Douglas, Stephen Arnold

Life Span
to
Full name
Stephen Arnold Douglas
Place of Birth
Birth Date Certainty
Exact
Death Date Certainty
Exact
Gender
Male
Race
White
Sectional choice
North
Origins
Free State
No. of Spouses
2
No. of Children
2
Family
Stephen Arnold Douglass (father), Sarah Fisk (mother), Mary Martin (first wife, 1847), Adele Cutts (second wife, 1856)
Education
Other
Other Education
Canandaigua Academy, NY
Occupation
Politician
Attorney or Judge
Businessman
Relation to Slavery
Slaveholder
Political Parties
Democratic
Government
US Senate
US House of Representatives
State legislature
State supreme court
Other state government
Political Party in 1860
Democratic
Marital status in 1860
Married

Stephen Arnold Douglas (Congressional Biographical Directory)

Reference
DOUGLAS, Stephen Arnold, a Representative and a Senator from Illinois; born in Brandon, Rutland County, Vt., April 23, 1813; educated in the common schools and completed preparatory studies in Brandon Academy; learned the cabinetmaker’s trade; moved to a farm near Clifton Springs, N.Y.; entered Canandaigua Academy in 1832 and studied law; moved to Cleveland, Ohio, in 1833, and finally settled in Winchester, Ill., where he taught school and resumed the study of law; admitted to the bar in 1834 and commenced practice in Jacksonville, Morgan County, Ill.; elected State’s attorney for the Morgan circuit in 1835; member, State house of representatives 1836-1837; register of the land office at Springfield in 1837; unsuccessful Democratic candidate for election in 1838 to the Twenty-sixth Congress; appointed secretary of State of Illinois during the session of the legislature in 1840 and 1841 and at the same session was elected as one of the judges of the State supreme court; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, and Thirtieth Congresses and served from March 4, 1843, until his resignation on March 3, 1847, at the close of the Twenty-ninth Congress; elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate in 1847; reelected in 1853 and again in 1859, and served from March 4, 1847, until his death on June 3, 1861; chairman, Committee on Territories (Thirtieth through Thirty-fifth Congresses); unsuccessful candidate for the nomination for President of the United States on the Democratic ticket in 1852 and 1856; unsuccessful Democratic candidate for President in 1860; died in Chicago, Ill.; interment in Douglas Monument Park.
"Douglas, Stephen A.," Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774 to Present, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000457.

Stephen Arnold Douglas, Character (American National Biography)

Scholarship
While serving as an apprentice to a Middlebury cabinetmaker, Douglas was captivated by the image of Andrew Jackson; during the presidential campaign of 1828, he supported Jackson's candidacy by pulling down opposition handbills from walls and fences. "From this moment," Douglas later recalled, "my politics became fixed, and all subsequent reading, reflection and observation have but confirmed my early attachment to the cause of Democracy" (by which he meant both the party and the principle).

The experience not only aroused his ambition for a career in politics but also stimulated his interest in an education. In 1830 he moved with his family to upstate New York where he entered Canandaigua Academy, studying the Latin and Greek classics, mathematics, and English literature. Canandaigua was a cultural center of swirling ferment and unrest. The recently completed Erie Canal had opened the region to economic development, and the area was alive with a spirit of reform and change that Douglas could neither ignore nor resist.
Robert W. Johanssen, "Douglas, Stephen Arnold," American National Biography Online, February 2000, http://www.anb.org/articles/04/04-00325.html.

Stephen Arnold Douglas, Move to Illinois (American National Biography)

Scholarship
Douglas had already developed the driving energy that would later cause others to dub him a "steam engine in breeches." A young man in a hurry, he chafed at the long period of preparation required by New York law for admission to the bar. After six months of study, he headed for the "western country" where legal training and qualification were less formal. After brief stops in Cleveland, Cincinnati, Louisville, and St. Louis, he settled in Jacksonville, Illinois, in November 1833. Within months he was writing in glowing terms of the opportunities that awaited him. Illinois was "the Paradise of the world," he informed his family. "I have become a Western man, have imbibed Western feelings principles and interests and have selected Illinois as the favorite place of my adoption." Admitted to the bar in 1834 after a cursory examination before a judge (who cautioned him to learn more of the law), Douglas entered the rough-and-tumble arena of frontier politics as a zealous partisan of Andrew Jackson and Jacksonian democracy. The mix of New Englanders who had settled Jacksonville and the area's farmers who had migrated from Kentucky and Tennessee added to his enthusiasm. "The people of this country," he wrote of his future constituents, "are more thoroughly Democratic than any people I have ever known . . . democratic in principle and in Practice as well as in name."
Robert W. Johanssen, "Douglas, Stephen Arnold," American National Biography Online, February 2000, http://www.anb.org/articles/04/04-00325.html.

Stephen Arnold Douglas, Popular Sovereignty (American National Biography)

Scholarship
Like many Americans, Douglas hailed the triumphant end of the Mexican War as the beginning of a new era. Events quickly dashed his expectation. The most important consequence of the war was the re-entry of the slavery issue into national politics, raising again the question of slavery's relation to territorial expansion. The introduction of the Wilmot Proviso in the summer of 1846, stipulating that slavery would be barred forever from all lands acquired from Mexico, initiated a bitter sectional debate that increased in intensity until 1850, when the Union itself appeared to be in danger. Douglas rejected both the northern antislavery position that the national government had the power to prohibit slavery in the territories and the southern proslavery argument that the Constitution sanctioned the existence of slavery in the territories. Instead he proposed, as the only fair and just course, to allow the people of the territories to decide the question for themselves without the intervention of the national government. This doctrine of popular sovereignty, Douglas believed, satisfied the yearnings of westerners for self-government and removed the divisive slavery question from national politics. The conflict finally culminated in the passage of the Compromise of 1850, in which Douglas played a leading role. The territories of Utah and New Mexico were organized on the basis of popular sovereignty, and California was admitted to the Union as a free state in accordance with the wishes of its inhabitants.
Robert W. Johannsen, "Douglas, Stephen Arnold," American National Biography Online, February 2000, http://www.anb.org/articles/04/04-00325.html.

Stephen Arnold Douglas, Slavery in the Territories (American National Biography)

Scholarship
Douglas was not proslavery, as many of his opponents charged, but he was aware of the dangers involved in debating the right or wrong of slavery…To Douglas, there was no tribunal on earth that could decide the moral question of slavery to the satisfaction of each side. In the interest of maintaining the Union, slavery must be dealt with as a "political question involving questions of public policy." He was confident that it was poorly adapted to western conditions and that the people of the territories, if left to settle the question for themselves, would decide against it. The growing momentum of the antislavery movement and the rising strength of the proslavery southern political leadership, however, made it increasingly difficult to adhere to this position without being misunderstood.

Douglas's dilemma became clear in 1854 when the issue of slavery in the territories was revived by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Written and introduced by Douglas, the act organized two new territories out of the old Louisiana Purchase area. Although slavery had been barred from the region by the 1820 Missouri Compromise, Douglas nonetheless provided for popular sovereignty...Southerners, however, pressed him for an explicit repeal of the Missouri Compromise, and Douglas agreed in order to secure the bill's passage, although he predicted it would raise a "hell of a storm." Antislavery opponents denounced the repeal as a "gross violation of a sacred pledge" and a betrayal of freedom made to promote Douglas's ambitions.
Johannsen, Robert W., "Douglas, Stephen Arnold," American National Biography Online, February 2000,  http://www.anb.org/articles/04/04-00325.html.

