House refuses resignations of the South Carolina congressional delegation
In Pennsylvania, mass Union meeting at the Carlisle courthouse resolves that secession is illegal
In Memphis, U.S. Senator Andrew Johnson of Tennessee is hanged in effigy
In New York City, William H. Seward says in a speech that disunion will be avoided
Hundred foot flagpole flying the South Carolina flag vandalized in Petersburg, Virginia
Senator Robert A. Toombs recommends that his Georgia constituents vote for secession
In New Orleans, a massive meeting endorses candidates for the upcoming secession convention
Under cover of night in Charleston Harbor, Major Anderson consolidates his forces at Fort Sumter
South Carolina's commissioners to the United States arrive and take up residence in Washington
Commander of the U.S. Revenue cutter in Charleston Harbor turns his vessel over to South Carolina
In Pennsylvania, a large public meeting in Pittsburgh resolves to block transfers of cannon to the South
Alabama's commissioner to Kentucky warns Governor Magoffin of race war under Republican rule
South Carolina militia occupy Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney in Charleston Harbor
In the United States Senate, Albert G. Brown of Mississippi insists on the definition of slaves as property
Secretary of War Floyd demands that the Cabinet permit withdrawal of federal forces from Charleston
South Carolina's commissioners to the United States present their credentials and explain their mission
South Carolina seizes the U.S. Customs House and the U.S. Post Office buildings in Charleston
Postmaster-General Holt threatens action over South Carolina's seizure of U.S. Post Office accounts
Secretary of War John B. Floyd of Virginia resigns and is replaced by Postmaster-General Joseph Holt
President Buchanan replies to the South Carolina's commissioners as "private gentlemen"
In Charleston, South Carolina militia seize the federal arsenal and begin issuing arms and ammunition
Secretary of Navy orders U.S.S. Brooklyn to prepare to sail from Hampton Roads in Virginia
In the U.S. Senate, packed galleries cheer Senator Benjamin of Louisiana's defiant speech
South Carolina redefines treason, to be punished with "death without benefit of clergy"
Governor Pickens declares South Carolina waters, especially Charleston Harbor, off-limits to U. S. vessels
Alabama's secession commissioner warns Delaware of slave insurrection under Republican rule
General Winfield Scott orders Captain Charles Stone to put the District of Columbia Militia under arms
Captain Charles Stone takes up his duties at the head of the District of Columbia Militia
Delaware state legislature votes overwhelmingly to stay in the Union
The Florida state convention on secession assembles in Tallahassee
In North Carolina, Governor Ellis orders his state militia to occupy key federal forts
On the Senate floor, Stephen Douglas warns of the danger of the moment and calls for compromise
Alabama state troops seize the massive arsenal at Mount Vernon in Mobile County
National day of "fasting, humiliation, and prayer" takes place throughout the United States
In Alabama, voting underway to elect delegates to the state's secession convention
Chartered steamship sails from New York City bound for Charleston and the resupply of Fort Sumter
Mississippi's Secession Convention assembles in Jackson, the state capital
The Bank of England raises its discount rate as financial disruption in the United States effects Europe
Alabama's secession convention assembles in Montgomery
Jacob Thompson of Mississippi resigns as the Buchanan Administration's Secretary of the Interior
Mississippi's Secession Convention appoints a committee to draw up an ordinance of secession
From the capital, Dickinson alumni L. Q. Washington leaks the secret reinforcement of Fort Sumter
Federal resupply ship for Fort Sumter fired on outside Charleston Harbor and forced to retreat
North Carolina militia seize Fort Johnston and Fort Caswell at the mouth of the Cape Fear River
Mississippi secedes from the Union
In Tallahassee, the Florida secession convention votes by 62-7 to leave the United States
In Pensacola Bay, U.S. Army Lieutenant Adam J. Slemmer consolidates his forces in Fort Pickens
In Baton Rouge, Louisiana militia take control of massive stocks of arms at the Federal Arsenal
Alabama secedes from the Union
Marylander Philip F. Thomas resigns after one month as Secretary of the Treasury
Louisiana militia seize Forts Saint Philip and Jackson at the mouth of the Mississippi River
In Rochester, New York, a pro-compromise pro-Union crowd breaks up an abolition meeting
In Tallahassee, the formal Ordinance of Secession is signed on the capitol steps and Florida secedes
New York City's First Division, New York State Militia volunteers its services to state governor
In Philadelphia, southern students disrupt a program of patriotic tunes at the Academy of Music
Florida and Alabama militias seize the Pensacola Navy Yard and Fort Barracas
Mississippi militia at Vicksburg fire warning shots across bows of Cincinnati to New Orleans riverboat
Washington pays Governor Pickens what he is owed, from the newly seized Charleston Sub-Treasury
In Pennsylvania, a Carlisle courthouse meeting debates the Crittenden Compromise
From his bench in New York City, U.S. District Court Judge David Smalley defines high treason
Hinton Helper's scheduled lecture postponed in New York City due to fears of mob action
In Harrisburg, Andrew Gregg Curtin sworn in as the Pennsylvania's first Republican governor
Georgia's secession convention assembles in Milledgeville
