Brown, John

Life Span
    Full name
    John Brown
    Place of Birth
    Burial Place
    Birth Date Certainty
    Death Date Certainty
    Sectional choice
    Free State
    No. of Siblings
    No. of Spouses
    No. of Children
    Owen Brown (father), Ruth Mills Brown (mother), Sallie Root Brown (stepmother), Dianthe Lusk Brown (first wife), Mary Ann Day (second wife), Frederick Brown (brother), Oliver Brown (brother), Salmon Brown (brother), Jeremiah Brown (half-brother), Levi Blakeslee (adopted brother), Anna Brown (sister), Austin Brown (son), Charles Brown (son), Frederick Brown I (son), Frederick Brown II (son), Jason Brown (son), John Brown Jr (son), Oliver Brown (son), Owen Brown (son), Peter Brown (son), Salmon Brown (son), Watson Brown (son), Anna Brown (daughter), Ellen Brown I (daughter), Ellen Brown II (daughter), Ruth Brown (daughter), Sarah Brown (daughter)
    Farmer or Planter
    Relation to Slavery
    White non-slaveholder
    Church or Religious Denomination
    Other Religion
    Political Parties
    Other Political Party
    Radical Abolitionist
    Other Affiliations
    Abolitionists (Anti-Slavery Society)
    Local government

    John Brown (American National Biography)

    Though a military fiasco, Brown's raid was for many a jeremiad against a nation that defied God in tolerating human bondage. It sent tremors of horror throughout the South and gave secessionists a persuasive symbol of northern hostility. It hardened positions over slavery everywhere. It helped to discredit Stephen A. Douglas's compromise policy of popular sovereignty and to divide the Democratic party, thus ensuring the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In a longer view, African Americans especially have seen in Brown hope for the eventual redemption of an oppressive America, while critics have condemned his extremism and deplored his divisive impact on the sectional crisis. Both Brown's fanaticism and his passion for freedom make him an enduring icon.
    Robert McGlone, "Brown, John," American National Biography Online, February 2000,

    John Brown (Boyer, 1973)

    More than a rural eccentric, although he was also that, this was the man in whom public concern mounted during the three years beginning in 1856 until his name was a curse or a prayer in the mouth of every American who could read or hear his fellows talk or had any degree of mental sentience. By 1859, John Brown was not only universally known but a national agony dividing the country and it is within this division that his memory, his reputation, and his historic role have always been judged.

    Virtually all of the testimony concerning him - save that which precedes his fame and the controversy it aroused - lies within this great national division. In general that testimony, despite many variations, was passionately for John Brown when offered by those who believed that slavery was killing the nation and that any sacrifice or any violence was justified in destroying it. It was equally passionate but vehemently against him when uttered by those favoring slavery, or who felt that civil war was too high a price to pay for its destruction, or that black freedom was not quite worth white men's blood, or that violence against slaves did not excuse John Brown's violence against slaveholders. Judgment usually had more to do with political conviction and political necessity, with sectional sympathy and party affiliation, than it did with the character of John Brown.
    Richard O. Boyer, The Legend of John Brown: A Biography and History (New York: Alfred A. Knoph, 1973), 127.

    John Brown (Reynolds, 2005)

    John Brown planted the seeds for the civil rights movement by making a pioneering demand for compete social and political equality for America's ethnic minorities. To be sure, many other Americans have contributed to civil rights. But only one white reformer lived continuously among blacks, penned a revised American constitution awarding them full rights, and gave his life in a violent effort to liberate the slaves. That's why the Second Niagara Movement (which became the NAACP), the forerunner of the civil rights movement, hailed Brown as one "who had no predecessors, and can have no successors." And that's why no other white person in American history has been more beloved over time among African Americans than John Brown.

    It may be discomfiting to think that some of America's greatest social liberties sprang in part from a man who can be viewed as a terrorist. But John Brown was a man not only of violence but of eloquence and firmness of principle. His widely reprinted declarations against slavery impressed the intellectual leaders Ralph Waldo Emerson, who said Brown's speech to Virginia court was as great as the Gettysburg Address, and Henry David Thoreau, who declared that Brown's words were more powerful than his rifles.
    David S. Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights, rev. ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), x.

    John Brown, Birth (Reynolds, 2005)

    Into this unusual family atmosphere of fervent Calvinism and equally fervent Abolitionism, John Brown was born on May 9, 1800, in Torrington, Connecticut. Had he appeared at a different historical moment, it is quite possible that Harpers Ferry would not have happened - if so, the Civil War might have been delayed, and slavery might not have been abolished in America as soon as it was.
    David S. Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights, rev. ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 23.

    John Brown, Marriage to Dianthe Lusk (Renehan, 1997)

    [John Brown's] first wife was nineteen-year-old Dianthe Lusk, whom he married when he was twenty. Like him, she was solemn and puritanical. She was also a manic-depressive: sensitive, scared, easily tearful. Dianthe suffered at least one nervous breakdown and was afflicted with what a friend called "an almost constant blueness and melancholy." Some neighbors called her a madwomen. She was capable of silences that lasted for days, these interrupted by only the submissive "Yes, husband" that the domineering John Brown expected and got whenever he asked anything of her. Eight children arrived in rapid succession during the eleven years between 1821 and 1832. The six who survived would remember their mother as sad, their father as severe.
    Edward J. Renehan, Jr., The Secret Six: The True Tale of the Men Who Conspired with John Brown (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1997), 22.

    John Brown, Marriage to Mary Ann Day (Reynolds, 2005)

    [John] Brown…took on a housekeeper whose sixteen-year-old sister, Mary Day, came occasionally to spin cloth. Mary caught his eye as she sat at her spinning wheel. Tall and deep bosomed, she had striking black hair and a sturdy frame. The daughter of Charles Day, a blacksmith and farmer in nearby Troy Township, she had little formal education but impressed Brown as a practical, hardworking woman. It wasn't long before Brown, too bashful to propose verbally, presented her with a written offer of marriage. The girl nervously put his note under her pillow and slept on it a night before opening it. After reading it, she grabbed a bucket and rushed off to a spring to fetch water. Brown followed her. By the time the two returned to the house, he had received the answer he wanted. They were married on June 14, 1833. Ten months later a baby girl, Sarah, arrived.
    David S. Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights, rev. ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 49.

