Date Event
    In New Orleans, Michael Hahn is inaugurated as the first elected post-Confederate governor of Louisiana
    The House of Representatives passes the Wade-Davis Bill setting radical requirements for Reconstruction
    The U.S. Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill that sets radical requirements for Reconstruction
    In a proclamation, President Lincoln explains why he refuses to sign the Wade-Davis Bill on Reconstruction
    Fleeing Confederate President Jefferson Davis arrives with his cabinet and family in Washington, Georgia
    President Johnson recognizes Virginia's "Alexandria" legislature and appoints Francis Pierpont provisional governor
    Union cavalry capture the fleeing Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his family south of Macon, Georgia
    President Johnson appoints long-time judge William L. Sharkey as provisional governor of Mississippi
    President Johnson appoints Andrew Jackson Hamilton as provisional governor of Texas
    - Virginia's "Alexandria" legislature moves back to Richmond for its final session
    President Johnson appoints Lewis E. Parsons, Sr. as provisional governor of Alabama
    The new Virginia legislature replaces the restrictive Alexandria Oath with the milder Amnesty Oath
    In Winchester, a mass meeting of area Unionists protests the return of Confederates to office in Virginia
    President Johnson appoints Benjamin Franklin Perry as provisional governor of South Carolina
    In Washington, Virginia businessmen meet with President Johnson asking for changes in the amnesty regulations
    Tennessee congressional candidate Emerson Etheridge is arrested over his inflammatory campaign speeches
    President Johnson names former federal judge William Marvin as provisional governor of Florida
    In Virginia, several former Confederate officers and officers are elected as mayor and city councillors
    In Virginia, Union General Alfred Terry voids the recent Richmond city elections
    In Richmond, a public demonstration of Virginia's loyalty to the Union is held on the Capitol grounds
    - Alabama holds an elected State Convention to plan for the state's return to full national participation
    Georgia holds elections for representatives to a planned State Convention in Milledgeville, the capital.
    The Georgia State Convention votes to repeal the act of Secession passed in its legislature on January 19, 1861
    In Washington D.C., the National Police head Lafayette Baker is indicted for false imprisonment and extortion
    - In Charleston, the "Colored People's Convention of the State of South Carolina" is meeting
    Alabama's African-Americans hold their First Freedmen's Convention at Mobile
    Florida elects David Shelby Walker as its first post-Civil War elected governor along with a new legislature
    President Johnson lifts the suspension of Habeas Corpus in all loyal states but retains it in the South
    House Republicans vote to set up a joint committee to determine the suitability of Southern representation
    In Raleigh, the new North Carolina legislature elects William Graham as United States Senator
    In Montgomery, Robert Miller Patton is inaugurated as Alabama's first elected post-Civil War governor
    Charles Jones Jenkins is inaugurated as the first post-Civil War elected governor of Georgia
    In Washington D.C., the House names its nine members of the new Joint Committee on Reconstruction
    In Washington D.C., the U.S. Senate names its six members of the new Joint Committee on Reconstruction
    Six C.S.A. veterans in Pulaski, Tennessee found the first chapter of the Klu Klux Klan.
    New Hampshire Republicans meet in convention at Concord to nominate candidates for state offices.
    In Washington, Senator Trumbull introduces measures to extend the authority of the Freedmen's Bureau
    - The first session of the 39th Congress is sitting in Washington DC from early January to late July, 1866
    The school that is soon to become Fisk University opens for its first class in Nashville, Tennessee
    In Iowa, Governor William Stone begins his second term and endorses African-American suffrage
    - Maryland Democrats meet in Baltimore to protest the state's restrictive voter registration law
    In Washington D.C., the trial of former National Police head Lafayette Baker for false imprisonment begins
    In Washington, the Senate passes measures to extend the authority of the Freedmen's Bureau
    In Boston, the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society rejects a proposal to disband since its work is done
    At the U.S. Capitol, the Senate passes the Civil Rights Bill of 1866
    In Washington, the House of Representatives passes the Freedmen's Bureau Bill
    In Washington, the House of Representatives votes to confirm the transfer of two Virginia counties to West Virginia.
    In Washington, Frederick Douglass leads a delegation of African-American leaders to the White House
    The Republican governor of Louisiana vetoes early elections for New Orleans.