Large and contentious meeting opposing coercion of the South held in Philadelphia
Maine legislature offers men and money to sustain the Union
The Bank of England replenishes its gold reserves as American financial disruption effects Europe
Georgia secedes from the Union
Philadelphia's labor leaders endorse compromise but also recommend defensive force if needed
In Connecticut, Southern students hoist the Palmetto Flag over Yale College's Alumni Hall
Jefferson Davis of Mississippi resigns from the United States Senate
Militia and police in New York City respond to rumors of an assault on the Brooklyn Naval Yard
New York City police seize almost a thousand muskets bound for Alabama
Louisiana's secession convention assembles in Baton Rouge
Georgia troops seize the federal arsenal at Augusta
A mass meeting of Philadelphia workingmen supports compromise and the Union
Louisiana secedes from the Union
Texans gather in Austin for their secession convention
Major Pierre Gustave T. Beauregard is removed from his post as Superintendent of West Point
Treasury Secretary Dix issues his order to "shoot on the spot" anyone hauling down the national flag
Louisiana seizes the United States Mint and the United States Customs House in New Orleans
Texas secedes from the Union
Virginians elect delegates to their secession convention
- The Washington Peace Conference is meeting at Willard's Hotel in Washington DC
The Convention of Seceding States opens at the State House in Montgomery, Alabama
In Boston, the Massachusetts Legislature amends its Militia Act to allow troops to march out of state
The Convention of Seceding States passes the provisional constitution of the Confederate States
In Arkansas, local militia seize the U.S. Arsenal at Little Rock
Georgia seizes New York ships in reprisal for New York police confiscation of arms bound for Savannah
In a statewide poll, Tennessee votes against holding a secession convention
- The Provisional Congress of the Confederate States is sitting in Montgomery, Alabama
Jefferson Davis selected as Provisional President of the Confederate States
Philadelphians gather to cheer a shipment of heavy cannon bound for the defenses of New York Harbor
- The Virginia Convention on secession is meeting in Richmond
In Cumberland County, the secession flag is briefly hoisted in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania
General Daniel Twiggs surrenders all U.S. Army units and installations to Texas state troops
- Secessionists occupy a disused fort in Nebraska overnight but lose it to Unionists in the morning
Jefferson Davis sworn in as Provisional President of the Confederate States
A national convention of workingmen meets in Philadelphia
Texas voters ratify the state's Ordinance of Secession by a large majority
The Washington Peace Conference presents its proposals to the U.S. Congress
North Carolina votes narrowly not to hold a secession convention
First Confederate government bond authorized
Secretary of War Holt dismisses General Twiggs from the U.S. Army for treachery
Texas seizes the United States Revenue cutter Henry Dodge in Galveston
- In Washington, DC, the United States Senate is sitting in Special Session
The Confederate States flag, "the Stars and Bars," is adopted in Montgomery, Alabama
Confederate diplomats arrive in Washington DC
Jefferson Davis appoints Pierre G.T. Beauregard commanding general of the troops around Fort Sumter
After weeks of refusal, the commander of Fort Brown in Texas surrenders and marches his men to the coast
In Montgomery, Alabama, the Confederate Congress passes a bill to create the Confederate Army
Confederate States Constitution adopted in Montgomery, Alabama
In Washington, DC, Confederate diplomats request a meeting with the U.S. Secretary of State
Secretary of State Seward refuses to recognize the Confederate diplomats sent to Washington DC
The Congress of the Confederate States ends its first session in Montgomery, Alabama
In Florida, Confederate authorities ban the locals from resupplying Fort Pickens and the U.S. Navy
In Georgia, Vice-President A.H. Stephens pronounces slavery the foundation of the new Confederacy
In Mississippi, Governor Pettus provides two regiments of infantry to the new Confederate Army
A secessionist flag flies near the Frankford Arsenal in north-east Philadelphia
The Philadelphia Methodist Conference urges withdrawal of the Church's new "discipline" on slavery
In Virginia, secessionists raise the Confederate flag in a ceremony near Richmond
In St. Louis, Missouri, a unified anti-Republican ticket takes control of mayor's office and city council
Southern journalist urges the South to reclaim the "Star-Spangled Banner" as a southern patriotic song
In Richmond, the Virginia Convention rejects secession in a decisive vote
In Kentucky, Unionist John M. Delph easily wins election as the mayor of Louisville
President Lincoln gives South Carolina notice that he intends to resupply Fort Sumter
From Montgomery, the Confederate secretary of war orders immediate action against Fort Sumter
In Washington, DC, the District of Columbia militia called out and sworn in for three months
Federal troops evacuated from Texas arrive in New York Harbor
General Beauregard demands that Major Anderson surrender Fort Sumter immediately
Off Pensacola, Florida, under cover of night, small boats reinforce the federal garrison at Fort Pickens
Pennsylvania votes $500,000 for the expansion of its militia
Beauregard again demands that Major Anderson surrender Fort Sumter immediately
Major Anderson accepts a ceasefire and prepares to evacuate Fort Sumter
Major Anderson and his men evacuate Fort Sumter and sail for New York