Stephen Douglas, Manifest Destiny and Popular Sovereignty (Huston, 2007)

Scholarship
In the [Lincoln-Douglas] debates, [Stephen Douglas] provided a vital perspective on how he joined popular sovereignty to the imperative of landed expansion. Douglas had lost none of his exuberance for adding territory to the United States; he was still an advocate of Manifest Destiny. He believed the mechanism for successfully adding new lands to the republic to be the granting of local autonomy in domestic relations and economic affairs to the small political units – that is, popular sovereignty. His understanding of the difference between the federal principle of the American “empire” as opposed to older empires, such as the Roman Empire, was the granting of local control to the administrative districts (states) and avoiding the imposition of rules from the imperial center.

In Douglas’s view, it was popular sovereignty that enabled Manifest Destiny to operate successfully. Moreover, territorial expansion was necessary to keep the American experiment in self-government alive – his solution to a Gordian knot of democratic equality – because population pressure, now abetted by European immigration, consumed available land and ruined prospects for proprietorship….And Douglas had an awesome vision for future expansion: when the time came, the United States would have to absorb Cuba, Mexico, and Canada, and even then American expansion would not cease. His objection to the slavery controversy was that it interfered with the acquisition of new lands. If Americans kept to the principle of popular sovereignty, that interference would disappear.
James L. Huston, Stephen A. Douglas and the Dilemmas of Democratic Equality (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007), 143-144.

Stephen Douglas, Election of 1860 (Huston, 2007)

Scholarship
Douglas may have partially acknowledged his desperate situation, but it was not in his personality to brood, ponder, and moan. Douglas was a fighter…He took to the national stage the way he took to the Illinois stage: a herculean speech-making effort that would bring the population to his side by dint of his oratorical powers.

Douglas and his organization never exactly laid out their plan to capture the election, but certain parts of it can be deduced. He expected to reinvigorate the northern party and again win the northern states that had once hoisted the Jacksonian banner – Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the Great Lake states. He knew Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey were more problematic, but not lost. He expected to take much of the South – Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, Alabama, and Georgia. Perhaps his hopes were so high because of the illustrious people enlisting in his cause, like Alexander H. Stephens, and because his correspondence from these states was so promising. Early in the campaign, he misjudged the appeal of the Breckinridge Democratic Party, believing that the party could only win South Carolina and Mississippi. The rest of the South, he felt, belonged to the Constitutional Union Party. Behind these estimates was a reasoning based on the election of 1856. Then Buchanan had won because the Republicans had not captured the Fillmore vote (Know-Nothings), and many conservatives had voted for the Democrats. He would hammer a campaign message that he stood for conservatism and abhorred sectionalism, thereby swaying the Fillmore voters to his standard.
James L. Huston, Stephen A. Douglas and the Dilemmas of Democratic Equality (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2007), 169-170.

Stephen Arnold Douglas, Lecompton (Garraty, 1994)

Textbook
These developments put Senator Stephen A. Douglas in a difficult position. He was a Democrat. (But he was clearly no friend of the president's. Indeed he often used his skills as an orator to express his open contempt for Buchanan.) The president had made the matter a party issue. On the other hand, Douglas sincerely believed in popular sovereignty. And it was obvious that a majority of the people in Kansas were opposed to the Lecompton constitution and to the opening of the territory to slavery.
John A. Garraty, The Story of America (Austin: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1994), 528.

Stephen Arnold Douglas (Carr, 1909)

Scholarship
Within ten years after that friendless boy [Douglas] walked into that town [Winchester, Illinois], he had been admitted to the bar, immediately becoming a successful lawyer; had been a member of the Illinois Legislature; had been Prosecuting Attorney; had been Register of the Land Office at Springfield; had been Secretary of State of Illinois; had been a Judge of the Supreme Court of Illinois, presiding upon the bench; and was on his way to Washington to take his seat in the Lower House of Congress, to which position he had been elected. When the Congressional term expired he was reelected, and then reelected again, each time by increased majorities. When about to enter upon his third term in the Lower House of Congress he was elected to the United States Senate for six years. When that term in the Senate expired he was reelected for another term practically without opposition. Six years later he was confronted by Abraham Lincoln in the great debates; he was victorious, and was reelected to a third term; upon this he served but little more than two years, when he died, at forty-eight years of age.
Clark E. Carr, Stephen A. Douglas: His Life, Public Services, Speeches and Patriotism (Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co., 1909), 2.

Stephen Arnold Douglas (New York Times)

Obituary
OBITUARY

Death of Stephen Arnold Douglas. 

    The Hon. Stephen Arnold Douglas, United States Senator from the State of Illinois, died at nine o’clock yesterday morning, in the city of Chicago, after an illness of several days.

    No other public man in this country has filled so large a page of its history or stood so prominently before the people’s gaze for the last ten years as did Mr. Douglas. As United States Senator, as the acknowledged leader of the democratic party before its scission into factions, as prominent candidate before National Conventions for the office of Chief Magistrate of the republic, as nominee of the Baltimore Convention in 1860 for that office, and as the ablest and most unyielding opponent of the measures of the last administration, he attracted the largest share of public attention; and while some denounced and others applauded the positions which he assumed and sustained, none were indifferent to them. His abilities and [illegible] forbad such a thing as indifference to his course. And even now, when the toga has yielded to the sword, and when the debates of the Senate have been transferred to another arena, even in these times men looked with interest and curiosity to what was to be the course of Senator Douglas. That course was clearly enough indicated. When rebellion raised its crest, and when the national flag was lowered from Fort Sumter, he frankly and patriotically recognized there was but one course left open to the administration, and that was to crush out the rebellion at the cannon’s mouth and at the bayonet’s point. To that policy he gave he gave his hearty support, and would have lent his influence, his wealth, and his arm if necessary. The offer to him of a major general’s commission was even spoken of; but the inexorable fates had rule it otherwise – perhaps in kindness to him – for who knows whether his achievements in the field would have done honor to the laurels he had won in the Senate?

    For the last fourteen years, ever since 1847, Mr. Douglas has occupied a seat in the Senate of the United States, and, from his promptitude and readiness in debate, his forcible manner, his thorough knowledge of parliamentary rules, and his practical familiarity with the questions that presented themselves, he had come to be recognized as the leader of the democratic party in that body, and one of its ablest members.