    In Washington, President Johnson vetoes the Freedmen's Bureau Bill
    In Washington, the Senate fails to over-ride President Johnson's veto of the Freedmen's Bureau Bill
    The war crimes trial of the commander of North Carolina's Salisbury Prison Camp begins in Raleigh
    Indiana Republicans meet in convention in Indianapolis and praise President Johnson
    Alexander Stephens addresses the Georgia Legislature and urges acceptance and a new South
    "Copperhead" Democrat Daniel Voorhees of Indiana is removed from his congressional seat
    In Boone County, Kentucky, white "rangers" beat a freed slave and force him and his family to leave
    President Johnson dismisses his critic, Jane Grey Swisshelm, from her War Department job
    Pennsylvania Democrats convene in Harrisburg, praise the president, nominate Hiester Clymer for governor
    In Washington, the U.S. Senate confirms the official transfer of two Virginia counties to West Virginia
    In Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Republicans nominate former Union General John White Geary for governor
    President Johnson asks the Louisiana legislature to postpone its call for a new constitution.
    Ex-Confederate General George Pickett reaches out to his old West Point friend U.S. Grant for amnesty
    Democrats sweep to power in the accelerated New Orleans city elections.
    At the U.S. Capitol, the House of Representatives passes the Civil Rights Bill of 1866
    In Indianapolis, angry Indiana Democrats condemn Congress and support President Johnson.
    In Indianapolis, the Indiana Democratic Party holds its state convention
    In New Orleans, military governor General Edward Canby suspends the results of the mayoral election
    Maryland former Confederate General Bradley T. Johnson arrested in Baltimore on a charge of treason
    President Johnson vetoes the Civil Rights Bill of 1866
    The Wisconsin Supreme Court rules that male Wisconsin African-Americans have the right to vote
    In Texas, the state convention produces a new constitution for a popular vote in June 1866
    The Ladies' Southern Relief Fair opens in Baltimore.
    In Decatur, Illinois Union veterans found the first "post" of what will be the Grand Army of the Republic
    In Washington, the U.S. Senate votes to over-ride the presidential veto of the Civil Rights Bill
    In Norfolk, Virginia, African-Americans rally to celebrate congressional action on the Civil Rights Bill
    In Washington, House of Representatives votes to overturn the presidential veto of the Civil Rights Bill
    - Serious civil disturbances rock Norfolk, Virginia, bringing federal troops to restore order
    Nighttime arson attacks burn several African-American churches and church buildings in Petersburg, Virginia
    - In Memphis, serious riots break out as whites kill, rape, and burn in African-American sections of the city
    In West Virginia, a state constitutional amendment passes and disenfranchises many former Confederates
    The House of Representatives passes a non-binding resolution that Jefferson Davis be tried for treason
    In Charleston, South Carolina, whites and blacks clash on the streets
    "Conservative Republicans" of Iowa meet in convention in Des Moines.
    Senator James Henry Lane shoots himself in the head near Leavenworth, Kansas.
    Louisiana radicals order the reconvoking of the Louisiana Constitutional Convention of 1864.
    The Democratic Party of Iowa meets in convention at Des Moines.
    Kansas Senator James Henry Lane dies from his self-inflicted wounds.
    Postmaster-General William Dennison resigns from the Johnson Cabinet over policy differences.
    Uncomfortable with President Johnson's policies, U.S. Attorney General James Speed resigns.
    Governor Crawford of Kansas appoints Edmund Ross to succeed James H. Lane in the U.S. Senate.
    In Washington, DC, Tennessee is readmitted to full representation the United States Congress
    In New Orleans, a Republican effort to meet in Constitutional Convention results in riots and scores die.
    John Ross, for thirty-eight years Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, dies in Washington, D.C.
    Union General Philip Sheridan calls the mayor of New Orleans "a bad man" and recommends his removal.
    In Portland, Maine, the state's Democrats meet to nominate candidates for the September elections.
    Union war hero George Armstrong Custer becomes the head of the Soldiers and Sailors Union.
    The convention riots in New Orleans claim more victims as two delegates die from their injuries.
    Maryland Democrats meet in their nominating convention in Baltimore.