Stephen Douglas meets with Lincoln at the White House and pledges his support
President Abraham Lincoln calls a special early session of the new 37th Congress
President Lincoln calls for 75,000 troops to suppress the Rebellion and enforce United States law
The governor of North Carolina sends an immediate refusal to provide troops for the Union
Secretary of War Cameron outlines his quotas of volunteers to state governors
In Philadelphia, angry crowds threaten the offices of the city's southern-based newspaper
Governor Magoffin of Kentucky refuses troops for "the wicked purpose" of subduing the South
Reading, Pennsylvania militia artillery unit called to service arrives in Harrisburg
In Philadelphia, Mayor Alexander proclaims both against treason and popular disorder in the city
At the House of Delegates in Richmond, the Virginia Convention votes for secession
Confederate president invites applications for "letters of Marque and Reprisal"
- Union garrison at Harpers Ferry burns the Arsenal and withdraws in an overnight march to Pennsylvania
In Carlisle, Pennsylvania, the Democratic newspaper denounces "Old Abe's War"
Baltimore rioters mount a deadly attack on the Sixth Massachusetts in the streets of the city
- Marylanders in sympathy with the South burn railroad bridges linking Philadelphia with Washington DC
Remarkable gathering of 100,000 New Yorkers in Union Square in support of suppressing the rebellion
First company of volunteers from Carlisle, Pennsylvania leaves for training, equipment, and service
In Carlisle, Pennsylvania, a public meeting condemns the South and strongly supports the war
At Dickinson College, the Junior and Senior classes request the end of term be brought forward
In Pennsylvania, the Carlisle Fencibles are officially mustered in as Pennsylvania Volunteers
North Carolina authorities seize the branch United States Mint in Charlotte
Philadelphia's enlistments since the attack on Fort Sumter approach ten thousand
Pennsylvania suffers its first war fatality when a Philadelphia militiaman hurt in the Baltimore Riot dies
In Philadelphia, the empty Girard House Hotel becomes a giant army uniform factory
In Knoxville, editor "Parson" Brownlow famously rejects invitation to enlist in Confederate army
U.S. Government takes over the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Delaware Railroad
In Carlisle, Pennsylvania, the Democratic newspaper swings into line in support of the war
In Carlisle, Pennsylvania, James Colwell is appointed first lieutenant of the Carlisle Fencibles
At Dickinson College in Pennsylvania, students are leaving for home in large numbers
In Frederick, Maryland, the state's House of Delegates votes down secession
In Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Dickinson College students are finding it difficult to attend class
The Congress of the Confederate States opens a special session session in Montgomery, Alabama
- The Congress of the Confederate States is sitting in special session session in Montgomery, Alabama
President Lincoln's twenty day grace period for the rebellion to "disperse" expires
In Missouri, Federal forces arrest 639 pro-secession St Louis militiamen and face city mobs in response
Violence continues on the streets of St. Louis as pro-Union militia battle with pro-Confederate mobs
With war in the United States underway, the Bank of England raises its discount rate again
The Kentucky Senate votes for neutrality but resolves to hold with the Union
In Virginia, Captain John Quincy Marr becomes the first Confederate officer to die in the Civil War.
The 37th Congress opens in Washington, DC
The Wheeling Convention of the western Virginia counties passes an ordinance setting up a new state
Confederate troops invade western Kentucky and bring the state's efforts to remain neutral to an end
In Union-occupied North Carolina, loyalists meet in convention, rescind secession, and name a new governor
In Paducah, Kentucky, Union officers clash over the treatment of a local secessionist
- In Wheeling, the elected West Virginia convention is meeting to write a constitution for the new state
In Richmond, the Confederate Congress votes to admit Missouri as the Confederacy's eleventh state
The Wheeling Convention votes to drop the provisional name "Kanawha" in favor of "West Virginia"
U.S.S. Hartford returns home from Asia with four officers who had declared for the Confederacy
As the year closes, the armed forces of the United States reach a strength of more than 680,000 men
U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee votes to expel Missouri Senators Waldo Johnson and Trusten Polk
The United States Senate expels Missouri Senators Waldo Johnson and Trusten Polk for treason
In Cincinnati, Wendell Phillips is forced from the stage as he attempts agitate for abolition and disunion
The U.S. Senate organizes the impeachment trial of U.S. District Judge West H. Humphreys
The U.S. Senate trial of U.S. District Judge West H. Humphreys of Tennessee ends with his removal
In Charleston Harbor, General Robert Anderson re-hoists the United States flag over Fort Sumter
In North Carolina, CSA General J. E. Johnston opens surrender talks with Union General W. T. Sherman
In North Carolina, against orders, CSA General J. E. Johnston surrenders the entire Army of the Tennessee
Notorious secessionist "fire-eater" Edmund Ruffin commits suicide at his Virginia plantation
The Georgia State Convention votes to repeal the act of Secession passed in its legislature on January 19, 1861
In Detroit, Michigan, Democratic Party giant Lewis Cass dies at the age of eighty-three.