    John Brown, Response to Elijah Lovejoy Murder (Reynolds, 2005)

    As the meeting drew to a close, John Brown suddenly rose, lifted his right hand, and said, "Here, before God, in the presence of these witnesses, from this time, I consecrate my life to the destruction of slavery!" His aged father then stood up and with his characteristic stammer added, "When John the Baptist was beheaded, the disciples took up his body and laid it in a tomb and went and told Jesus. Let us go to Jesus and tell him." Tears flowed down his wrinkled face as he led the meeting in prayer. No longer was John Brown working in secret. A murder committed by a proslavery mob had drawn from him a vow to fight slavery. The circumstances of his oath were telling. He was responding to a man who was an inchoate version of what he would later become. Elijah Lovejoy had risked his life by defending blacks publicly, as would Brown. Also like Brown, he persevered in his battle despite setback, and when faced with defeat he consciously chose the role of the Christ-like martyr.
    David S. Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights, rev. ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 65.

    John Brown, Response to Elijah Lovejoy Murder (Stauffer, 2002)

    John Brown was among the many reformers who considered Elijah Lovejoy's murder the spark that fired his fervent abolitionism. But Brown's reference to Lovejoy's martyrdom needs to be understood within the context of social and religious forces that transformed him into a militant abolitionist…Lovejoy's death certainly upset Brown, but it was not so much the event itself that led to Brown's oath. Rather, Lovejoy's death signified for Brown all that was wrong in the country, much the same way that the Slave Power later symbolized for Northerners the source of their fears and anxieties. Lovejoy's death coincided with a series of tragedies in Brown's life, culminating in the panic of 1837, that made him want to replace his existing world with his millennialist and perfectionist vision.
    John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002), 118-119.

    John Brown, Radical Abolition Party Convention in 1855 (Stauffer, 2002)

    The inaugural convention of Radical Abolitionists has been largely forgotten in American history, and the party it launched won few votes and never elected a candidate to office. In fact the party itself lasted only five years and never polled more than a few thousand votes in a single election. But the convention that gave birth to the Radical Abolition party has deep cultural relevance: it marked an unprecedented moment of interracial unity and collapsing of racial barriers. It is the only recorded moment at which Gerrit Smith, James McCune Smith, Frederick Douglass, and John Brown were all in the same place. Despite their close friendship, which began in the late 1840s, they lived in different parts of New York State and had few opportunities to be together. The convention gave tangible shape to their goals for ending slavery, their hopes for their country, and the means for realizing their dreams of a new world. They arrived with high expectations, and left feeling elated by what had transpired. But the convention also marked the crossing of a Rubicon, for the party’s platform specifically affirmed violence as a way to end slavery and oppression. The embrace of violence would eventually destroy the four men’s alliance.
    John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002), 8-9.

    John Brown, Pottawatomie Creek Attack (Freehling, 2007)

    "John Brown, the same warrior who would assault Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in 1859, massed six followers, including four of his sons, against slumbering proslavery settlers on the Pottawatomie Creek, some thirty miles south of Lawrence. Brown and his henchman dragged some five men from rude log cabins. They shot their victims, slit them open, and mutilated their corpses. With Brown’s celebration of an eye for an eye, the nation’s problem was not just that proslavery violence spawned antislavery violence. The worse problem was that more Kansas and more Northerners than John Brown, whatever they thought of black slavery, already preferred civil war to slaveholder repressions of white men’s republicanism. Thanks to the aftermath of the Kansas-Nebraska Act that Davy Atchison’s followers had spawned, a continuing Kansas crisis loomed huge on the national horizon."
    William W. Freehling, Secessionists Triumphant, 1854-1861, vol. 2 of The Road to Disunion (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 79.

    John Brown, Pottawatomie Creek Attack (Stauffer, 2002)

    On the night of May 24, Brown and a group of seven men cut the throats of five unarmed proslavery settlers and hacked them to death with broadswords. Brown's actions need to be understood within the context of the Radical Abolition party and its doctrines. Brown is often described as unique among abolitionists, the ne plus ultra of fanatics, but he is seldom associated with political abolitionism. Yet he aligned himself closely with Gerrit Smith, McCune Smith, and Douglass, attended other political conventions with them, and justified his actions under God and the Radical Abolitionist message that whatever was right was practicable, to paraphrase Douglass. Brown and his comrades were not far removed from Preston Brooks and the thousands of Southerners who sent him canes of congratulation: both sides advocated violent means for realizing wholly different visions of their country. But the two men's uses of violence differed in two ways. First, Brooks used violence to defend his (and the South's) honor, while Brown used violence to defend his (and Radical Abolitionists') vision of social equality. Second, Sumner had challenged and provoked Brooks with his speech; Brown's victims had done nothing directly to provoke or challenge Brown and his men.
    John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002), 21-22.

    John Brown, September 1856 Daguerreotype (Stauffer, 2002)

    In September 1856 John Brown sat for his portrait…Although he was not yet well known at the national level, he was quickly gaining fame as a freedom fighter in Kansas. As his reputation for militant abolitionism grew, he increasingly sat for his "likeness." He had numerous portraits taken of him while in Kansas, and preferred to have black artists or abolitionists represent him. This daguerreotype was created by John Bowles, a Kentucky slaveowner who had emancipated his slaves and became an abolitionist and comrade of Brown in Kansas. Bowles was quite familiar with Brown's willingness to befriend and identify himself with blacks, and one might argue that he portrays Brown as someone who blurs the line between black and white: the daguerreotype is slightly underexposed, rendering Brown's tanned skin even darker than it actually was. Brown's face appears tawny, as dark as Douglass' in the frontispiece of My Bondage.
    John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002), 56-58.

    John Brown, 1857 Speech in Concord (Reynolds, 2005)

    "As during his visit in 1857, Brown gave a public lecture in the Concord Town Hall. Emerson, Thoreau, and Alcott were among those in attendance. Brown talked about Kansas and dropped hints about Virginia. Without revealing plans, he said he was prepared to strike a dramatic blow for freedom by running off slaves in an effort to render insecure the institution of slavery. The Transcendentalists' enthusiasm for Brown was stronger than ever. They thought he looked like an apostle, with his flowing white beard, his intense grayish eyes, and his aquiline nose, slightly hooked above his firm lips…For Alcott, as for Emerson and Thoreau, Brown embodied the higher law, principled violence, and self-reliance."
    David S. Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights, rev. ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 290.