    Mr. Douglas – more familiarly known as the “Little Giant of the West,” the diminutive having reference to his size, and the gigantic to his intellect – was born in the town of Brandon, in the State of Vermont, on the 23rd of April, 1813, and was therefore, at the time of his death, only in the forty-ninth year of his age. His father whose given name he bore, was a native of Ressoiner county, in this State, had removed in early life to Vermont, and was educated at Middlebury College. He was a physician of some eminence, but he died young, leaving two children, one of whom – the late Senator – was then but two months old. For the first fourteen years of his life he lived with his mother and a bachelor uncle in the Green Mountain State; but the uncle having taken to himself a wife, it became necessary for young Stephen to look out for himself, his mother and sister – but eighteen months his senior – and so he apprenticed himself to learn the trade of a cabinetmaker, in Middlebury. At this trade he remained for a couple of years, though not with the same employer, until finally he wearied of it, and thought rather of procuring a good education. His mother and sister having meanwhile married and moved to Ontario county, New York, he joined the Canandaigua Academy and entered upon a course of classical studies, and at the same time studied law with the Messre. Hubble, in that village. While there he seems to have evinced a fondness for politics. In 1833 he moved to Illinois, and for some time taught school in the village of Winchester, in that State. It is said that when he arrived there he had but thirty-seven and a half cents in his pocket. While earning a living by teaching school he continued his legal studies, and was finally admitted to the bar in the Spring of 1834. In the following year, when he was but twenty-two years old, the Legislature elected him State’s Attorney, which office he resigned in 1836 to hake his seat in the Legislature. He was the youngest member of the  House, but soon distinguished himself by his industry and ability. The first position of importance which he took in legislation was in opposing the extension of the wild-cat banking system. But the majority was carried, and in a year or so afterwards all the banks suspended specie payment, thus proving the wisdom of his course. He was also a prominent advocate of railroad measures, and of [illegible] the railroads completely in the power of the State. He subsequently held for a short time the post of Receiver of the Land Office at Springfield, Illinois. He became a prominent politician, ran for Congress in 1838, was beaten by five votes, stumped the State for  Van Buren against Harrison, and made the acquaintance of the whole people. In December, 1840, he was elected Secretary of State for Illinois, and in the following February – while he was but twenty-eight years of age – he was elected by joint vote of the Legislature a Judge of the Supreme Court. Hence his familiar title of “Judge.”

    He was twice elected to the House of Representatives at Washington, but he only sat there one Congress; for before the next Congress opened, and after his election, he was chosen to the United States Senate, and from that time – 1847 - he has been one of the most distinguished members of that body.

    While he was  a member of the lower house, Mr. Douglas took strong ground on the question of our Oregon boundary. He belonged to the “fifty-four forty or fight” party.

    Like all Western men, Mr. Douglas always favored the granting of money by Congress for internal improvements, always voted for River and Harbor bills, voted for the Independent treasury bill, and has always repudiated the power of Congress over the question of citizenship in the States. He supported the Mexican war, opposed the Wilmot proviso, and expressed himself in favor of the extension of the Missouri Compromise [illegible] to the Pacific. He has also been a friend to a Homestead bill.

    During Mr. Pierce’s administration the Kansas-Nebraska agitation came up. Mr. Douglas was Chairman of the Senate Committee on Territories, and in that capacity reported and engineered the final passage of that measure, which repealed the Missouri Compromise line, reopened the  whole slavery agitation, produced civil war in Kansas, brought out such men as Titus and Pato, and Sheriff Jones and Oseawatomie Brown, and other such disturbers of the public peace, gave rise to the Harper’s ferry outbreak, and has now eventuated in civil war. In fact, the Nebraska bill, with its monstrosity of squatter sovereignty, has proved to be the political Pandora’s box of the Union.

    In the Thirty-fifth Congress Mr. Douglass arrayed himself against the administration of Mr. Buchanan, in the matter of the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton constitution, and led a schism in both houses of sufficient strength to defeat the measure as originally presented, and to have the whole matter referred back to the people of the Territory – under the bill known as the English Compromise bill – for their vote on entering into the Union under the Lecompton constitution. The question went before the people of Kansas, and by an overwhelming vote they rejected the Lecompton constitution, preferring to remain in a territorial condition rather than enter as a State under that instrument.

    As a consequence, the personal and political relations of Mr. Douglas to the last administration were most bitterly hostile. The ensuring State elections in Illinois furnished opportunity for the manifestation of that spirit. The Legislature to be elected would have the choice of a Senator to fill the place of Mr. Douglas, whose term was then about to expire, and if the republicans carried the State his chance of a re-election was gone. He therefore stumped every county in the State, having to make [illegible] not only against the administration, but against the republicans, whose choice for Senator was Abraham Lincoln, now President of the United States. Douglas’ party succeeded, and Douglas was elected for another Senatorial term.

    Mr. Douglas and his friends calculated to a certainty upon his receiving the nomination of the democratic party for the Presidency, at the Democratic National Convention held in Charleston last summer. And so he most probably would had not the ultra Southern wing of that party, under the leadership of Yancey and [illegible], withdrawn from the Convention and rendered an adjournment to Baltimore necessary. Even then it was thought probable that the split in the party would be healed, and that the secessionists would come back and abide by the fairly expressed will of the Convention. But that was not their game. They had a double object in view, and, failing in the one, they calculated to succeed in the other.

    Mr. Douglas had given unpardonable offence to the South in blocking up the game of making Kansas a slave State in spite of the wishes of its inhabitants. That crime in him could never be condoned, and must be wiped out in his political destruction. Mr. Douglas fell at once from the position of universal favorite in the South to that of being regarded and treated as its worst enemy. He was deprived of the Chairmanship of the Committee on Territories in the Senate, and there seemed to be a steady fixed purpose in the minds of the Southern delegates to the Charleston Convention to defeat his nomination to the Presidency at all hazards. That was one of their two great objects. The other was to divide the democratic party, so as to insure the election of the republican candidate, and give them the pretence which they had been so long looking for, of gutting up a Southern confederacy. Mr. Douglas got the nomination at Baltimore after the seceders had withdrawn. The latter organized a Southern Democratic Convention in the same city, and nominated John C. Breckinridge for the Presidency, while the republicans put in nomination the present incumbent of that office. Of course Mr. Douglas recognized from the start the desperate helplessness of his case. The Southern States were certain with a few exceptions, to give heir electoral votes to Breckinridge; the  Northern and Western States equally sure to give theirs to Lincoln. But still, with a despairing energy worthy of success, he went into the contest, making stump speeches through the Eastern, Middle, and some of the Southern States. The result was that he got the nine electoral votes of Missouri and three out of the seven electoral votes of New Jersey. There is little doubt that had it not been for the actions of the Southern conspirators in dividing the democratic party, Mr. Douglas would have been borne into the White House on the 4th of March last in place of Mr. Lincoln, whom he had but two years before defeated in the struggle for the Illinois Senatorship.

    Notwithstanding the failure of his Presidential aspirations, Mr. Douglas served during the last session of Congress with his accustomed zeal and ability, although illness caused him to be frequently absent from his seat in the Senate. He was in favor of the Crittenden or any other moderate compromise, even after the delivery of Mr. Lincoln’s inaugural address he made a speech in the Senate taking the ground that the inaugural meant conciliation, not coercion. However, when the time for [illegible] had passed, and when it became evident that the only means of saving the republic was by the exercise of military power of the government, he accepted the alternative, and gave personal assurances to Mr. Lincoln of his approval and endorsement of the war policy.

    This may be said to be his last public act – the close of his brilliant career. He retired from Washington to Chicago, where he was possessed of large property, and there he sickened and died. His remains will be taken to Washington for interment.