Date Title
Daniel Webster, Second Reply to Hayne, United States Senate, January 26, 1830
New York Times, “South Carolina Senator,” October 12, 1857
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Rumored Breaking Up of the Cabinet,” June 18, 1858
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “The Union of the South,” March 9, 1859
San Francisco (CA) Evening Bulletin, “Filibusterism and Disunion,” April 1, 1859
James Buchanan to Charles E. Wentz, April 22, 1859
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Folly,” July 25, 1859
William T. Sherman to Ellen Sherman, December 12, 1859
Chillicothe (OH) Scioto Gazette, “Disunion Bosh and the Cause of it,” January 3, 1860
William T. Sherman to Thomas Ewing, January 8, 1860
Entry by Edward Bates, March 17, 1860
New York Times, “Disunion Plots,” May 10, 1860
Raleigh (NC) Register, “The President on the Stump,” July 18, 1860
Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, "Who Are For Disunion?," August 8, 1860
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, "Precipitate A Revolution," August 9, 1860
New York Times, “Mr. Yancey's Speech,” August 21, 1860
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "The Disunion Movement," September 13, 1860
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Mum on the Great Question,” September 17, 1860
New York Times, “Disunion Ravings,” September 20, 1860
New York Times, “The Nonsense of Disunion,” September 22, 1860
New York Times, “When to Secede,” September 28, 1860
(Jackson) Mississippian, "The 'Coercion' Issue," October 5, 1860
New York Herald, “Won't Submit to Lincoln,” October 8, 1860
Charleston (SC) Mercury, "The Terrors of Submission," October 11, 1860
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “A Trap For Douglas,” October 11, 1860
New York Herald, “What are the Southern States Going to Do?,” October 12, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “There's No Secession in That,” October 13, 1860
New York Times, “Very Suspicious,” October 15, 1860
New York Times, “The Alabama Insurrection,” October 20, 1860
New York Times, “A Bad Beginning,” October 22, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Fear of Insurrection,” October 24, 1860
New York Times, “The Disunion Plot at Washington,” October 26, 1860
Abraham Lincoln to David Hunter, October 26, 1860
Chicago (IL) Tribune, "The Union at the South," October 29, 1860
New York Times, “Buchanan vs. Gen Scott,” November 2, 1860
New York Herald, “The New York Herald and the Disunion Question,” November 4, 1860
New York Times, "The Republicans and Slavery," November 5, 1860
New York Times, "The Administration and Disunion," November 7, 1860
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “Conservative Sentiments,” November 8, 1860
(Jackson) Mississippian, “Remarkable Unanimity,” November 9, 1860
Chicago (IL) Tribune, "The Disunion Flurry," November 10, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “A Traitor in Embryo,” November 12, 1860
(Jackson) Mississippian, “A Bugle Blast from Washington,” November 13, 1860
Chicago (IL) Tribune, "Secession and Finance," November 13, 1860
Ripley (OH) Bee, “Southern Pranks,” November 15, 1860
Varina Anne Banks Howell Davis to Jefferson Finis Davis, November 15, 1860
Chicago (IL) Tribune, "A Seceder's Opinion in 1851," November 16, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Reign of Terror in Georgia,” November 17, 1860
New York Herald, “The Disunion Question,” November 19, 1860
New York Times, “A Secession Breakwater,” November 20, 1860
August Belmont to Herschel Johnson, November 22, 1860
William T. Sherman to Ellen Sherman, November 23, 1860
John Sherman to William Tecumseh Sherman, November 26, 1860
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “Nullifying the Laws,” November 24, 1860
New York Times, "Object of the South Carolina Convention," November 24, 1860
New York Herald, “The Real Disunionists,” November 25, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Secession Cadets,” November 26, 1860
New York Times, “Unionism in Georgia,” November 27, 1860
William T. Sherman to Ellen Sherman, November 29, 1860
New York Times, “Political Assassination,” November 29, 1860
Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “An Impossibility,” December 1, 1860
New York Times, "Southern Debtors," December 1, 1860
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “A Good Precedent,” December 3, 1860
August Belmont to William Sprague, December 6, 1860
John Sherman to William Tecumseh Sherman, December 9, 1860
New York Herald, “The Crisis and Its Solution,” December 10, 1860
New York Times, “The President’s Organ on the Crisis,” December 11, 1860
Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, “A British Opinion of American Disunion,” December 12, 1860
Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, “British Views of Secession,” December 14, 1860
Bangor (ME) Whig and Courier, “What Will Texas Do?,” December 15, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “What the South Intends to do on the Fourth of March,” December 15, 1860
New York Herald, “Not a Bed of Roses,” December 16, 1860
Charleston (SC) Mercury, "The Tempest Brewing at the North," December 17, 1860
Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, “Compromise Projects,” December 18, 1860
New York Herald, “Views on Secession in England,” December 19, 1860
New York Times,“A Visit to Mr. Lincoln,” December 20, 1860
New York Times, “A Sensible Proceeding,” December 20, 1860
Newark (OH) Advocate, "Suffering in New York," December 21, 1860
Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, “Mr. Lincoln's Position,” December 24, 1860
New York Times, "Secession is Anarchy," December 25, 1860
Bangor (ME) Whig and Courier, “Have We a Traitor at the Head,” December 25, 1860
Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, “Secession Explained,” December 26, 1860
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Character of the Secession Leaders,” December 27, 1860
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “The Clouds Lowering,” December 27, 1860
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Organize For Safety,” December 28, 1860
Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “No Backing Down!,” December 29, 1860
New York Herald, “Is South Carolina Out of the Union?,” December 30, 1860
Thomas Cadwallerder to Abraham Lincoln, December 31, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Letter From Virginia,” January 2, 1861
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “A Forgeone Conclusion,” January 3, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Danger of the Capital,” January 4, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Pennsylvania Arming,” January 5, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Secession Flag At Wilmington,” January 7, 1861
Boston (MA) Herald, “The Crisis Approaching!,” January 8, 1861
New York Times, “Arms for Traitors,” January 10, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “The One Man Power,” January 11, 1861
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “Will the Union be Preserved?,” January 12, 1861
New York Times, “Disunion Leading the Way,” January 14, 1861
New York Herald, “Coercion Symptoms in the West and North-West,” January 15, 1861
New York Herald, “Ex-Secretary Floyd on the Crisis,” January 15, 1861
Alexander K. McClure to Abraham Lincoln, January 15, 1861
New York Times, “Aid For Disunion,” January 16, 1861
"The Floyd Banquet," New York Herald, January 17, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “An Incident at Fort Sumter,” January 17, 1861
New York Times, “The Battle of Morris’ Island,” January 19, 1861
New York Herald, “A Contrast,” January 20, 1861
Israel Washburn Jr. to Abraham Lincoln, January 21, 1861
New York Times, “Secession of Florida,” January 23, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “Will England Recognize the Southern Confederacy?,” January 26, 1861