    John Brown, Missouri Raid Overview (Renehan, 1997)

    Five days before Christmas, 1858, John Brown led his men on a raid into Missouri during which the homes of two slave owners were plundered. One of the slaveowners was executed - shot in the head. Eleven slaves were liberated. Brown also liberated several wagons, many horses and mules, five guns, and nearly $100 in cash. The Missouri General Assembly condemned the incursion and suggested the possibility of violent retaliation. Moderate free-state Kansas such as Charles Robinson and George Washington Brown of the Lawrence Herald of Freedom criticized Brown's action, saying that it invited the resurgence of border war by giving Missourians an excuse to invade and terrorize free-state communities under cloak of searching for stolen property. The governor of Missouri offered $75 for Brown's capture. And President Buchanan was so enraged that he personally put a $250 price on Brown's head. (Brown, in turn, mockingly offered a reward of $2.50 for Buchanan's capture.) Back East, the unpredictable Gerrit Smith surprised his wife by being delighted with the news of Brown's activity.
    Edward J. Renehan, Jr., The Secret Six: The True Tale of the Men Who Conspired with John Brown (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1997), 179.

    John Brown, Missouri Raid Overview (Reynolds, 2005)

    The opportunity came in mid-December when [John Brown's] Free State friend George B. Gill told him he had just been visited by a black man, Jim Daniels, who was held in slavery by a Missourian named Harvey G. Hicklan (or Hicklin). Daniels, disguised as a broom salesman, had snuck across the state line and reported to Gill that he, his pregnant wife, and their two children were on the verge of being sold to a Texas slave-owner. Brown assured Gill he would help Daniels…On the night of December 20-21, he rode with twenty men into Vernon County, Missouri. As he approached the Little Ossage River, he divided his party. Twelve went with him to the area north of the river and the rest with Aaron Stevens to the south side. The goal was to liberate slaves, and if necessary, take whites as hostages.
    David S. Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights, rev. ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 278.

    John Brown, Returns to Kansas after Missouri Raid (Reynolds, 2005)

    [John] Brown and [Aaron] Stevens joined up at daybreak. Between them, they had eleven blacks representing four families: Jim Daniels with his wife and children; a widowed mother with two daughters and a son; a young man and a boy who were brothers; and a woman who had been forced to live separately from her husband…The blacks were taken thirty-five miles to Augustus Wattle's cabin in Moneka, Kansas, near Osawatomie. Before joining them Brown lingered near the state line to watch for any Missourians who might try to retaliate for his act. Subsequently, the blacks were moved to the home of Dr. James G. Blount, near Garnett. There, Brown built strong earthworks in case of attempted reprisal.
    David S. Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights, rev. ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 279.

    John Brown, Tabor residents criticize Missouri raid (Carton, 2006)

    Full of his success and renewed notoriety, Brown expected a hero's welcome in the town of Tabor, where he had recuperated after his Kansas campaigns in the summer of 1856. But the town's residents, though solidly antislavery, were repelled by the violent circumstances of this particular slave rescue and by the lawless appropriation of property that had accompanied the relief of oppressed people. When Brown strode into the church of his friend Reverend John Todd on the Sunday after his arrival and requested that the minister offer a public thanksgiving for God's preservation of the fugitives and their liberators, the gesture seemed to many of Todd's parishioners more imperious than pious. Brown's petition was deferred until a meeting could be held to discuss it. The result was not a public thanksgiving but a public rebuke: "While we sympathize with the oppressed, and will do all that we conscientiously can to help them in their efforts for freedom, the people of Tabor formally resolved, "we have no sympathy with those who go to slave states, to entice away slaves, and take property or life when necessary to attain that end."
    Evan Carton, Patriotic Treason: John Brown and the Soul of America (New York: Free Press, 2006), 274-275.

    John Brown, Harpers Ferry Attack (Freehling, 2007)

    On the evening of October 16, 1859, the liberator led fourteen other whites and four blacks from his rented Kennedy Farm in Maryland to Harpers Ferry, those six miles distant. There the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers unite to heave against a jagged semimountain, before flowing on to the sea….There transpired one of the most stupendous scenes in American history. In the dark night, Brown's freedom fighters easily captured Harpers Ferry's federal armory, arsenal, and engine house…No other first strike has ever been better planned or carried out (which is only to say that John Brown here perfected his lifelong specialty). No other following tactics have ever been botched so badly (which is only to say that John Brown here succumbed to his lifelong flaw). Where these raiders meant to kill whites, in order to free blacks, they first killed a free black, Shepard Hayward, as he walked harmlessly away from them.
    William W. Freehling, Secessionists Triumphant, 1854-1861, vol. 2 of The Road to Disunion (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 211-212.

    John Brown, Harpers Ferry Attack (Oakes, 2007)

    At dusk on the evening of October 16, 1859, acting on direct orders from the Lord God Himself, John Brown led a band of eighteen men on a raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry in western Virginia. By midnight Brown's men had cut the telegraph wires and commandeered the railroad bridges leading into town. They had control of the arsenal, the armory, and the rifle factory. Then they sat back and waited for slaves from the surrounding countryside to join their rebellion. But the slaves never came. About twenty were brought into town by Brown's men, but they refused to join the fight, and most of them had the good sense to run for their lives. Little more than a year later slaves across the South began claiming their freedom by running in substantial numbers to armed white northerners invading the South, this time as Union soldiers. But the slaves at Harpers Ferry stayed put; they knew the differences between an army of liberation and a ship of fools. By morning Brown's men had been surrounded. Within thirty-six hours it was all over. A handful of Brown's men escaped. Several were killed, including two of Brown's sons. Brown and two others were captured, tried, and executed.
    James Oakes, The Radical and The Republican: Fredrick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, and the Triumph of Antislavery Politics (New York: W W Norton & Company, 2007), 94-95.