    Mr. Douglas was twice married. He married first, in April, 1847, Miss Martin, the only daughter of Colonel Robert martin, of Rockingham county, North Carolina, by whom he has left several children, who inherit from their mother a large property in Southern lands and slaves. And again, in the winter of 1856-7, he married Miss Cutts, of Washington, a young, handsome, and accomplished lady, who survives him.

"Obituary," New York Times, June 4, 1861, p. 5.
Date Event
Stephen A. Douglas is born in Brandon, Vermont
- Stephen A. Douglas serves in the United States Senate
Stephen A. Douglas marries Martha Martin in North Carolina
Stephen Douglas marries Adele Cutts in Washington, DC
Chicago newspaper predicts Lincoln will be Douglas's successor in Senate
Lincoln denounces the Dred Scott decision
President Buchanan and Senator Douglas discuss the Lecompton Constitution at the White House
- Lincoln-Douglas campaign lasts from mid-June 1858 until January 1859
Senator Douglas launches his campaign with a speech in Chicago, Illinois
Lincoln and Douglas hold their first debate in Ottawa, Illinois
Lincoln and Douglas hold their second debate in Freeport, Illinois
Lincoln and Douglas hold their third debate in Jonesboro, Illinois
Lincoln and Douglas arrive in Mattoon, Illinois
Lincoln and Douglas hold their fourth debate in Charleston, Illinois
Lincoln and Douglas hold their fifth debate in Galesburg, Illinois
Lincoln and Douglas hold their sixth, and most acrimonious, debate in Quincy, Illinois
Lincoln and Douglas hold their final debate in Alton, Illinois
Illinois Democrats retain control of the state legislature in the November 1858 election
Stephen Douglas ends a three day visit to New York City and leaves for Philadelphia
Illinois legislature reelects Douglas to the US Senate
Amid great ceremony, the cornerstone is laid for the National Monument at Plymouth Rock
Illinois Democrats of the Sixth District nominate John A. McClernand for Congress
Illinois Democrats choose their Charleston delegates and back Stephen Douglas as the nominee
- Indiana Democratic Convention meets in Indianapolis
Kansas Democrats choose Stephen Douglas as their candidate for President
- Democrats hold their National Convention in Charleston, South Carolina
Controversial nominee for District Attorney of California confirmed in the U.S. Senate on party lines
Horatio Seymour withdraws his name from any consideration for the Democratic presidential nomination
At Donaldsonville, Louisiana's "New Line" Democrats endorse Stephen Douglas for president
The depleted Democratic National Convention in Baltimore nominates Stephen Douglas for President
Stephen Douglas makes his formal acceptance of his nomination for President of the United States
In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Democrats meet over the split in the party's presidential nominations
At a mass meeting in Tammany Hall, New York Democrats unite behind Stephen Douglas
Mayor Wood of New York City proposes Democrats vote strategically across the country in November
Sparse attendance at a Douglas meeting in Wilmington, Delaware
Stephen Douglas visits Hartford, Connecticut telling the crowd only the "regular" Democrats can save the country
Arriving in Boston, Stephen Douglas continues his political tour
Harvard College graduates its largest ever class, watched by Stephen Douglas and Charles Sumner
Benjamin Butler booed off the stage at Democratic meeting in Lowell, Massachusetts
Stephen Douglas continues his campaign swing through Virginia at Petersburg
In Augusta, former Georgia congressman Andrew Stephens speaks at a rally for Stephen Douglas
- In California, Douglas Democrats hold their state convention in Sacramento and choose electors
In Baltimore, Stephen Douglas speaks to a large crowd in Monument Square
Senator Douglas's campaign swing reaches Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
In California, Breckinridge Democrats hold their state convention in Sacramento and choose electors
In New York City, a massive Douglas Democrat campaign barbecue draws tens of thousands
Stephen Douglas continues his campaign with a whistle-stop train journey through up-state New York
Senator Douglas's New York campaign swing arrives in Rochester
In New York City, Democrats meet to ratify a united front in November against Lincoln and the Republicans
- Stephen Douglas makes his final campaign tour, through the Deep South
- Stephen Douglas ends his presidential campaign with speeches in Georgia and Alabama
Election Day in Memphis, Tennessee
Stephen Douglas receives updates on election returns while in Mobile, Alabama
On the Senate floor, Stephen Douglas warns of the danger of the moment and calls for compromise
Stephen Douglas meets with Lincoln at the White House and pledges his support
Stephen A. Douglas dies at his home in Chicago, Illinois
In Chicago, the cornerstone of the monument at the grave of Stephen Douglas is dedicated.
Date Title
Springfield Illinois Journal, "Fusion," August 31, 1854
Debate over the Estimates for Rivers and Harbors, House of Representatives, January 6, 1854
Abraham Lincoln, Speech at Peoria, Illinois, October 16, 1854
David Davis to Julius Rockwell, March 4, 1855
Abraham Lincoln to Joshua Fry Speed, August 24, 1855
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, "The Underground Railroad," December 6, 1855
Fayetteville (NC) Observer,“Senator Douglas and the Presidency,” December 24, 1855
Abraham Lincoln, Fragment on Stephen Douglas, December 1, 1856
Washington (DC) National Era, “Affairs in Kansas,” March 5, 1857
New York Times, “Virginia Politics,” October 26, 1857
New York Times, "Brigham Young’s Position," October 27, 1857
Washington (DC) National Era, “Douglas’s Organ on Kansas,” October 29, 1857
Washington (DC) National Era, “Independence of Voting,” December 10, 1857
New York Times, “Governor Walker in Washington,” December 15, 1857
New York Times, “Secretary Stanton’s Call for an Extra Session of the Kansas Legislature,” December 17, 1857
New York Times, “The Fight in Congress,” December 18, 1857
Abraham Lincoln to Lyman Trumbull, December 18, 1857
New York Times, “Opening of the Presidential Campaign of 1860,” December 23, 1857
Abraham Lincoln, Fragment of a Speech, circa December 28, 1857
Abraham Lincoln to Lyman Trumbull, December 28, 1857
New York Times, “Southern Democratic Sentiment Concerning Northern Democrats,” December 30, 1857
Washington (DC) National Era, “Presidential Intervention Against Slavery,” December 31, 1857
Lyman Trumbull to Abraham Lincoln, January 3, 1858
New York Herald, "The Slavery Question in Congress," January 5, 1858
John Murray Forbes to N. M. Beckwith, January 17, 1858
New York Herald, "The Approaching Conclusion of the Kansas Comedy," January 27, 1858
New York Herald, “The United States Senators From Kansas,” February 20, 1858
New York Herald, "Political Agitation in this Metropolis," Febraury 26, 1858
(Concord) New Hampshire Statesman, “Douglas in the Senate,” March 6, 1858
Israel Washburn to James Shepard Pike, March 16, 1858
New York Times, “Douglas’ Kansas Speech,” March 24, 1858
Charleston (SC) Mercury, "The Result in the House," April 7, 1858
John Wentworth to Abraham Lincoln, April 19, 1858
Charleston (SC) Mercury, "The Rejection of Kansas," April 26, 1858
Salmon Portland Chase to James Shepard Pike, May 12, 1858
Norman Buel Judd to Abraham Lincoln, June 1, 1858
John Wentworth to Abraham Lincoln, June 6, 1858
New York Times, “Senator Douglas and the Republicans of Illinois,” June 8, 1858
Ward Hill Lamon to Abraham Lincoln, June 9, 1858
Lyman Trumbull to Abraham Lincoln, June 12, 1858
Lyman Trumbull to Abraham Lincoln, June 16, 1858
Abraham Lincoln, "A House Divided'': Speech, Springfield, Illinois, June 16, 1858