    - In Philadelphia, Democrats and conservatives gather for the National Union Convention.
    Struggling to hold onto power, the Unconditional Union Party of Maryland meets in Baltimore.
    Governor Ward of New Jersey calls a special legislative session to consider the 14th Amendment.
    - In Philadelphia, four hundred delegates meet in the Southern Loyalist Convention over four days.
    - An altercation between locals and Union regulars garrisoning Brenham, Texas results in a massive fire.
    New Jersey ratifies the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
    The Massachusetts Republican Convention meets and has harsh words for President Johnson.
    - In Cleveland, Ohio, the Democratic-aligned Soldiers and Sailors Union, holds its first annual convention.
    In Galesburg, Illinois, the annual general meeting of Universalists condemns President Johnson.
    - A Southern Soldier's Convention of Confederate veterans is meeting in Memphis.
    In Kansas, a new U.S. cavalry regiment, the Seventh, begins its formation at Fort Riley.
    In Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, veterans supporting Republican policies meet in convention.
    President Johnson's Secretary of the Interior, James Harlan of Iowa, resigns.
    The Freedmen's Bureau halts the free issue of rations to refugees and freedmen across the South.
    - North Carolina Freedmen hold a four-day convention in Raleigh
    - The National Unitarian churches of the United States hold their annual meeting in Syracuse, New York.
    In Pennsylvania, General John W. Geary is elected governor as Republicans again dominate.
    The Republican victory in the Baltimore municipal elections kicks off a political firestorm in Maryland.
    A large force of nightriders terrorize African-American homes throughout Marion County, Kentucky.
    Governor Swann of Maryland removes the Baltimore Police Commissioners board.
    - The "Indiana Colored Convention" is meeting in Indianapolis, Indiana.
    In Little Rock, the Arkansas legislature chooses the famous Methodist Andrew Hunter as U.S. Senator
    Senator George Williams of Oregon introduces the "Tenure of Office Act" in the U.S. Senate.
    In Atlanta, the purpose-built Storrs School for Freedmen is dedicated.
    The U.S. Senate passes the initial version of the "Tenure of Office Act" on a vote of twenty-nine for and nine against.
    - The National Convention of Colored Men meets for three days in Washington, D.C.
    Tennessee State Senator Almon Case is murdered in cold blood in Obion County, Tennessee.
    Thaddeus Stevens introduces the First Reconstruction Bill of 1867 in the House of Representatives.
    The Habeas Corpus Act of 1867 is passed radically adjusting the relationship between state and federal courts.
    In Washington, DC, the House of Representatives passes the Reconstruction Bill of 1867.
    In North Carolina, a white, male mob viciously beats a young African-American woman named Phillis Ruffin.
    In Washington, DC, the U.S. Senate passes an amended Reconstruction Bill of 1867.
    The compromise "Tenure of Office Act" passes the U.S. Senate by a vote of twenty-two to ten.
    The compromise "Tenure of Office Act" passes the House of Representatives by a vote of 112 to 41.
    In Washington, DC, the House agrees Senate changes to the Reconstruction Bill and the measure goes to President Johnson for signature.
    The 39th Congress restricts the ability of the White House to dismiss the commanding general of the army.
    President Johnson rejects the "Tenure of Office Bill" and the Congress over-rides his veto before the day is out.
    President Johnson rejects the amended Reconstruction Act and Congress easily over-rides his veto on the same day.
    President Johnson appoints the commanders of the five new military reconstruction districts.
    Fifth District military governor General Phil Sheridan removes several New Orleans officials from office.
    - The United States Senate is sitting in special session in Washington DC
    Maryland votes overwhelmingly for a new constitutional convention.
    The U.S. Supreme Court rejects Mississippi's challenge to the Military Reconstruction Acts.
    Union commander in Charleston, South Carolina, demands a firemen's parade march with a United States flag.
    Richmond, Virginia sees serious street clashes between police and African-Americans.
    Former Confederate president is transported from Fort Monroe to Richmond to appear in federal court under a writ of habeas corpus.
    In Richmond, former Confederate president Jefferson Davis appears in federal court under a writ of habeas corpus and is released on bail.
    The U.S. Supreme Court rejects Georgia's challenge to the Military Reconstruction Acts.