New York Herald, “The Blockade of the Mississippi River,” January 27, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Hardly Credible,” January 28, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “‘Coercion’ in Alabama,” January 28, 1861
Campbell Kinnear to Abraham Lincoln, January 29, 1861
Elihu B. Washburne to Abraham Lincoln, January 30, 1861
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “Let the People Consider,” January 31, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Yoke of Oppression,” February 1, 1861
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “Lincoln and His Guard,” February 2, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “The Next Step,” February 6, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Mr. Lincoln’s Views,” February 7, 1861
Newark (OH) Advocate, “Abolition Threat of John P. Hale,” February 8, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “A. H. Stephens,” February 12, 1861
New York Herald, “Free Love and Passional Attraction in the New Administration,” February 13, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “The Irrepressible Conflict,” February 13, 1861
Louisville (KY) Journal, “Mr. Lincoln’s Speeches,” February 14, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "Another Strong Blow for the Union," February 14, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Thurlow Weed,” February 14, 1861
New York Times, “An Unsatisfactory Defence,” February 15, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Lincoln’s War Speech,” February 16, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Popular Sovereignty,” February 18, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Mr. Lincoln’s Indianapolis Speech,” February 19, 1861
New York Times, “Southern Streets and Northern Names,” February 20, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Bad For Virginia,” February 20, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Our New Colors,” February 21, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “Regular Officers in the South,” February 22, 1861
(Concord) New Hampshire Statesman, “What Will Lincoln Do?,” February 23, 1861
Memphis (TN) Appeal, “Enforcement of the Laws,” February 24, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Mayor Wood Lectures Lincoln,” February 25, 1861
New York Times, “Traitor Officers,” February 26, 1861
Winfield Scott to William H. Seward, March 3, 1861
New York Herald, “Resignations in the Army, Navy and Civil Service of the Federal Government,” March 3, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The President’s Inaugural,” March 5, 1861
New York Times, “A Bloody Programme,” March 6, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "The Inaugural Address," March 7, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Premonitions of a Storm,” March 8, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “A Scurvy Trick,” March 11, 1861
Winfield Scott to Abraham Lincoln, March 11, 1861
James Buchanan to James Gordon Bennett, March 11, 1861
New York Times, “A Loyal Regiment,” March 12, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Abolitionists and Secessionists,” March 14, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, "Fort Sumter," March 15, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Impending Downfall of Secession,” March 16, 1861
New York Herald, “The New York Vessels Seized by the State of Georgia,” March 17, 1861
New York Times, “About Fort Sumpter [Sumter],” March 18, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "Arkansas," March 18, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “Massachusetts Personal Liberty Bill,” March 19, 1861
Savannah (GA) News, “A Northern Invasion,” March 20, 1861
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “Pryor Rampant,” March 21, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Fort Sumter,” March 22, 1861
New York Times, “A Not Very Civil War,” March 23, 1861
New York Herald, “Honor to Abolitionism Pure and Simple,” March 24, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Spirit of Washington Letters,” March 25, 1861
New York Times, “Mischievous Rumors,” March 26, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Virginia Still for the Union,” March 28, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Houston and the Rebels,” March 28, 1861
Memphis (TN) Appeal, “Mr. Stephens’ Speech,” March 29, 1861
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “The Policy of the Administration,” March 30, 1861
New York Times, “Negro Regiments to be Raised,” April 1, 1861
New York Times, “Ho! For The Road!,” April 4, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "A Hoax," April 4, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “North Carolina and Secession,” April 4, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “A Rugged Issue,” April 5, 1861
Savannah (GA) News, “The Tribune on Virginia,” April 6, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “A Cheat at the Board,” April 6, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “The Naval Preparations at the North,” April 8, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “What Does It All Mean?,” April 9, 1861
New York Times, “Wise Rampant,” April 9, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Prepare to Howl!,” April 10, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "Alarming News," April 11, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “War Inaugurated!,” April 13, 1861
General P. G. T. Beauregard's General Order Number 20, April 14, 1861, Charleston, South Carolina
New York Herald, “Apprehensions of an Attack on Washington,” April 14, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Dread Arbitrament of War,” April 15, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Quick, Sharp, and Decisive,” April 15, 1861
New Orleans (LA) Picayune, “Lincoln’s War Talk,” April 15, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “Retaliation,” April 15, 1861
Abraham Lincoln, Presidential Proclamation, April 15, 1861, Washington , DC
Proclamation by Mayor Fernando Wood of New York City, April 15, 1861
Entry by George Templeton Strong, April 15, 1861
Joseph Medill to Abraham Lincoln, April 15, 1861
Winfield Scott to Abraham Lincoln, April 15, 1861
Alexander J. Sessions to Abraham Lincoln, April 16, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Border States,” April 16, 1861
James Henderson to Abraham Lincoln, April 16, 1861
New York Herald, “The Present Administration Doing What The Last Should Have Done,” April 16, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “Another John Brown Raid,” April 16, 1861
Chillicothe (OH) Scioto Gazette, “The War News,” April 16, 1861
Entry by Josie Underwood, April 16, 1861
Entry by George Templeton Strong, April 16, 1861
Entry by Catherine Edmondston, April 16, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Abolition Anticipations,” April 17, 1861
The Virginia Ordinance of Secession, April 17, 1861
Jefferson Davis, Proclamation, April 17, 1861
Entry by Josie Underwood, April 17, 1861
Entry by George Templeton Strong, April 17, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “The Old Fire,” April 18, 1861
Proclamation of the Governor of Maryland, April 18, 1861
Boston (MA) Liberator, “An Ancient and A Modern Compromise,” April 19, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Henry Ward Beecher on War,” April 19, 1861
Newark (OH) Advocate, “Speech of Hon. Alex H. Stephens,” April 19, 1861
George W. Brown to John A. Andrew, April 20, 1861
Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin's Proclamation, April 20, 1861
New York Times, “The Position of Maryland,” April 20, 1861
Savannah (GA) News, “Mails to the South to be Cut Off,” April 20, 1861
John A. Andrew to George W. Brown, April 21, 1861
New York Herald, “News from Baltimore,” April 21, 1861
Lunsford L. Lomax to George B. Bayard, April 21, 1861, Washington, D.C.