Recollection by Henry Villard, Lincoln-Douglas Debates, June 16-November 2, 1858
Recollection by Shelby Cullom, House Divided Speech, June 16, 1858
Recollection by Julian M. Sturtevant, House Divided Speech, June 16, 1858
New York Times, "Illinois Republican State Convention," June 21, 1858
Joseph Medill to Abraham Lincoln, June 23, 1858
Raleigh (NC) Register, “The Northern Democracy Split to Pieces,” June 23, 1858
Abraham Lincoln to Charles H. Ray, June 27, 1858
Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “A Crumb of Comfort for Mr. Seward,” June 26, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Passage at Arms between Lincoln and Douglas in 1854," July 1, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “New Orleans Delta on the Illinois Republican Convention,” July 5, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Douglas Coming Home," July 7, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Politics in Kane County,” July 8, 1858
Recollection by Lew Wallace, Senator Stephen A. Douglas
Recollection by Clarke E. Carr, Stephen A. Douglas, July 9, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Lincoln To-Night,” July 10, 1858
- Recollection by Gustave Koerner, Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Mr. Lincoln’s Speech," July 12, 1858
New York Herald, “Senator Douglas at Chicago,” July 12, 1858
New York Times, "Senator Douglas at Chicago," July 13, 1858
New York Times, "Presidential Candidates," July 14, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Supreme Court," July 16, 1858
Gustave Philipp Koerner to Abraham Lincoln, July 17, 1858
(St. Louis) Missouri Republican, "The Progress of Judge Douglas Through Illinois," July 19, 1858
Lyman Trumbull to Abraham Lincoln, July 19, 1858
Milwaukie (WI) Sentinel, "Douglas in the South," July 20, 1858
Abraham Smith to Abraham Lincoln, July 20, 1858
Bangor (ME) Whig and Courier, "Speech of Mr. Lincoln," July 21, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Douglas on the Stump," July 23, 1858
Charles H. Ray to Abraham Lincoln, July 27, 1858
Charleston (SC) Mercury, "Douglas Tottering!," July 29, 1858
John Jordan Crittenden to Abraham Lincoln, July 29, 1858
New York Herald, "The Illinois Champions on the Same Stump," July 30, 1858
Ripley (OH) Bee, "The Most Dangerous Foe," July 31, 1858
Thomas J. Pickett to Abraham Lincoln, August 3, 1858
New York Times, "Douglas and Lincoln on the Stump," August 3, 1858
New York Times, "Political Items," August 4, 1858
Owen Lovejoy to Abraham Lincoln, August 4, 1858
Boston (MA) Liberator, “Emancipation Day in Poughkeepsie,” August 6, 1858
Charleston (SC) Mercury, "The Lecompton Constitution Rejected," August 9, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Campaign Press and Tribune,” August 10, 1858
Thomas C. Sharp to Ozias Mather Hatch, August 11, 1858
Gustave Philipp Koerner to Abraham Lincoln, August 12, 1858
New York Herald, “The Illinois Campaign,” August 13, 1858
New York Herald, “Political Joking," August 15, 1858
New York Herald, “The Illinois Campaign,” August 16, 1858
David Davis to Ozias Mather Hatch, August 16, 1858
John W. Shaffer to Abraham Lincoln, August 17, 1858
New York Times, “Democratic Prospects In Illinois,” August 18, 1858
New York Times, "Hot Work in Illinois," August 19, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Signs of Fright,” August 20, 1858
- Recollection by John M. Palmer, Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858
Recollection by Henry Villard, Ottawa Debate, August 21, 1858
Recollection by John W. Forney, Abraham Lincoln
Recollection by J.K. Magic, Ottawa Debate, August 21, 1858
Abraham Lincoln, First Debate with Stephen Douglas, Ottawa, Illinois, August 21, 1858
New York Herald, “The Illinois Campaign,” August 22, 1858
Chicago (IL) Times, "The Campaign-- Douglas Among the People," August 22, 1858
Abraham Lincoln to Joseph O. Cunningham, August 22, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Great Debate Between Lincoln and Douglas At Ottawa," August 23, 1858
New York Times, "Meeting of Douglas and Lincoln," August 23, 1858
Lyman Trumbull to Abraham Lincoln, August 24, 1858
Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, "Lincoln and Douglas at Ottawa," August 24, 1858
Schuyler Colfax to Abraham Lincoln, August 25, 1858
Quincy (IL) Whig, "Lincoln and Douglas," August 25, 1858
B. Lewis to Abraham Lincoln, August 25, 1858
Leavenworth (KS) Journal, "Cheering News," August 26, 1858
New York Evening Post, "Senatorial Canvass in Illinois," August 27, 1858
Recollection by Carl Schurz , Freeport Debate, August 27, 1858
Recollection by Horace White, Freeport Debate, August 27, 1858
Recollection by Elihu Benjamin Washburne, Freeport Debate, August 27, 1858
Joseph Medill to Abraham Lincoln, August 27, 1858
Recollection by Joseph Medill, Freeport Debate, August 27, 1858
Abraham Lincoln, Second Debate with Stephen Douglas, Freeport, Illinois, August 27, 1858
Recollection by Ingalls Carleton, Freeport Debate, August 27, 1858
Recollection by A.A. Terrell, Freeport, August 27, 1858
New York Herald, “No Quarter to Douglas,” August 30, 1858
Chicago (IL) Times, "The Campaign - The Discussion at Freeport," August 30, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Douglas and Lincoln," September 1, 1858
Norman Buel Judd to Abraham Lincoln, September, 1858
(St. Louis) Missouri Republican, "Douglas - Lincoln," September 2, 1858
New York Evening Post, “The Senatorial Contest in Illinois,” September 2, 1858
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "The Little Giant," September 2, 1858
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Three Points in Douglas’ Creed,” September 7, 1858
(St. Louis) Missouri Republican, “Judge Douglas at Belleville,” September 9, 1858
(St. Louis) Missouri Republican, “Serenade,” September 11, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Macoupin County,” September 14, 1858
Lyman Trumbull to Abraham Lincoln, September 14, 1858
Recollection by Henry Clay Whitney, Jonesboro Debate, September 15, 1858
Recollection by Usher F. Linder, Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858
Abraham Lincoln, Third Debate with Stephen Douglas, Jonesboro, Illinois, September 15, 1858
Recollection by Horace White, Jonesboro Debate, September 15, 1858
Abraham Lincoln to Elihu B. Washburne, September 16, 1858
Abraham Lincoln to Martin P. Sweet, September 16, 1858
Chicago (IL) Times, "The Campaign.--Douglas at Jonesboro," September 17, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Jonesboro Debate," September 17, 1858
Recollection by Henry Clay Whitney, Charleston Debate, September 18, 1858
New York Evening Post, "Senatorial Canvas in Illinois," September 18, 1858
Recollection by Lew Wallace, Charleston Debate, September 18, 1858
Ripley (OH) Bee, “More Insubordination,” September 18, 1858
Abraham Lincoln, Fourth Debate with Stephen Douglas, Charleston, Illinois, September 18, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Douglas Puffers and Valets," September 20, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Charleston Debate," September 21, 1858
Chicago (IL) Times, "The Audience at Charleston," September 21, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Audience at Charleston,” September 22, 1858
Lowell (MA) Journal and Courier, "The Senatorial Canvass in Illinois," September 22, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Who Furnishes the Audiences?," September 23, 1858
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “Untitled,” September 24, 1858
David Davis to Abraham Lincoln, September 25, 1858
New York Times, “Mr. Buchanan’s Troubles,” October 1, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Canvass in Iowa,” October 7, 1858