    In Mobile, Alabama, deadly rioting disrupts a Republican public meeting and two die.
    Richmond's Hollywood Cemetery sponsors a day to decorate the graves of thousands of C.S.A. veterans buried there.
    With African-Americans voting in large numbers, Republican make sweeping gains in the Washington D.C. municipal elections.
    Fifth District military governor General Phil Sheridan removes from office the sitting Louisiana governor.
    In Plymouth, North Carolina, ten men from a white mob who viciously beat Phillis Ruffin go on military trial.
    In Franklin, Tennessee, a fatal confrontation between Confederate veterans and discharged black soldiers results in gunfire.
    In Washington, Congress passes the Third Military Reconstruction Bill, over President Johnson's veto.
    Fifth District military governor General Phil Sheridan removes the sitting Texas governor from office.
    In Kentucky state elections, Democrats easily maintain their hold on the governorship.
    President Johnson relieves Fifth District military governor General Phil Sheridan of his duties.
    Second District commander David Sickles confirms the convictions in the Phillis Ruffin beating case.
    The Maryland constitutional convention completes its work on a new ruling document for Maryland.
    In Kentucky, newly elected governor John L. Helm dies at his home after just five days in office.
    Hero of Little Round Top Joshua Chamberlain wins his second term as governor of the state of Maine.
    The newly formulated Maryland Constitution of 1867 receives an overwhelming endorsement in a popular vote.
    Baltimore holds the first elections under the new Maryland constitution
    Democrats sweep to victory in the first state elections under the new Maryland constitution.
    Alabama U.S. Attorney shoots down Alabama U.S. District Judge in the streets of Mobile.
    United States cotton production continues to recover during 1867.
    Sitting Arkansas U.S. Congressman James Hinds is murdered on the road in Monroe County, Arkansas
    Date Title
    Charles Jones Jenkins, "Inaugural Address as governor of Georgia (excerpts)" December 14, 1865, Milledgeville, Georgia
    Abraham Lincoln to Cuthbert Bullitt, July 28, 1862
    Abraham Lincoln to Andrew Johnson, September 11, 1863
    Abraham Lincoln, Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, December 8, 1863
    Abraham Lincoln, Annual Message to Congress, December 8, 1863
    The Wade-Davis Manifesto, August 5, 1864
    Andrew Johnson to Montgomery Blair, November 24, 1863, Nashville, Tennessee.
    George F. Shepley, Orders for the Occupation of Richmond, Virginia, April 1865
    Bishop Augustin Vérot to Major General Quincy A. Gillmore, Savannah, Georgia, April 5, 1865
    Editorial, "The Fall of Richmond and Southern Feeling," New York Times, April 6, 1865
    Editorial, "The Next Step," New York Times, April 7, 1865
    General Robert E. Lee's farewell to his troops of the Army of Northern Virginia
    Abraham Lincoln, Last Speech in Public, April 11, 1865
    Major General Quincy A. Gillmore to Brigadier General E.D. Townsend, War Department, Washington, D.C., April 13, 1865
    "The President's Speech - The Question of Reconstruction," New York Times, April 13, 1865
    "The President on Reconstruction," Chicago Tribune, April 14, 1865
    William T. Sherman to William W. Halleck, April 18, 1865
    President Andrew Johnson, Reply to a Delegation of Southern Refugees, Washington D.C., April 24, 1865
    John Curtiss Underwood, Statement on behalf of Southern Refugees to President Andrew Johnson, Washington, D.C.
    Andrew Johnson, Proclamation, Removal of Trade Restrictions in Occupied Southern States, Washington, D.C.
    Andrew Johnson, Proclamation of Reconstruction of North Carolina, Washington, D.C.
    Andrew Johnson, Amnesty Proclamation, Washington D.C., May 29, 1865
    Andrew Johnson, "Proclamation naming Lewis E. Parsons, Jr. provisional governor of Alabama," June 21, 1865, Washington, D.C.