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Cannot Be Accepted,” April 22, 1861
William Seward to Thomas Hicks, April 22, 1861
William Willey to Waitman Willey, April 22, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Reorganization,” April 22, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “We Don’t Believe It!,” April 23, 1861
David D. Field to Abraham Lincoln, April 23, 1861
New York Times, “How to End the War,” April 24, 1861
Proclamation of Kentucky Governor Beriah Magoffin, April 24, 1861
Virginia Governor John Letcher’s Proclamation, April 24, 1861
Andrew H. Reeder to Simon Cameron, April 24, 1861
Dickinson College President Herman Johnson Circular Letter, April 24, 1861
Abraham Lincoln to Winfield Scott, April 25, 1861
New York Times, “Rushing to Ruin,” April 26, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Gen. Scott,” April 27, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Secession Wounded in Missouri,” April 27, 1861
Entry by George Templeton Strong, April 27, 1861
- C. P. Kirkland, Jr.’s Letter, April 27-28, 1861
New York Herald, “Protection to Southern Property in New York,” April 28, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Washington Safe,” April 29, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "A New Difficulty," April 29, 1861
William Willey to Waitman Willey, April 29, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Time Not Expired,” April 30, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Brave Words from Brownlow,” April 30, 1861
New York Times, “Arms for the Rebels,” May 1, 1861
Savannah (GA) News, “Northern Free Speech,” May 1, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "Neutrality," May 2, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Good Bye, John Bell,” May 2, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Peril of Kentucky,” May 3, 1861
Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “Are They Secessionists?,” May 4, 1861
New York Times, “Affairs in Maryland,” May 5, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "What We Have To Expect," May 6, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Feeling in Alabama,” May 6, 1861
New York Herald, “English Opinions on American Affairs,” May 7, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “Horace Greeley,” May 8, 1861
Boston (MA) Advertiser, “Not Quite a Unit,” May 9, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Unfounded Complaints,” May 9, 1861
New York Times, “Not a War against the South,” May 10, 1861
Boston (MA) Herald, “Union in California,” May 13, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Lying Dexterity,” May 14, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Treason,” May 15, 1861
Ripley (OH) Bee, “Letter from a Union man in Kentucky,” May 16, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Help From England,” May 16, 1861
New York Times, “The Reward of Treason,” May 16, 1861
Montgomery Blair to Abraham Lincoln, May 16, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “New European Views of the South,” May 17, 1861
Savannah (GA) News, “The Civil War in Missouri,” May 17, 1861
Robert Anderson to Abraham Lincoln, May 19, 1861
New York Times, “A Halter with Two Nooses,” May 20, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “What Is Meant By ‘Armed Neutrality,’” May 21, 1861
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “The Day of Election,” May 22, 1861
Ripley (OH) Bee, “One of the Volunteers,” May 23, 1861
Boston (MA) Advertiser, “Impotent Rage,” May 27, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Abusing England,” May 27, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Army Slave Catching,” May 28, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “The Military Policy of the North,” May 29, 1861
New York Times, “Civil and Martial Law at Baltimore,” May 30, 1861
Newark (OH) Advocate, “England and the United States,” May 31, 1861
New York Herald, “Our Fashionable Summer Resorts,” June 2, 1861
New York Times, “One of their Errors,” June 3, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Virginia Playing the Foot,” June 4, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “The Mothers and Wives,” June 6, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Treason in Illinois,” June 7, 1861
Carlisle (PA) Herald, “Departure of the Volunteers,” June 7, 1861
New York Times, “The Bitter Fruits,” June 10, 1861
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “The Capture of the Privateer Savannah,” June 11, 1861
San Francisco (CA) Evening Bulletin, “Doing at Virginia,” June 12, 1861
(Concord) New Hampshire Statesman, “The Patriot and the Merryman Case,” June 15, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “A Submissionist Answered,” June 17, 1861
Ripley (OH) Bee, “Fugitives from Oppression,” June 20, 1861
San Francisco (CA) Evening Bulletin, “Disreputable Weapons of Political Warfare,” June 27, 1861
Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “One of Floyd’s Performances,” June 29, 1861
Worthington G. Snethen to Winfield Scott, June 29, 1861
Abraham Lincoln, Message to the Congress in Special Session, July 4, 1861
Entry by Kate Stone, July 4, 1861
(Concord) New Hampshire Statesman, “Andrew Johnson,” July 6, 1861
Memphis (TN) Appeal, “Kentucky Neutrality to be Disregarded,” July 7, 1861
Memphis (TN) Appeal, “Ulterior Squinting,” July 9, 1861
Charles B. Calvert to Abraham Lincoln, July 10, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Missouri,” July 13, 1861
Boston (MA) Advertiser, “Missouri Discontents,” July 22, 1861
Andrew Johnson and William B. Carter to Abraham Lincoln, August 6, 1861
Boston (MA) Advertiser, “The Kentucky Victory,” August 10, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “East Tennessee,” August 16, 1861
Beriah Magoffin to Abraham Lincoln, August 19, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Secession Organs in the North,” August 20, 1861