Recollection by Mary Hastie Boutelle, Galesburg Debate, October 7, 1858
Abraham Lincoln, Fifth Debate with Stephen Douglas, Galesburg, Illinois, October 7, 1858
Recollection by Horace White, Galesburg Debate, October 7, 1858
Recollection by Lydia A. Titus, Galesburg Debate, October 7, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Galesburg Debate,” October 9, 1858
New York Herald, “Treachery in Tammany,” October 9, 1858
Galesburg (IL) Democrat, "The Galesburg Debate," October 9, 1858
James G. Wright to Abraham Lincoln, October 11, 1858
(Springfield) Illinois State Register, "The Galesburg Debate," October 12, 1858
Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, “A Peep Behind the Curtain!,” October 12, 1858
Quincy (IL) Whig, "The Friends of Hon. Abraham Lincoln," October 13, 1858
Abraham Lincoln, Sixth Debate with Stephen Douglas, Quincy, Illinois, October 13, 1858
Recollection by Horace White, Quincy Debate, October 13, 1858
Recollection by David Patterson Dyer, Quincy Debate, October 13, 1858
New York Herald, "Exhausted to the Dregs," October 13, 1858
Recollection by Carl Schurz, Quincy Debate, October 13, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Last of the Series," October 15, 1858
Seventh Debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas at Alton, Illinois, October 15, 1858
Quincy (IL) Whig, "Lincoln Gets Douglas Down!," October 15, 1858
Chicago (IL) Times, “Sixth Great Debate,” October 15, 1858
Recollection by Jeriah Bonham, Alton Debate, October 15, 1858
Recollection by Edmond Beall, Alton Debate, October 15, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Quincy Debate," October 15, 1858
Recollection by Gustave Koerner, Alton Debate, October 15, 1858
Abraham Lincoln, Seventh and Final Debate with Stephen Douglas, Alton, Illinois, October 13, 1858
Quincy (IL) Whig, "Disappointed," October 16, 1858
Quincy (IL) Herald, “The Discussion of Wednesday,” October 16, 1858
Chicago (IL) Times, “The Campaign – The Last Joint Debate,” October 17, 1858
New York Herald, “Our Richmond Correspondence,” October 17, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Alton Debate," October 18, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Rascality Confessed," October 18, 1858
New York Times, “A Georgia Douglas Man,” October 20, 1858
New York Evening Post, “Political,” October 20, 1858
New York Times, “Vice-President Breckenridge for Douglas,” October 23, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Freemen, Remember," October 29, 1858
Chester P. Dewey to Abraham Lincoln, October 30, 1858
Philadelphia (PA) Press, “The Latest But Not The Last Lesson,” November 4, 1858
New York Times, "The Illinois Election," November 5, 1858
New York Herald, “Douglas for the Presidency,” November 7, 1858
Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, “The Popular Majority,” November 9, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Abraham Lincoln,” November 10, 1858
William A. Grimshaw to Abraham Lincoln, November 11, 1858
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "Rejoicing for Douglas," November 11, 1858
Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, "A House Divided, &c.," November 17, 1858
Abraham Lincoln to Henry Asbury, November 19, 1858
New York Herald, “Gen. Walker Submitting to a ‘Legal Experiment,’” November 19, 1858
Norman Buel Judd to Abraham Lincoln, November 20, 1858
Abraham Lincoln to Charles H. Ray, November 20, 1858
Louisville (KY) Democrat, “From Abroad,” November 23, 1858
(St. Louis) Missouri Republican, “Judge Douglas,” November 25, 1858
New York Herald, “Mr. Douglas On His Travels,” November 28, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Mr. Douglas’ Chattels,” December 3, 1858
New York Herald, “The Struggle Among the Virginia Democracy,” December 5, 1858
Raleigh (NC) Register, “Douglas Stock Rising,” December 8, 1858
New York Times, “The War Begun,” December 10, 1858
Abraham Lincoln to Lyman Trumbull, December 11, 1858
New York Times, “Senator Douglas and the City Government,” December 20, 1858
New York Times, “Douglas and the Democracy,” December 25, 1858
(St. Louis) Missouri Republican, “Senator Douglas,” December 31, 1858
Recollection of Jesse W. Fell, Conversation with Abraham Lincoln in early 1859
New York Times, “Arrival of Senator Douglas in Philadelphia,” January 4, 1859
Recollection by Gustave Koerner, Senator Douglas Reelected, January 5, 1859
Recollection by Horace White, Senator Douglas Reelected, January 5, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Re-election of Senator Douglas," January 6, 1859
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Presidential Aspirants,” January 10, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Douglas Reception at Washington,” January 11, 1859
Memphis (TN) Appeal, “Judge Douglas and the Duelling [Dueling] Code,” January 11, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “For the Lambs of the Flock,” January 12, 1859
Memphis (TN) Appeal, “The Chicago Times, Senator Douglas and the Administration,” January 18, 1859
New York Herald, “The Case of Douglas vs. Fitch," January 25, 1859
New York Herald, “The Presidential Question,” January 29, 1859
New York Herald, “The Tariff,” February 13, 1859
San Francisco (CA) Evening Bulletin, “The Douglas and Fitch Row in Congress,” February 18, 1859
Boston (MA) Advertiser, “The New State of Oregon,” February 19, 1859
New York Herald, “The Black Republicans and Mr. Douglas,” February 22, 1859
San Francisco (CA) Evening Bulletin, “The National Disgrace of “Honorable” Squabbling,” February 25, 1859
New York Times, “The Political Future,” February 26, 1859
William A. Ross to Abraham Lincoln, March 18, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Beginning of the Presidential Campaign,” April 7, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Drawing it Mild,” April 9, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Democratic Prospects,” April 11, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Douglas Organ on Slavery Extension,” April 14, 1859
New York Herald, “The Charleston Convention,” April 20, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Lincoln in New York,” April 21, 1859
Abraham Lincoln to Salmon Portland Chase, April 30, 1859
Boston (MA) Advertiser, “Democratic Movements,” May 10, 1859
James Buchanan to Harriet Rebecca Lane, May 14, 1859
New York Times, “Democratic Preparations for 1860,” May 17, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Popular Sovereignty in Kentucky,” June 3, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Another Dred Scott Decision,” June 8, 1859
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “An Episode in the Southern Tour of Douglas,” June 10, 1859
New York Times, “Albany and Richmond,” June 29, 1859
New York Times, “Douglas and Van Buren,” June 30, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Trumbull on the Constitution,” July 2, 1859
Memphis (TN) Appeal, “Look After Them,” July 3, 1859
Bangor (ME) Whig and Courier, “The Douglas Manifesto,” July 4, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Forney and Douglas,” July 7, 1859
New York Herald, “The Spoils,” July 20, 1858
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Douglas in Kentucky,” July 27, 1859
Abraham Lincoln to Samuel Galloway, July 28, 1859
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “The Chances of Douglas,” July 28, 1859
New York Herald,“Mr. Douglas and His Forthcoming Manifesto,” July 31, 1859
New York Times, “An Unwise Letter,” August 5, 1859
New York Times, “Senator Douglas on the Slave-Trade,” August 13, 1859
