Fanning's Illustrated Gazetteer of the United States.... New York: Phelps, Fanning & Co., 1853.
Few inland cities combine so many natural advantages for trade, improved by such extensive and costly public works as Albany. It is the terminus of the Erie canal, and the great chain of railroads which connects the central counties of New York, the great lakes, and their vast shores. The Green Mountain state sends its productions to Albany through Lake Champlain and the Champlain canal. Some of the products brought through these channels, pass through Massachusetts to Boston by railroad; more are whirled in a few hours to New York, by the gigantic Hudson River railroad, which now sweeps majestically through the solid mountains and rocky headlands which skirt mat mighty stream. Steamboats, schooners, and sloops, also convey large cargoes to and from the towns along the route. Pop. in 1790, 3,498; in 1800, 5,349; in 1810, 9,356; in 1820, 12,630; in 1830, 24,238; in 1840, 33,721; in 1850, 50,763.
Fanning's Illustrated Gazetteer of the United States.... (New York: Phelps, Fanning & Co., 1853), 89.
The population in 1820, was 1,400; in 1830, 2,435; in 1840, 6,048; in 1850, 16,893.
CONNECTICUT, one of the United States, so called from its principal river, lies between 41° and 42° north latitude, and 71° 20' and 73° 15' west longitude from Greenwich, and is bounded north by Massachusetts; еast by Rhode Island ; south by Long Island sound; and west by New York, containing 4,674 sq. miles.
Physical Aspect— The surface is uneven, and greatly diversified by hills and valleys. The soil is grnerallr fertile, particularly so in Fairfield county, and the alluvial meadows in the valley of the Connecticut are uncommonly fine, and well adapted for tillage; but a large portion of the state is better suited to the purpose of grazing.
Mountains. — Strictly speaking, there are three mountain ranges in this state; one running a few miles east of the Connecticut, as far south as Chatham, where it is cut off by that river, and reappears again on the western side, and terminates at East Haven. Another range, which extends from Mount Tom, in Маssachusetts, runs through the whole state, on the westerly side of the Connecticut, and terminates at New Haven, in a bold bluff called East Rock. A third range, still farther west, extends from the Green Mountains, in Vermont, across the state to New Haven, and terminates in a similar bluff called West Rock. The Blue hills, in Southington, belonging to this range, are the most elevated land in the state, being at least 1,000 feet in height. At the westward of Hartford is Talcott mountain, belonging also to this range.
Rivers, Bays, Harbors, etc. — The principal riversare, the Connecticut, Housatonic, Тhames, Farmington, Naugatuck, and the Quinnebaug. The shores of Connecticut are penetrated by numerous bays and creeks, which afford many safe harbors for small vessels. The three best harbors in the state are those of New London, Bridgeport, and New Haven.
Climate — The climate is generally healthy, though subject to sudden сhanges of temperature, and extreme degrees of heat and cold. In winter, the northwest winds are piercing and keen, while those which blow from the south are more mild. Near the coast the whether ia particularly variable, usually changing with the wind, as it blows from the land or the sea. In the western and northerly parts of the state, the temperature is more uniform and mild.
Productive Resources. — Among the staple products may be enumerated, horses, mules, meat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, eggs, fish, beef, pork, milk, butter, cheese, silk, wool, tobacco, hemp, flax, hay, straw, wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, Indian corn, potatoes, garden vegatables, fruits, cider and wine. Iron ore of superior quality, is found in Salisbury and Kent, that of the former being particularly adapted for the manufacture of wire. At Stafford, a bog iron ore is found, from which excellent casting and hollow ware are made. Lead and copper mines exist in different parts of the state, but in general they have not been worked to much extent. A lead mine, near Middletown, was wrought with somе success during the revolutionary war. At Simsbury there is also a mine of copper. In Chatham, and Haddam, a reddish-brown freestone is quarried, which is easily wrought, and is highly esteemed in modern architecture, wherever it can economically be obtained. Fine variegated marble is found at Mílford, resembling verd-antique.
Manufactures. — A large proportion of the people of Connecticut are engaged in manufactures, more particularly those of cotton and woollens; also, iron, hats, paper, leather, tinware, buttons, cutlery, carriages, shipbuilding, &c.
Railroads and Canals. — Connecticut has over 600 miles of railroad in operation, and others projected, which will undoubtedly be carried through at an early day. The only canals in the state now in operation are those which have been constructed to facilitate navigation on the Connecticut river.
Commerce. — The commerce of Connecticut is mostly with the southern states and the West Indies. The imports and exports of 1850 amounted to $614,320, one half of which entered and cleared at New Haven, and one fourth at New London. The shipping owned within the state amounts to about 130,000 tons. The foreign commerce of Connecticut has decreased, owing to the facilities afforded by railroad communication for shipping at New York and Boston.