Ward H. Lamon to Abraham Lincoln, August 23, 1861
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Union Feeling in North Carolina,” August 27, 1861
Abraham Lincoln to Orville Hickman Browning, September 22, 1861
Gen. William Nelson's Proclamation and Offer of Amnesty in Kentucky, October 17, 1861
Chillicothe (OH) Scioto Gazette, “Disgraceful Fraud,” October 29, 1861
Abraham Lincoln to Lorenzo Thomas, November 7, 1861
Marble Nash Taylor, Proclamation to the People of North Carolina, November 20, 1861
Abraham Lincoln, Annual Message to Congress, December 3, 1861
Claiborne Fox Jackson to the Soldiers and Fellow-Citizens of Missouri, December 13, 1861
Marble Nash Taylor, Proclamation to the People of North Carolina calling Elections, January 22, 1862
Henry Massey Rector to the Freemen of Arkansas, Little Rock, May 5, 1862
Abraham Lincoln to Cuthbert Bullitt, July 28, 1862
Reverdy Johnson to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, September 05, 1862
Abraham Lincoln, Response to a Serenade, November 10, 1864
Andrew Johnson, Amnesty Proclamation, Washington D.C., May 29, 1865
Edmund Ruffin, Diary Entry, June 17, 1865
Georgia State Convention, "An Ordinance to repeal certain ordinances and resolutions...." Milledgeville, Georgia, October 30, 1865
Georgia State Convention, "Plea for the release and pardon of Jefferson Davis..." Milledgeville, Georgia, October 30, 1865
Andrew Johnson, Proclamation announcing that the Rebellion has ended, April 2, 1866
Chicago Style Entry Link
Adams, Charles. When in the Course of Human Events: Arguing the Case for Southern Secession. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000. View Record
Ash, Stephen V. Secessionists and Other Scoundrels: Selections from Parson Brownlow’s Book. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999. View Record
Auchampaugh, Philip Gerald. James Buchanan and His Cabinet on the Eve of Secession. Lancaster, PA: Privately printed, 1926. View Record
Ayers, Edward L. In the Presence of Mine Enemies: War in the Heart of America 1859-1863. New York: W W Norton & Company, 2003. View Record
Ayers, Edward L. What Caused the Civil War? Reflections on the South and Southern History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2005. View Record
Ayers, Edward L., Gary W. Gallagher, and Andrew J. Torget. Crucible of the Civil War: Virginia from Secession to Commemoration. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2006. View Record
Barney, William L. The Making of a Confederate: Walter Lenoir's Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. View Record
Barney, William L. The Secessionist Impulse: Alabama and Mississippi in 1860. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974. View Record
Belohlavek, John M. "The Politics of Scandal: A Reassessment of John B. Floyd as Secretary of War, 1857-1861." West Virginia History 31, no. 3 (1970): 145-160. View Record
Boyd, William Kenneth. North Carolina on the Eve of Secession. Washington, DC: American Historical Association, 1912. View Record
Buenger, Walter L. Secession and the Union in Texas. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984. View Record
Canfield, Eugene B. "Birth of a Blockade." Naval History 21, no. 5 (2007): 44-51. View Record
Channing, Steven A. Crisis of Fear: Secession in South Carolina. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978. View Record
Crofts, Daniel W. "A Reluctant Unionist: John A. Gilmer and Lincoln's Cabinet." Civil War History 24, no. 3 (1978): 225-249. View Record
Crofts, Daniel W. Reluctant Confederates: Upper South Unionists in the Secession Crisis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989. View Record
Davis, Kenneth W. “Black, Buchanan and Secession.” Laurel Messenger 15 (February 1975): 1, 8. View Record
Denton, Lawrence M. A Southern Star for Maryland: Maryland and the Secession Crisis, 1860-1861. Baltimore: Publishing Concepts, 1995. View Record
Dew, Charles B. Apostles of Disunion: Southern Secession Commissioners and the Causes of the Civil War. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001. View Record
Di Nunzio, Mario. “Secession Winter: Lyman Trumbull and the Crisis in Congress.” Capitol Studies 1 (Fall 1972): 29-39. View Record
Faulkner, Thomas C. Faulkner’s History of the Revolution in the Southern States Including the Special Messages of President Buchanan—the Ordinances of Secession of the Six Withdrawing States . . . etc. New York: J. F. Trow, 1861. View Record
Fehrenbacher, Don E. "Lincoln's Wartime Leadership: The First Hundred Days." Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 9 (1987): 1-18. View Record
Ford, Lacy K., Jr. "Toward a Divided Union." Reviews in American History 18, no. 3 (September 1990): 349-356. View Record
Ford, Lacy K., Jr. Origins of Southern Radicalism: The South Carolina Upcountry, 1800-1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. View Record
Freehling, William W. The Road to Disunion. Vol. 2, Secessionists Triumphant, 1854-1861. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. View Record
Freehling, William W. and Craig M. Simpson. Secession Debated: Georgia's Showdown in 1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. View Record
Hitchcock, William S. "The Limits of Southern Unionism: Virginia Conservatives and the Gubernatorial Election of 1859." Journal of Southern History 47, no 1 (1981): 57-72. View Record
Hitchcock, William S.  "Southern Moderates and Secession: Senator Robert M. T. Hunter's Call for Union," Journal of American History 59, no. 4 (1973): 871-884. View Record
Holt, Michael F. The Fate of Their Country: Politicians, Slavery Extension, and the Coming of the Civil War. New York: Hill and Wang, 2004. View Record
Holzer, Harold. Lincoln President-Elect: Abraham Lincoln and the Great Secession Winter 1860-1861. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008. View Record