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “A Slave Code,” August 16, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Cook and His Enemies,” August 23, 1859
William T. Bascom to Abraham Lincoln, September 1, 1859
Peter Zinn to Abraham Lincoln, September 2, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Speech of Hon. Jeff. Davis,” September 5, 1859
New York Times, “The Telegraph and the Presidency,” September 9, 1859
Joseph Medill to Abraham Lincoln, September 10, 1859
New York Herald, “Stump Candidates for the Presidency,” September 11, 1859
New York Times, “Breaking Up Rapidly,” September 12, 1859
Russell Errett to Abraham Lincoln, September 13, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Abr. Lincoln,” September 14, 1859
Abraham Lincoln, Speech at Columbus, Ohio, September 16, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Mr. Lincoln in Ohio,” September 19, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Lincoln on Douglas,” September 21, 1859
Abraham Lincoln to Salmon Portland Chase, September 21, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “New Danger To Douglas,” September 29, 1859
Abraham Lincoln's Speech at Beloit, Wisconsin, October 1, 1859
New York Herald, “The Chevalier Forney Slackening Fire,” October 2, 1859
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Douglas in Mississippi,” October 3, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “In a Nut Shell,” October 6, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Where will they Go?,” October 17, 1859
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "Political Effect," October 31, 1859
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Mr. Douglas’ New Book,” November 4, 1859
Abraham Lincoln's Speech at Mechanicsburg, Illinois, November 4, 1859
Charleston (SC) Mercury, “The Democratic Party and Old Brown,” November 8, 1859
Hartford (CT) Courant, "Untitled," November 9, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "A Recoil of the Gun," November 18, 1859
Lyman Trumbull to Abraham Lincoln, November 28, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Other Brown," December 1, 1859
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "How a Brave Man Dies," December 6, 1859
New York Herald, “Judge Douglas and the Administration,” December 11, 1859
Newark (OH) Advocate, “Mr. Douglas and the Presidency,” December 23, 1859
Oliver P. Hall and Others to Abraham Lincoln, January 9, 1860, Mechanicsburg, Illinois
Abraham Lincoln to Alonzo J. Grover, January 15, 1860
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “The Voice of Indiana,” January 28, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press & Tribune, “Who are the Disorganizers?,” January 31, 1860
Abraham Lincoln to Oliver P. Hall, Jacob N. Fullinwider, and William F. Correll , Springfield, Illinois
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Sedition Laws,” February 14, 1860
Boston (MA) Advertiser, “What to do with Mr. Douglas,” February 23, 1860
Abraham Lincoln, Address at Cooper Institute, New York City, February 27, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Mr. Seward’s Speech,” March 3, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Pennsylvania,” March 5, 1860
Bangor (ME) Whig and Courier, “Mr. Douglas’s Bid,” March 5, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Worse than the Wilmot Proviso,” March 12, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “A Pair of Smart Politicians,” March 14, 1860
Robert Toombs to Alexander H. Stephens, March 16, 1860
Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, “Kellogg on Douglas,” March 17, 1860
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot,“For President In 1860, Stephen A. Douglas,” March 17, 1860
Charles Linsley to Robert Hunter, March 26, 1860
Thomas L. Kane to Robert Hunter, March 30, 1860
(Jackson) Mississippian, “The Last Revelation from Douglas,” April 3, 1860
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “Douglas in Pennsylvania,” April 7, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Admission of Kansas,” April 13, 1860
New York Times, “A Bomb-Shell for Charleston,” April 19, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Douglas Nomination,” April 21, 1860
New York Herald, “The Republican Press on the Chances of Douglas,” April 22, 1860
New York Times, “The Charleston Convention,” April 24, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Infamy Complete,” April 27, 1860
New York Times, “The Charleston Convention,” May 1, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “A Prophecy Fulfilled,” May 2, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Seceders at Charleston,” May 3, 1860
Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, “The Coming Conventions,” May 9, 1860
Newark (OH) Advocate, “How Mr. Buchanan’s Patronage Is Dispensed in Ohio,” May 11, 1860
Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “The Charleston Convention,” May 12, 1860
New York Times, “A Douglas Demonstration in New York,” May 18, 1860
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "The Black Republican Nominees," May 21, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Nomination of Mr. Lincoln,” May 22, 1860
Raleigh (NC) Register, "The Giant Killer Reversing His Own Work," May 23, 1860
(Jackson) Mississippian, “Kansas in the Senate,” May 23, 1860
New York Herald, “Bell and Everett Going Ahead,” May 27, 1860
Schuyler Colfax to Abraham Lincoln, May 30, 1860
Abraham Lincoln, Autobiography, circa June 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Lincoln at the South,” June 7, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Mr. Lincoln’s Majority in 1858,” June 11, 1860
Richard W. Thompson to Abraham Lincoln, June 12, 1860
New York Times, “The Baltimore Convention,” June 18, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Fillmore Men,” June 19, 1860
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “Jeff. Davis on Platforms,” June 21, 1860
Atchison (KS) Freedom's Champion, “Noble Deeds of Northern Democracy,” June 23, 1860
New York Herald, “The Reception of the Nomination of Douglas,” June 24, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “The Douglas’ Saturday Night,” June 25, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Thirty Days From Now,” June 26, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “An Explanation,” June 28, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “A Difference of Opinion,” June 29, 1860
James O. Putnam to Leonard Swett, copied in Swett to Abraham Lincoln, July 1860
New York Times, “The Presidential Election,” July 4, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “A Douglas Fizzle in Ashtabula,” July 6, 1860
Atchison (KS) Freedom's Champion, “The Democratic ‘Irrepressible Conflict,’” July 7, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Shabby Treatment,” July 7, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “A Political Dodge,” July 10, 1860
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “In A Quandary,” July 12, 1860
John L. Scripps to Abraham Lincoln, July 17, 1860
Raleigh (NC) Register, “The President on the Stump,” July 18, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “An Important Change,” July 19, 1860
New York Times, “The Herald in Harness,” July 21, 1860
Atchison (KS) Freedom's Champion, “An Insult to Labor,” July 21, 1860
Abraham Lincoln to Abraham Jonas, July 21, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Still 'Suppressed,'” July 21, 1860
William T. Sherman to Thomas Ewing, Jr., July 22, 1860
New York Herald, “Lincoln or Breckinridge,” July 22, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Mobbing Business,” July 28, 1860
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “A Patriotic Woman,” July 28, 1860