    William T. Sherman, "Remarks," Lancaster, Ohio, June 24, 1865
    Orlando Brown, An Official Fourth of July Address to the Freedmen of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia, July 4, 1865
    James Johnson, "Proclamation of Arrangements for a State Convention," July 13, 185, Milledgeville, Georgia
    Edward R.S. Canby, General Orders No. 109, New Orleans, Louisiana, July 15, 1865
    George H. Thomas, General Order No. 9, Nashville, Tennessee, July 21, 1865
    William Marvin, "Statement of the Provisional Governor," August 3, 1865, Jacksonville, Florida
    William Marvin," Provisional Governor's instructions for the election of a State Convention," August 23, 1865, Tallahassee, Florida
    Alabama State Convention, "Debate on ending Slavery," October 20, 1865, Montgomery, Alabama
    J.H. Leard to Lyman Abbott, September 30, 1865, Fort Smith, Arkansas
    Andrew Johnson, "Remarks to the First Colored Regiment of the District of Columbia," October 10, 1865, Washington D.C.
    Andrew Johnson to James Johnson, October 28, 1865, Washington, D.C.
    Georgia State Convention, "Plea for the release and pardon of Jefferson Davis..." Milledgeville, Georgia, October 30, 1865
    Georgia State Convention, "An Ordinance to repeal certain ordinances and resolutions...." Milledgeville, Georgia, October 30, 1865
    Lafayette Curry Baker to Andrew Johnson, November 11, 1865, Washington, D.C.
    Colored People's Convention of South Carolina, Address of the Colored State Convention to the People of the State of South Carolina, November 24, 1865, Charleston, South Carolina
    "Resolutions," First Freedmens' Convention, Mobile, Alabama, November 28, 1865
    Isaac Murphy to J.H. Leard, December 9, 1865, Little Rock, Arkansas
    Andrew Johnson, "Message to Congress respecting the condition of affairs in the Southern States," December 18, 1865
    Ulysses S. Grant to Andrew Johnson, December 18, 1865, Washington, DC
    Edward McPherson, Description of "An Act to Amend the Criminal Law of South Carolina," December 19, 1865
    General Daniel E. Sickles, General Order Number One, Headquarters, Department of South Carolina, January 17, 1866
    Delaware State Legislature, Resolutions in Reaction to the District of Columbia Franchise Bill, Dover, Delaware, January 22, 1866
    General Alfred H. Terry, General Order Number Four, Headquarters, Department of Virginia, January 17, 1866
    Willard Saulsbury, Debate on the Civil Rights Bill, U.S. Senate, January 29, 1866
    Lyman Trumbull, Introduction of the Civil Rights Bill, U.S. Senate, January 29, 1866
    Transcript, Meeting between President Andrew Johnson and a Delegation of African-Americans, White House, February 7, 1866
    Frederick Douglass, et al, to Andrew Johnson, February 7, 1866
    Joseph S. Ingraham to Andrew Johnson, Bangor, Maine, February 8, 1866
    Benjamin Brown French to Andrew Johnson, February 8, 1866
    Andrew Johnson, Speech to visiting delegation of the Virginia Legislature, the White House, Washington, D.C., February 10, 1866
    John H. Brinton to Andrew Johnson, West Chester, Pennsylvania, February 14, 1866
    Charles Jones Jenkins to Andrew Johnson, Milledgeville, Georgia, February 15, 1866
    Andrew Johnson, Freedmen's Bureau Bill veto message, February 19, 1866
    Editorial, New York World, February 20, 1866
    Jeremiah Sullivan Black to Andrew Johnson, Washington, D.C., February 20, 1866
    "The Mask Removed," Chicago Tribune, February 21, 1866
    Andrew Johnson, Speech before Washington's Birthday Meeting, Washington, D.C., February 22, 1866
    "The Culprits," Chicago Tribune, February 23, 1866
    E.J. Bantz to Andrew Johnson, February 25, 1866
    "Mrs. Swisshelm Guillotined," Chicago Tribune, March 2, 1866
    Resolutions, Pennsylvania Democratic Party Convention, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, March 5, 1866
    Selected Resolutions, Pennsylvania Republican Party Convention, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, March 7, 1866
    Ulysses S. Grant to Andrew Johnson, March 16, 1866
    Andrew Johnson, Civil Rights Bill Veto Message, March 27, 1866
    "The President's Veto," Daily Union and American (Nashville, TN), March 28, 1866
    "President Johnson and His Enemies," Daily Union and American (Nashville, TN), March 28, 1866
    "Colored Suffrage in Wisconsin," Chicago Tribune, March 29, 1866
    George William Curtis, "The Civil Rights Bill," Harper's Weekly Magazine, March 31, 1866, p. 194.