Horton, Paul. "Submitting to the 'Shadow of Slavery': The Secession Crisis and Civil War in Alabama's Lawrence County." Civil War History 44, no. 2 (1998): 111-136. View Record
Hubbell, John T. “Jeremiah Sullivan Black and the Great Secession Winter.” Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 57, no. 3 (1974): 255-274. View Record
Hughes, Robert M. “Floyd’s Resignation from Buchanan’s Cabinet.” Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine 5 (1923): 73-95. View Record
Hunt, Gaillard. “Narrative and Letter of William Henry Trescot, Concerning the Negotiations between South Carolina and President Buchanan in December, 1860.” American Historical Review 13, no. 3 (April 1908): 528-556. View Record
Huston, James L. Calculating the Value of the Union: Slavery, Property Rights, and the Economic Origins of the Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. View Record
Johannsen, Robert W. "The Douglas Democracy and the Crisis of Disunion." Civil War History 9, no. 3 (1963): 229-247. View Record
Johnson, Michael P. Toward a Patriarchal Republic: The Secession of Georgia. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977. View Record
Kendall, Amos. Secession Letters of Amos Kendall: Also, His Letters to Colonel Orr and President Buchanan. Washington, DC: H. Polkinhorn, 1861. View Record
Klein, Maury. Days of Defiance: Sumter, Secession, and the Coming of the Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997. View Record
Klein, Philip Shriver. “Patriotic Myths and Political Realities: Buchanan and the Origins of the Civil War.” Lock Haven Review 15 (1974): 65-78. View Record
Klingberg, Frank Wysor. "James Buchanan and the Crisis of the Union." Journal of Southern History 9, no. 4 (1943): 455-474. View Record
Link, William A. Roots of Secession: Slavery and Politics in Antebellum Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. View Record
Lundberg, John R. “Wheat Farmers in the Secession Crisis: The Imprint of the Upper South on Northeast Texas Politics.” East Texas Historical Journal 47, no. 1 (2009): 29-43. View Record
Marvel, William. Mr. Lincoln Goes to War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2006. View Record
McClintock, Russell. Lincoln and the Decision for War: The Northern Response to Secession. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008. View Record
McCrary, Peyton, Clark Miller, and Dale Baum. "Class and Party in the Secession Crisis: Voting Behavior in the Deep South, 1856-1861." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 8, no. 3 (1978): 429-457. View Record
McKenzie, Robert Tracy. "Contesting Secession: Parson Brownlow and the Rhetoric of Proslavery Unionism, 1860-1861." Civil War History 48, no. 4 (2002): 294-312. View Record
McKenzie, Robert Tracy. Lincolnites and Rebels: A Divided Town in the American Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. View Record
McPherson, James M. This Mighty Scourge: Perspectives on the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. View Record
Milton, George Fort. "Stephen A. Douglas' Efforts for Peace." Journal of Southern History 1, no. 3 (1935): 261-275. View Record
Olsen, Christopher. Political Culture and Secession in Mississippi: Masculinity, Honor, and the Antiparty Tradition, 1830-1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. View Record
Phillips, Christopher. Missouri's Confederate: Claiborne Fox Jackson and the Creation of Southern Identify in the Border West. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2000. View Record
Potter, David Morris. The Impending Crisis, 1848-1861. Edited by Don E. Fehrenbacher. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1976. View Record
Reid, Brian Holden. "The Crisis at Fort Sumter in 1861 Reconsidered." History 77 (1992): 3-32. View Record
Reynolds, David S. "John Brown, the Election of Lincoln, and the Civil War." North & South 9, no. 1 (2006): 78-88. View Record
Reynolds, Donald E. Texas Terror: The Slave Insurrection Panic of 1860 and the Secession of the Lower South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2007 View Record
Shanks, Henry Thomas. The Secession Movement in Virginia, 1847-1861. Richmond: Garrett & Massie, 1934. View Record
Simpson, Brooks D. "Two More Roads to Sumter." Reviews in American History 17, no. 2 (1989): 225-231. View Record
Simpson, Craig M. A Good Southerner: The Life of Henry A. Wise of Virginia. The Fred W. Morrison Series in Southern Studies. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985. View Record
Sitterson, Joseph Carlyle. The Secession Movement in North Carolina. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1939. View Record
Stampp, Kenneth M. And the War Came: The North and the Secession Crisis, 1860-1861. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1950. View Record
Swanberg, W. A. First Blood: The Story of Fort Sumter. New York: Scribner Press, 1957. View Record
Varon, Elizabeth R. Disunion!: The Coming of the American Civil War, 1789-1859. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008. View Record
Walther, Eric H. The Fire-Eaters. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1992. View Record
Walther, Eric H. William Lowndes Yancey: The Coming of the Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006. View Record
Watson, Ritchie Devon. "'The Difference of Race': Antebellum Race Mythology and the Development of Southern Nationalism." Southern Literary Journal 35, no. 1 (2003): 1-13. View Record
Weatherman, Donald V. “James Buchanan on Slavery and Secession.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 15, no. 4 (Fall 1985): 796-805. View Record
Woodard, David E. “Abraham Lincoln, Duff Green, and the Mysterious Trumbull Letter.” Civil War History 42, no. 3 (1996): 211-219. View Record
How to Cite This Page: "Secession," House Divided: The Civil War Research Engine at Dickinson College, http://hd.housedivided.dickinson.edu/node/9606.