    John Brown, Harpers Ferry Attack (Reynolds, 2005)

    The raid on Harpers Ferry helped dislodge slavery, but not in the way Brown had foreseen. It did not ignite slave uprisings throughout the South. Instead, it had an immense impact because of the way Brown behaved during and after it, and the way it was perceived by key figures on both sides of the slavery divide. The raid did not cause the storm. John Brown and the reaction to him did.
    David S. Reynolds, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights, rev. ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), 309.

    John Brown, Harpers Ferry Attack (Stauffer, 2002)

    Although the outcome of the raid would undoubtedly have been the same, more blacks might have come to his aid had Brown’s timing been better. Almost every analysis of the raid asserts that slaves and free flacks ignored Brown’s efforts on their behalf, but some evidence – much of it stemming from oral tradition – suggests that free blacks in Jefferson County and throughout the North and Canada knew of Brown’s plans and were prepared to join him. Brown originally scheduled the raid for July 4, 1858 (reflecting his fondness for symbolic value), but the date was postponed when one of his comrades, Hugh Forbes, turned traitor and threatened to expose the raid unless he received money…Evidently, his attack caught a number of his allies by surprise: Richard Hinton was in nearby Chambersburg “at a black-operated underground railroad post,” awaiting word to join Brown. Harriet Tubman, was trying to recruit followers. And a group of blacks from Ontario, Canada, were near Detroit, and supposedly on their way to join Brown.
    John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002), 255-256.
    Date Event
    John Brown is born in Torrington, Connecticut
    John Brown marries Dianthe Lusk
    John Brown's first wife dies in August 1832
    John Brown marries Mary Ann Day
    John Brown responds to abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy's murder in 1837
    - The Radical Abolition Party holds their first convention in New York
    John Brown delivers a speech at the Radical Abolition party convention
    - John Brown attacks a proslavery community close to the Pottawatomie Creek in Kansas
    John Brown's 1856 daguerreotype image captured in Kansas
    John Brown speaks about Kansas before the Massachusetts legislature’s Committee on Federal Relations
    John Brown meets with Harriet Tubman in Canada
    John Brown arrives in Chatham, Ontario for a series of secret meetings
    At the Chatham Convention in Ontario, John Brown sets up his Provisional Constitution
    - John Brown liberates slaves from three Missouri farms
    John Brown returns to Kansas with slaves liberated in Missouri
    Iowans criticize John Brown's Missouri raid in Tabor, Iowa
    John Brown speaks at the Concord Town Hall
    John Brown attacks Harpers Ferry
    John Brown's attack on Harpers Ferry continues with the townspeople fighting back
    John Brown's attack on Harpers Ferry ends when Marines storm the Engine House
    John Brown and his surviving raiders are taken to Charlestown, Virginia under heavy guard
    - John Brown and his fellow prisoners are held at Charlestown, Virginia pending trial
    John Brown appears before a Virginia court for the first time
    John Brown and his fellow prisoners are held at Charlestown pending trial before a Virginia court
    - John Brown stands trial in Charlestown, Virginia
    At the Plymouth Church in Brooklyn, Wendell Phillips praises John Brown in a speech
    The Commonwealth of Virginia sentences John Brown to death
    John Copeland, African-American Harpers Ferry raider, convicted in Charlestown, Virginia
    Burning haystack panics Virginians anticipating an attempt to rescue John Brown
    John Brown writes a letter of farewell to his sisters from his cell in Charlestown, Virginia
    Governor Wise takes over the Winchester and Potomac Railroad in preparation for the execution of John Brown
    Colonel Robert E. Lee leads federal troops back to Harpers Ferry to support Virginia's execution of John Brown
    John Brown writes his last letter to his family
    Virginia executes John Brown
    William Lloyd Garrison writes to a friend about the impact of John Brown's death.
    Hazlett and Stevens, the last of John Brown's captured co-conspirators, go on trial in Virginia
    Aaron Stevens found guilty in Virginia for his part in Harpers Ferry Raid
    Albert Hazlett convicted of murder in Charlestown, Virginia
    Stevens and Hazlett, the last of the convicted Harpers Ferry raiders, sentenced to hang
    Virginia executes Harpers Ferry raiders Albert Hazlett and Aaron Dwight Stevens
    Lincoln claims he cannot raise $10,000 for campaign even to save himself from "fate of John Brown"
    George Luther Stearns, leading abolitionist and member of "the Secret Six' dies of pneumonia in New York City.
    Date Title
    “Old Brown and his Friends,” Richmond (VA) Dispatch, November 10, 1859.
    Anne Lynch Botta to Henry Whitney Bellows, December 6, 1858
    New York Times, “Further Outrages in Kansas,” December 28, 1858
    New York Times, “The Kansas Troubles,” January 8, 1859
    Samuel Gridley Howe to John Murray Forbes, February 5, 1859
    Lawrence (KS) Herald of Freedom, “Crime is Crime,” February 5, 1859
    Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “The Marshall’s Posse,” February 12, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Personal,” March 7, 1859
    Charleston (SC) Mercury, "Slave Stealing in Missouri," March 8, 1859
    (Omaha) Nebraskian, “Ossowatamie [Osawatomie] Brown,” April 2, 1859
    Boston (MA) Liberator, “‘Old Brown’s’ Company of Rescued Slaves Burnt Out,” April 8, 1859
    Charles H. Ray to Abraham Lincoln, October 20, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, “Negro Insurrection!," October 20, 1859
    New York Times, “Latest Dispatches,” October 21, 1859
    New Orleans (LA) Picayune, "The Harper's Ferry Outbreak," October 22, 1859
    Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “Old John Brown,” October 22, 1859
    Ralph Waldo Emerson to William Emerson, October 23, 1859
    Richmond (VA) Dispatch, "Northern Impertinences with Regard to the Late Affair at Harpers Ferry," October 24, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Dissolution of the Union," October 25, 1859
    Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “The Madness of Brown,” October 25, 1859
    New Orleans (LA) Picayune, "The Harper's Ferry Affair," October 25, 1859
    Lydia Maria Child to Henry Alexander Wise, October 26, 1859
    Ralph Waldo Emerson to Sarah Hathaway Forbes, October 26, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American, “Arrest of a Supposed ‘Harper’s Ferry Insurrectionist,’” October 26, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Sketch of Captain John Brown," October 27, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "The Slave Insurrection at Harper's Ferry," October 27, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Governor Wise on the Harper's Ferry Insurrection," October 27, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Additional Particulars of the Insurrection," October 27, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Bleeding Kansas," October 27, 1859
    Entry by Susan Bradford Eppes, October 28, 1859
    Baltimore (MD) Sun, "More Harper's Ferry Disclosures," October 28, 1859
    Lawrence (KS) Herald of Freedom, “Old John Brown,” October 29, 1859
    William T. Sherman to Ellen Sherman, October 29, 1859
    Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "Untitled," October 31, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "A Game that Will Not Win," October 31, 1859
    New York Herald, "Runaway Slaves in Canada," November 1, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "They Have Overdone It!," November 2, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Trial of Brown, the Insurgent," November 3, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Tenderly Sensitive," November 3, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Conviction of Brown!," November 3, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Black Republican Ingratitude," November 3, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Old Brown's Speech," November 4, 1859
    Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Mr. Douglas’ New Book,” November 4, 1859
    New York Times, "The Brown Invasion Transplanted From Kansas," November 5, 1859
    Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "How Shall Brown Be Punished?," November 7, 1859
    Charleston (SC) Mercury, “The Democratic Party and Old Brown,” November 8, 1859
    Hartford (CT) Courant, "Untitled," November 9, 1859
    Raleigh (NC) Register, “Brown’s Virginia Counsel,” November 9, 1859
    Hartford (CT) Courant, "Untitled," November 9, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Untitled," November 10, 1859
    Philadelphia (PA) Christian Observer, "Character of John Brown," November 10, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Harper's Ferry Trouble," November 10, 1859
    Boston (MA) Liberator, "Bad News for the Abolitionists," November 11, 1859
    Eliza Margaretta Chew Mason to Lydia Maria Child, November 11, 1859
    Fayetteville (NC) Observer,"Old Brown," November 14, 1859
    Frances Watkins Harper to Mary Ann Day Brown, November 14, 1859
    Charleston (SC) Mercury, “Insurrectionists in West Tennessee,” November 15, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Is It True or False?,” November 16, 1859
    Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "Brown's Gang," November 17, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "The Plea Will Not Avail Them," November 17, 1859
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, "Gov. Wise to Mrs. Child," November 17, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "A Recoil of the Gun," November 18, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Virginia Panic," November 19, 1859
    New York Herald, “Intense Alarm and Excitement in Virginia,” November 20, 1859
    Hartford (CT) Courant, "Untitled," November 21, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Straw Stack War,” November 22, 1859
    Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "The Devil Not As Black As He Is Painted," November 24, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Well Done, Old Brown," November 26, 1859
    New York Herald, “A Suggestion to Governor Wise About Old Brown,” November 27, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Old Brown to be Gagged," November 30, 1859
    Entry by Edmund Ruffin, November 30, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "The Other Brown," December 1, 1859
    Greensboro (NC) Patriot, "Salisbury Items," December 2, 1859
    Entry by Thomas Jonathan Jackson, December 2, 1859
    John Thomas Lewis Preston to Margaret Junkin Preston, December 2, 1859
    Entry by Susan Bradford Eppes, December 2, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Opinions of the People," December 3, 1859
    Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “Walker vs. Brown,” December 3, 1859
    New York Herald, “The South and Southern Safety,” December 4, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Beginning of Sorrows,” December 5, 1859
    Hartford (CT) Courant, “Untitled,” December 5, 1859
    Abby Howland Woolsey to Eliza Newton Woolsey Howland, December 5, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "How a Brave Man Dies," December 6, 1859
    Mrs. M. Brooks to William Still, December 7, 1859
    Hartford (CT) Courant, "Arrest of a Militia Officer," December 8, 1859
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, "Virginia Wants the Nation to Foot Her Bills," December 8, 1859
    New York Herald, “Anti-Slavery Theatres and Litterateurs,” December 9, 1859
    New York Herald, "The Slavery Agitation," December 10, 1859
    Frances Watkins Harper to William Still, December 12, 1859
    Hartford (CT) Courant, "Untitled,” December 14, 1859
    Entry by Susan Bradford Eppes, December 15, 1859
    Columbus (OH) Gazette, "For the Columbus Gazette," December 16, 1859
    New York Herald, “The New York Herald in the South,” December 18, 1859
    Hartford (CT) Courant, “Untitled,” December 20, 1859
    Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, “Frederick Douglass,” December 21, 1859
    New York Herald, “Seward Nominated for the Presidency by the Abolitionists,” December 25, 1859
    San Francisco (CA) Evening Bulletin, “The New Crusade against the Union,” December 29, 1859
    Boston (MA) Liberator, "John Brown is Dead!," December 31, 1859
    New York Times, “The Trial of Stevens,” January 4, 1860
    New York Herald, “The Runaway Slaves,” January 5, 1860
    New York Herald, "The Underground Railroad and Its Victims," January 5, 1860
    Milwaukee (WI) Sentinel, “Another Grievance for Virginia,” January 11, 1860
    New York Times, "The Exodus of Southern Medical Students," January 17, 1860
    New York Times,“The Colored People and John Brown’s Widow,” January 23, 1860
    Boston (MA) Herald, “A Conflict of the Races in Canada,” January 23, 1860
    Boston (MA) Herald, “Telegraph to the Herald,” January 24, 1860
    Atchison (KS) Freedom’s Champion, “Paying the Piper,” January 28, 1860
    Boston (MA) Herald, "Where Shall They Go?," February 1, 1860
    William T. Sherman to Ellen Sherman, February 10, 1860
    New York Times, “The Senatorial Inquisition,” February 11, 1860
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Harper’s Ferry Inquisition,” February 15, 1860
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “Attempt to Lynch a Pennsylvanian in Virginia,” February 18, 1860
    New York Herald, “The Senate and Messrs Hyatt and Howe,” February 25, 1860
    Abraham Lincoln, Address at Cooper Institute, New York City, February 27, 1860
    Charleston (SC) Courier, “John Brown’s Private Secretary,” March 8, 1860
    Abraham Lincoln to E. Stafford, March 17, 1860
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, “Execution of Hazlett and Stephens,” March 22, 1860
    Carlisle (PA) American Volunteer, “Another Harper’s Ferry Victim,” March 22, 1860
    William Wilkins to James Watson Webb, March 26, 1860
    (Omaha) Nebraskian, “Monument to John Brown,” May 5, 1860
    New York Times, “Disunion Plots,” May 10, 1860
    Chillicothe (OH) Scioto Gazette, “Can Locofocos Explain It?,” June 5, 1860
    (Jackson) Mississippian, “Violations of the Constitution,” June 15, 1860
    (Jackson) Mississippian, “The Fourth at John Brown’s Home,” June 20, 1860
    Ripley (OH) Bee, “The John Brown Investigation,” July 5, 1860
    New York Herald, “A Curious Fourth of July Celebration,” July 8, 1860
    Lowell (MA) Citizen & News, "Who Are For Disunion?," August 8, 1860
    Charlestown (VA) Free Press, "Precipitate A Revolution," August 9, 1860
    New York Times, "Gov. Seward and John Brown," August 18, 1860
    Chicago (IL) Press and Tribune, “The Artful Dodger,” September 1, 1860
    New York Herald, “Massachusetts Thoroughly Abolitionized,” September 7, 1860
    New York Herald, “The Reign of Terror in Texas,” September 16, 1860
    (Jackson) Mississippian, "The 'Coercion' Issue," October 5, 1860
    Charleston (SC) Mercury, "The Terrors of Submission," October 11, 1860
    New York Times, “Very Suspicious,” October 15, 1860
    Charleston (SC) Mercury, "Harper's Ferry Anniversary Celebration," October 22, 1860
    Fayetteville (NC) Observer, "The U. S. Arsenal," November 15, 1860
    New York Herald, “The Meeting of Congress,” November 28, 1860
    Chicago (IL) Tribune, "Montgomery," December 1, 1860
    Charleston (SC) Mercury, "The John Brown Pike," December 5, 1860
    Charlestown (VA) Free Press, “John Brown Anniversary,” December 13, 1860
    Newark (OH) Advocate, “Abolition Threat of John P. Hale,” February 8, 1861
    Richmond (VA) Dispatch, “Another John Brown Raid,” April 16, 1861
    Boston (MA) Liberator, “An Ancient and A Modern Compromise,” April 19, 1861
    Cleveland (OH) Herald, “A Submissionist Answered,” June 17, 1861
    Cleveland (OH) Herald, “Military Printers Having Their Joke,” July 15, 1861
    William Whipper to William Still, December 4, 1871
    Chicago Style Entry Link
    "The Five Brave Negroes with John Brown at Harpers Ferry." Negro History Bulletin 27, no. 7 (1964): 164-169. view record