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Disunion,” July 30, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Making a Cat’s-Paw of Douglas,” July 31, 1860
Ripley (OH) Bee, “The Two Kinds of Intervention,” August 2, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Result of Freedom,” August 3, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “A Word For Douglasites,” August 6, 1860
Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, "Who Are For Disunion?," August 8, 1860
Ripley (OH) Bee, "The 'Irrepressible Conflict,'" August 9, 1860
New York Times, "Politics at the South," August 10, 1860
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “A Combination to Cheat the People,” August 11, 1860
James Buchanan to Gerard Hallock, August 11, 1860
New York Herald, “A Crowd of Douglasites in the Mud,” August 12, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “How the Field Looks,” August 17, 1860
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “The South for Bell and Everett,” August 20, 1860
New York Times, “Mr. Yancey's Speech,” August 21, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "No Go Yet," August 23, 1860
Ripley (OH) Bee, “Mr. Lincoln’s Foresight,” August 23, 1860
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, "California for Douglas," August 25, 1860
(Jackson) Mississippian, "Facts for the People," August 28, 1860
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “A Broken Platform,” August 30, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Artful Dodger,” September 1, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “A Two-Edged Sword,” September 3, 1860
Memphis (TN) Appeal, "Yancey on Douglas," September 6, 1860
Dover (NH) Gazette, “Withdrawal of General Houston,” September 8, 1860
Ripley (OH) Bee, “The War of the Giants,” September 13, 1860
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Mum on the Great Question,” September 17, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Astounding Impertinence of Douglas,” September 17, 1860
Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “As Was Expected,” September 18, 1860
New York Times, “Disunion Ravings,” September 20, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Who Began It?,” September 21, 1860
Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Wolves In Sheep’s Clothing,” September 29, 1860
Ripley (OH) Bee, "The Disunion Slave Code Candidate," October 4, 1860
(Jackson) Mississippian, "The 'Coercion' Issue," October 5, 1860
Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, "Judge Taney vs. Douglas," October 9, 1860
Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “A Trap For Douglas,” October 11, 1860
(Jackson) Mississippian, "John Sherman, the Abolitionist, Proposes Three Cheers for Douglas," October 24, 1860
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “Illinois Sure for Douglas,” October 27, 1860
Chicago (IL) Tribune, "The Union at the South," October 29, 1860
New York Times, "Douglas Out of the Canvass," November 3, 1860
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “Don't Care,” November 3, 1860
Raleigh (NC) Register, "Look Out, Douglas Men," November 6, 1860
New York Times, "From the Home of Mr. Lincoln," November 8, 1860
William T. Sherman to Ellen Sherman, November 10, 1860
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “John C. Breckinridge,” November 10, 1860
New York Herald, "The Reception of Mr. Douglas at Montgomery, Alabama," November 14, 1860
New York Herald, “Douglas on Lincoln,” November 18, 1860
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “Will They Do It?,” November 22, 1860
New York Herald, “Untitled,” November 23, 1860
John Sherman to William Tecumseh Sherman, November 26, 1860
August Belmont to William Sprague, December 6, 1860
Chicago (IL) Tribune, "The Prime Cause," December 8, 1860
Abraham Lincoln to William Kellogg, December 11, 1860
Abraham Lincoln to John A. Gilmer, December 15, 1860
Abraham Lincoln to Henry J. Raymond, December 18, 1860
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “A Remarkable Statement,” December 20, 1860
Israel Washburn Jr. to Abraham Lincoln, January 21, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Hardly Credible,” January 28, 1861
Worthington G. Snethen to Abraham Lincoln, February 15, 1861
(Montpelier) Vermont Patriot, “The Policy of the Administration,” March 30, 1861
Fayetteville (NC) Observer, “North Carolina and Secession,” April 4, 1861
Joseph Medill to Abraham Lincoln, April 15, 1861
Newark (OH) Advocate, “Speech of Hon. Alex H. Stephens,” April 19, 1861
Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “The Death of Douglas,” June 8, 1861
Abraham Lincoln to Arnold Fischel, December 14, 1861
Chicago (IL) Tribune, “Resignation of Secretary Cameron,” January 14, 1862
Chicago Style Entry Link
Adkison, Danny M. "Invoking the Framers: The Lincoln-Douglas Debates." White House Studies 5, no. 3 (2005): 401-410. view record
Anderson, James W. " ‘The Real Issue’: An Analysis of the Final Lincoln-Douglas Debate." Lincoln Herald 69, no. 1 (1967): 27-39. view record
Auchampaugh, Philip Gerald. "The Buchanan-Douglas Feud." Illinois State Historical Society Journal 25 (1932): 5-48. view record
Blight, David W. "Lincoln on the Moral Bankruptcy of Slavery: Inside the Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858." Magazine of History 21, no. 4 (October 2007): 56. view record
Bonner, Mike. Stephen A. Douglas: Champion of the Union. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002. view record
Brown, William Garrott. Stephen Arnold Douglas. New York: Houghton, Mifflin, and Company, 1902. view record
Burkhimer, Michael. "In Semi-Defense of the Revisionists." Lincoln Herald 106, no. 3 (2004): 116-121. view record
Burlingame, Michael. "Mucilating Douglas and Mutilating Lincoln: How Shorthand Reporters Covered the Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858." Lincoln Herald 96, no. 1 (1994): 18-23. view record
Capers, Gerald Mortimer. Stephen A. Douglas: Defender of the Union. Boston: Little, Brown, 1959. view record
Carey, Rita McKenna. The First Campaigner: Stephen A. Douglas. New York: Vantage Press, 1964. view record
Carr, Clark E. Stephen A. Douglas: His Life, Public Services, Speeches and Patriotism. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co., 1909. view record
Clinton, Anita Watkins. "Stephen Arnold Douglas - His Mississippi Experience." Journal of Mississippi History 50, no. 2 (1988): 56-88. view record
Collins, Bruce W. "The Democrats' Electoral Fortunes During the Lecompton Crisis." Civil War History 24, no. 4 (1978): 314-331. view record
Collins, Bruce. "The Lincoln-Douglas Contest of 1858 and Illinois' Electorate." Journal of American Studies 20, no. 3 (1986): 391-420. view record
Corwin, Norman. The Rivalry. New York: Dramatists Play Service, 1960. view record
Danbom, David B. "The Young America Movement." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 67, no. 3 (1974): 294-306. view record
David R. Barbee and Milledge L. Bonham Jr. "The Montgomery Address of Stephen A. Douglas." Journal of Southern History 5 no. 4 (1939): 527-552. view record
Davis, Granville D. "Douglas and the Chicago Mob." American Historical Review 54, no. 3 (1949): 553-556. view record
Davis, Granville. "Arkansas and the Little Giant." West Tennessee Historical Society Papers 22 (1968): 28-51. view record
Dean, Eric T., Jr. "Stephen A. Douglas and Popular Sovereignty." Historian 57, no. 4 (Summer 1995): 733-748. view record
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How to Cite This Page: "Douglas, Stephen Arnold," House Divided: The Civil War Research Engine at Dickinson College, http://hd.housedivided.dickinson.edu/node/5585.