    Andrew Johnson, Proclamation announcing that the Rebellion has ended, April 2, 1866
    Brigadier General Davis Tillson to Major General Oliver O. Howard, Augusta, Georgia, April 7, 1866
    An Act to protect all Persons in the United States in their Civil Rights, and to furnish the means for their Vindication, April 9, 1866
    George William Curtis, "The Civil Rights Bill," Harper's Weekly Magazine, April 14, 1866, pp. 226-227.
    Brigadier General Edward D. Townsend to Major General Oliver O. Howard, Washington, D.C., April 17, 1866
    Edmund Cooper to Governor Jonathan Worth, Washington DC, April 21, 1866
    War Department, General Order 26, Washington, DC, May 1, 1866
    Charles F. Jackson and T.W. Gilbreth, Report of an investigation of the cause, origin, and results of the late riots in the city of Memphis, submitted May 22, 1866
    Conclusions, Majority Report of the Joint Committee of the United States Senate and House of Representatives on Reconstruction, June 8, 1866, Washington, D.C.
    Conclusions, Majority Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, U.S. Congress, June 16, 1866
    Resolution of the "Conservative Republicans" in Convention, Des Moines, Iowa, June 28, 1866.
    Resolutions, Democratic Party of Central and Eastern Pennsylvania in Convention, Reading, Pennsylvania, July 18, 1866.
    Edmund Abell to the Grand Jury of the Criminal Court, New Orleans, Louisiana, July 23, 1866.
    John Tompkins Monroe to the People of New Orleans, New Orleans, July 30, 1866.
    Philip H. Sheridan to Ulysses S. Grant, New Orleans, August 1, 1866.
    Philip H. Sheridan to Ulysses S. Grant, New Orleans, August 2, 1866.
    Philip H. Sheridan to Ulysses S. Grant, New Orleans, August 3, 1866.
    Andrew Johnson to Philip H. Sheridan, Washington, DC, August 4, 1866.
    Philip H. Sheridan to Andrew Johnson, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 6, 1866.
    Resolutions, Republican Party of Illinois in Convention, August 8, 1866, Springfield, Illinois
    Resolutions, Democratic Party of Maryland in Convention, Baltimore, August 8, 1866.
    Resolutions, the Unconditional Union party of Maryland in Convention, Baltimore, Maryland, August 15, 1866.
    Andrew Johnson, Proclamation Declaring the Insurrection at an End in Texas, and Civil Authority existing throughout the whole of the United States, August 20, 1866, Washington, D.C.
    Resolutions, Union League of Philadelphia, August 22, 1866, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Resolutions, Republican Party of Michigan in Convention, August 30, 1866, Detroit, Michigan.
    Nathan Bedford Forrest, et al, to the Soldiers' and Sailors' Convention in Cleveland, Ohio, September 17, 1866, Memphis, Tennessee.
    Oliver O. Howard to Edwin Stanton, Washington, DC, September 17, 1866.
    Gordon Granger, et al, to Nathan Bedford Forrest, et al., September 18, 1866, Cleveland, Ohio.
    John Gray Foster to Ulysses S. Grant, September 20, 1866, Tallahassee, Florida.
    Jonathan Worth, Address to the North Carolina Freedmen's Convention, Raleigh, North Carolina, October 3, 1866
    Address of the Colored Convention of Indiana to the Citizens of Indiana, Indianapolis, Indiana,
    United States Congress, "An Act to provide for the more efficient Government of the Rebel States," March 2, 1867.
    United States Congress, "An Act regulating the Tenure of certain Civil Offices," March 2, 1867
    "The Southern View of the Reconstruction Bill," Harper's Weekly Magazine, March 23, 1867.
    Daniel Sickles, Confirmation of sentences in the case of the whipping of Phillis Ruffin, Charleston, South Carolina, August 17, 1867,
    How to Cite This Page: "Reconstruction," House Divided: The Civil War Research Engine at Dickinson College,