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    Banks, Russell. Cloudsplitter : A Novel. New York: HarperPerennial, 1999. view record
    Barrett, Tracy. Harpers Ferry: The Story of John Brown's Raid. Spotlight on American History. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994. view record
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    Blight, David W. "John Brown: Triumphant Failure." American Prospect 11 (March 2000): 44-45. view record
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    Bridgman, Edward P. and M. M. Quaife. "Bleeding Kansas and the Pottawatomie Murders." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 6, no. 4 (1920): 556-560. view record
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    Chowder, Ken. "The Father of American Terrorism." American Heritage 51, no. 1 (2000): 81-84, 86-88, 90-91. view record
    Clavin, Matthew. "A Second Haitian Revolution: John Brown, Toussaint Louverture, and the Making of the American Civil War." Civil War History 54, no. 2 (2008): 117-145. view record
    Cohen, Stan. John Brown: The Thundering Voice of Jehovah. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Pub. Co., 1999. view record
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    Cox, Clinton. Fiery Vision: The Life and Death of John Brown. New York: Scholastic, 1997. view record
    DeCaro, Louis A. "Fire from the Midst of You": A Religious Life of John Brown. New York: New York University Press, 2002. view record
    DeVillers, David. The John Brown Slavery Revolt Trial: A Headline Court Case. Headline Court Cases. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2000. view record
    Donahue, James J. "'Hardly the Voice of the Same Man': "Civil Disobedience" and Thoreau's Response to John Brown." Midwest Quarterly 48, no. 2 (2007): 247-265. view record
    Drescher, Seymour. "Servile Insurrection and John Brown's Body in Europe." Journal of American History 80, no. 2 (1993): 499-524. view record
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    Eby, Cecil D. "The Last Hours of the John Brown Raid: The Narrative of David H. Strother." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 73, no. 2 (1965): 169-177. view record
    Eby, Cecil D., Jr. "Whittier's 'Brown of Ossawatomie.'" New England Quarterly 33, no. 4 (1960): 452-461. view record
    Ehrlich, Leonard. God's Angry Man. New York: Press of the Readers Club, 1941. view record
    Everett, Gwen, and Jacob Lawrence. John Brown: One Man Against Slavery. New York: Rizzoli, 1993. view record
    Fine, Gary Alan. "John Brown's Body: Elites, Heroic Embodiment, and the Legitimation of Political Violence." Social Problems 46, no. 2 (1999): 225-249. view record
    Finkelman, Paul, ed. His Soul Goes Marching On: Responses to John Brown and the Harpers Ferry Raid. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995. view record
    Fleming, T. J. "Verdicts of History." American Heritage 18 (August 1967): 28-33. view record
    Fleming, Thomas J. "The Trial of John Brown." American Heritage 18, no. 5 (1967): 28-33, 92-100. view record
    Fried, Albert. John Brown's Journey : Notes and Reflections on His America and Mine. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1978. view record
    Furnas, J. C. The Road to Harpers Ferry. New York: W. Sloane Associates, 1959. view record
    Garrison, Wendell Phillips. The Preludes of Harper's Ferry: Two Papers. [Boston?], 1891. view record
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    Glaser, Jason, A. Milgrom, Bill Anderson, and Charles Barnett. John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press, 2006 view record
    Gold, Michael. Life of John Brown: Centennial of His Execution. New York: Roving Eye Press, 1960. view record
    Graham, Lorenz B. John Brown, A Cry for Freedom. New York: Crowell, 1980. view record
    Harris, Andrew, Jr. "Northern Reaction to the John Brown Raid." Negro History Bulletin 24, no. 8 (1961): 177-180, 187. view record
    Haven, R. "John Brown and Heman Humphrey: An Unpublished Letter." Journal of Negro History 52, no. 3 (1967): 220-224. view record
    Hazen, Lester B. "Without Much Blood." Military Review 62, no. 9 (1982): 57-66. view record
    Hill, F. T. "Commonwealth vs. Brown." Harper's Monthly Magazine 113 (1906): 264-279. view record
    Hinton, Richard J. John Brown and His Men; With Some Account of the Roads Traveled to Reach Harper's Ferry. New York: Funk & Wagnall's Company, 1894. view record
    Holzer, Harold. "Raid on Harpers Ferry." American History Illustrated 19, no. 1 (1984): 10-19. view record
    Howard, Victor B. "John Brown's Raid at Harpers Ferry and the Sectional Crisis in North Carolina." North Carolina Historical Review 55, no. 4 (October 1978): 396-420. view record
    Hyde, Lewis. "Henry Thoreau, John Brown, and the Problem of Prophetic Action." Raritan 22, no. 2 (2002): 125-144. view record
    Janney, Caroline E. "Written in Stone: Gender, Race, and the Heyward Shepherd Memorial." Civil War History 52, no. 2 (June 2006): 117-141. view record
    Kay, Alan N. On the Trail of John Brown's Body. Young Heroes of History. Shippensburg, PA: White Mane Kids, 2001. view record
    Keller, Allan. "John Brown's Raid." American History Illustrated 11, no. 5 (1976): 34-45. view record
    Keller, Allan. Thunder at Harper's Ferry. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1958. view record
    Kelley, Donald Brooks. "Harper's Ferry: Prelude to Crisis in Mississippi." Journal of Mississippi History 27, no. 4 (1965): 351-372. view record
    Kent, Zachary. The Story of John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry. Cornerstones of Freedom. Chicago: Children’s Press, 1988. view record
    Landon, Fred. "Canadian Negroes and the John Brown Raid." Journal of Negro History 6, no. 2 (1921):174-182. view record
    Ljungquist, Kent. "Meteor of the War": Melville, Thoreau, and Whitman Respond to John Brown." American Literature 61, no. 4 (1989): 674-680. view record
    Lubet, Steven. "John Brown's Trial." Alabama Law Review 52 (2001): 425-465. view record
    Matzke, Jason P. "The John Brown Way: Frederick Douglass and Henry David Thoreau on the Use of Violence." Massachusetts Review 46, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 62-75. view record
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    McDonald, William. The Two Rebellions, or, Treason Unmasked. By a Virginian. Richmond: Smith, Bailey, 1865. view record
    McGlone, Robert E. "Forgotten Surrender: John Brown's Raid and the Cult of Martial Virtues." Civil War History 40, no. 3 (September 1994): 185-201. view record
    McGlone, Robert E. "Rescripting a Troubled Past: John Brown's Family and the Harpers Ferry Conspiracy." Journal of American History 75, no. 4 (1989): 1179-1200. view record
    McKenzie, Kenneth F. "Marines to Harpers Ferry!" Naval History 9, no. 1 (1995): 22-28. view record
    McKissack, Pat, and  Fredrick McKissack. Rebels Against Slavery: American Slave Revolts. New York: Scholastic, 1996. view record
    McKivigan, John R. "James Redpath, John Brown, and Abolitionist Advocacy of Slave Insurrection." Civil War History 37, no. 4 (1991): 293-313. view record
    McPherson, James M. The Most Fearful Ordeal: Original Coverage of the Civil War. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2004. view record
    Meyer, Michael. "Thoreau's Rescue of John Brown from History." Studies in the American Renaissance (1980): 301-316. view record
    Milhous, Phil. "A Footnote to John Brown's Raid." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 67, no. 4 (1959): 396-398. view record
    Miller, Ernest C. "John Brown's Ten Years in Northwestern Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania History 15, no. 1 (1948): 24-33. view record
    Mitchell, Betty L. "Massachusetts Reacts to John Brown's Raid." Civil War History 19, no. 1 (1973): 65-79. view record
    Mitchell, Betty L. "Realities Not Shadows: Franklin Benjamin Sanborn, the Early Years." Civil War History 20, no. 2 (1974): 101-117. view record
    Moore, Rayburn S. "John Brown's Raid at Harper's Ferry: An Eyewitness Account by Charles White." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 67, no. 4 (1959): 387-395. view record
    Mott, Wesley T. "John Brown in Concord." New-England Galaxy 19, no. 1 (1977): 25-31. view record
    Nalty, Bernard C. "At All Times Ready: The Marines at Harper's Ferry." Marine Corps Gazette 43, no. 10 (1959): 32-37. view record
    Nelson, Truman John. The Old Man: John Brown at Harper's Ferry. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973. view record
    Newton, John. Captain John Brown of Harper's Ferry: A Preliminary Incident to the Great Civil War of America. New York: A. Wessels Company, 1902. view record
    Nolan, Jeannette Covert.  John Brown. New York: J. Messner, 1968. view record
    Nudelman, Franny. ""The Blood of Millions": John Brown's Body, Public Violence, and Political Community." American Literary History 13, no. 4 (2001): 639-670. view record
    Nudelman, Franny. John Brown's Body: Slavery, Violence, & the Culture of War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2004. view record
    Oates, Stephen B. "God's Angry Man." American History Illustrated 20, no. 9 (1986): 10-21. view record
    Oates, Stephen B. "In Thine Own Image": Modern Radicals and John Brown." South Atlantic Quarterly 73, no. 4 (1974): 417-427. view record
    Oates, Stephen B. "John Brown and His Judges: A Critique of the Historical Literature." Civil War History 17, no. 1 (1971): 5-24. view record
    Oates, Stephen B. "John Brown's Bloody Pilgrimage." Southwest Review 53, no. 1 (1968): 1-22. view record
    Oates, Stephen B. "To Wash this Land in Blood: John Brown in Kansas." American West 6, no. 4 (1969): 36-41. view record
    Oates, Stephen B. "Years of Trial: John Brown in Ohio." Timeline 2, no. 1 (1985): 2-13. view record
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    Olds, Bruce. Raising Holy Hell: A Novel. New York: H. Holt, 1995. view record
    Perry, Thelma D. "Race-Conscious Aspects of the John Brown Affair." Negro History Bulletin 37, no. 6 (1974): 312-317. view record
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    Phillips, Adrienne Cole. "The Mississippi Press's Response to John Brown's Raid." Journal of Mississippi History 48, no. 2 (1986): 119-134. view record
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    Potter, Robert R. John Brown: Militant Abolitionist. American Troublemakers. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1995. view record
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    Quarles, Benjamin.  Allies for Freedom: Blacks and John Brown. New York, Oxford University Press: 1974. view record
    Quarles, Benjamin.  Blacks on John Brown. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972. view record
    Redpath, James. Echoes of Harper's Ferry. Boston: Thayer and Eldridge, 1860. view record
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    Rees, Douglas. Lightning Time: A Novel. New York: DK Ink, 1997. view record
    Renehan, Edward J., Jr. The Secret Six: The True Tale of the Men Who Conspired with John Brown. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1997. view record
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    Richardson, Mary L. "The Historical Authenticity of John Brown's Raid in Stephen Vincent Benet's 'John Brown's Body.'" West Virginia History 24, no. 2 (1963): 168-175. view record
    Rinaldi, Ann. Mine Eyes Have Seen. New York: Scholastic, 1998. view record
    Robinson, Armstead L. "In the Shadow of Old John Brown: Insurrection Anxiety and Confederate Mobilization, 1861-1863." Journal of Negro History 65, no. 4 (Autumn 1980): 279-297. view record
    Ronda, Bruce A. Reading the Old Man: John Brown in American Culture. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2008. view record
    Rossbach, Jeffery S. Ambivalent Conspirators: John Brown, the Secret Six, and a Theory of Slave Violence. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982. view record
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    Sanborn, Franklin Benjamin, ed. The Life and Letters of John Brown, Liberator of Kansas, and Martyr of Virginia. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1885. view record
    Sanborn, Franklin Benjamin. "Comment by a Radical Abolitionist." Century Magazine 26 (1883): 411-415. view record
    Schroeder, Glenna R. "We must Look this Great Event in the Face": Northern Sermons on John Brown's Raid." Fides et Historia 20, no. 1 (1988): 29-43. view record
    Scott, John Anthony, and Robert Alan Scott. John Brown of Harper's Ferry: With Contemporary Prints, Photographs, and Maps. Makers of America. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1988. view record
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    Shackel, Paul A. "Terrible Saint: Changing Meanings of the John Brown Fort." Historical Archaeology 29, no. 4 (1995): 11-25. view record
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    Simpson, Craig. "John Brown and Governor Wise: A New Perspective on Harpers Ferry." Biography 1, no. 4 (1978): 15-39. view record
    Sinha, Manisha. " ‘His Truth is Marching On’: John Brown and the Fight for Racial Justice." Civil War History 52, no. 2 (2006): 161-169. view record
    Smith, Kenneth L. "Edmund Ruffin and the Raid on Harper's Ferry." Virginia Cavalcade 22, no. 2 (1972): 28-37. view record
    Stauffer, John. The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002. view record
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    Stewart, James Brewer. Abolitionist Politics and the coming of the Civil War. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008. view record
    Stone, Edward. Incident at Harper's Ferry: Primary Source Materials for Teaching the Theory and Technique of the Investigative Essay. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1956. view record
    Story, Ronald. "Blacks, Brown, and Blood: The Hourglass Pattern." Reviews in American History 3, no. 2 (1975): 213-218. view record
    Stutler, Boyd B. "Abraham Lincoln and John Brown - A Parallel." Civil War History 8, no. 3 (1962): 290-299. view record
    Stutler, Boyd B. "John Brown's Body." Civil War History 4, no. 3 (1958): 251-260. view record
    Stutler, Boyd B. "The Hanging of John Brown." American Heritage 6, no. 2 (1955): 4-9. view record
    Tackach, James. The Trial of John Brown, Radical Abolitionist. Famous Trials. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 1998. view record
    Taylor, Andrew, and Eldrid Herrington, eds. The Afterlife of John Brown. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005. view record
    Thomas, Emory M. "'The Greatest Service I Rendered the State': J. E. B. Stuart's Account of the Capture of John Brown." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 94, no. 3 (1986): 345-357. view record
    Tripp, Bernell. "The Case of John Brown (1859): 'John Brown still lives'." In The Press on Trial: Crimes and Trials as Media Events, edited by Lloyd Chiasson Jr., 25-36. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997. view record
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    Trodd, Zoe. "Writ in Blood: John Brown's Charter of Humanity, the Tribunal of History, and the Thick Line of American Protest." Journal for the Study of Radicalism 1, no. 1 (2007): 1-29. view record
    Villard, Oswald Garrison. John Brown, 1800-1859: A Biography Fifty Years After. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1910. view record
    von Frank, Albert J. "John Brown, James Redpath, and the Idea of Revolution." Civil War History 52, no. 2 (June 2006): 142-160. view record
    Warch, Richard, and Jonathan F. Fanton. John Brown. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973. view record
    Warren, Robert Penn. John Brown: The Making of a Martyr. New York: Payson and Clarke, 1929. view record
    Whitman, Karen. "Re-Evaluating John Brown's Raid of Harpers Ferry." West Virginia History 34, no. 1 (1972): 46-84. view record
    Wilson, Hill Peebles. John Brown, Soldier of Fortune: A Critique. Boston: The Cornhill Company, 1918. view record
    Woodward, Isaiah A. "John Brown's Raid at Harpers Ferry and Governor Henry Alexander Wise's Letter to President James Buchanan Concerning the Invasion." West Virginia History 42, no. 3-4 (1981): 307-313. view record
    Yang, Liwen. "John Brown's Role in the History of the Emancipation Movement of Black Americans." Southern Studies 3, no. 2 (1992): 135-142. view record
    How to Cite This Page: "Brown, John," House Divided: The Civil War Research Engine at Dickinson College,