Education. — There are three colleges in Connecticut; Yale college, at New Haven, one of the most flourishing in the Union; Trinity college, at Hartford; and the Wesleyan university, at Middletown. There are in the state 150 academies, and over 2,000 common schools. Connecticut haa a large school fund, amounting to about $2,000,000. The asylum for the deaf and dumb at Hartford, is the oldest and most respectable institution of the kind in the United States.
Population. — In 1790, 237,946; in 1800, 251,002; in 1810, 261,942; in 1820, 275,248; in 1830, 297,711; in 1840, 310,015; in 1850, 370.791. Number of slaves in 1790, 2,759; in 1800, 951; in 1810, 310; in 1820, 97; in 1830, 25, who were not emancipated, on account of advanced age or infirmities.
History. — Connecticut comprises a part of the territory of the Plymouth colony, and was granted to the earl of Warwick, in 1630, extending westward from the Atlantic to the "South sea." The first permanent settlement was made in 1633, by English emigrants from Massachusetts Bay, who located at Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield. In 1635, another puritan colony was also established at the mouth of the Connecticut, called the "Sayhrook," in honor of Lords Sау and Brook, to whom, in 1631, the earl of Warwick had conveyed his title. In 1638, a third puritan colony was formed at New Haven, and remained in force until 1665. In 1639, the inhabitants of Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield, formed a separate government for themselves, as one public state, or commonwealth, to which the Saybrook colony was annexed, by purchase, in 1644, and with which the New Haven colony united, under the royal charter, in 1665. In 1662, the royal charter of Connecticut was granted by Charles II, embracing the territory extending westward from Narraganset buy to the Pacific, embracing within its limits the New Haven colony, and most of the present state of Rhode Island. In 1687, Sir Edmund Andros came to Hartford with a body of troops, and, by royal authority, as governor-general of all New England, demanded the surrender of this charter, and a dissolution of the existing government. The Connecticut assembly being in session at the time, were not disposed to make the surrender, and while the subject was under discussion, the lights were extinguished, and the charter secretly conveyed away, and concealed in the cavity of a hollow oak-tree, which is still standing, and bears the name of the "Charter Oak." This charter formed the basin of the government until 1818, when the present constitution was adopted. Within this charter was embraced the "Connecticut Western Reserve," consisting of about 3,300,000 acres of land in the northeast part of Ohio, which, as a compromise, was ceded to the United States, in 1796. It was sold to the Connecticut Land Company, for $1,200,000, and was the foundation of the state school fund. The constitution of the United States was adopted in 1788. The motto of the state seal is, Qui transtulit sustinet — "He who brought us hither still preserves."
Government. — The government is vested in a governor, lieutenant-governor, senate, and house of representatives, all chosen annually by the people, on the first Monday in April. The senate consist of not less than 18, nor more than 24 members. The sessions of the legislature are held annually, alternately, at Hartford and New Haven. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court of errors, superior court, and such inferior courts as the legislature may establish. Judges are chosen by the legislature, and hold office during good behavior, or till seventy years of age. The right of suffrage is enjoyed by every white male citizen of the United States, who has resided in the town six months immediately preceding, and has a freehold of the yearly value of seven dollars, or shall have performed, or been excused from, military duty, or shall have paid a state tax one year next preceding the election, and who is of good moral character.
The Michigan Central railroad extends 281 miles toward Chicago, on Lake Michigan; and the Detroit and Pontiac railroad is 25 miles long.
The population in 1810 was 770; in 1820, 1,422; in 1830, 2,222; in 1840, 9,102; in 1850, 21,119.
Physical Aspect. — This state occupies a large proportion of the great inclined plain, from which the peninsula of Florida protrudes, and down which several rivers flow into the Atlantic and the Mexicam gulf. From the Atlantic border of this state, this acclivity gradually rises to an elevation of 1,200 feet above the level of the sea, without estimating the mountain ridges. Like the Carolinas, it may be divided into three zones. First, the flat sea-border, including numerous small islands; second, the sand-hill zone; and third, a hilly and partly mountainous tract, beyond the lower falls of the rivers. The soil on the islands, called hummock land is very rich, producing the celebrated S'ea-island cotton. The seacoast on the main land counts of a belt of salt marsh, four or five miles in widrh. In the rear оf this margin commence the "pine barrens," which extend 60 to 90 miles from the ocean. The river and creeks are generally bordered with swamps, or marshes, which at every tide, are either wholly or partially overflowed for 15 or 20 miles from the coast. These constitute the principal rice plantations. Beyond the pine barrens the country becomes uneven, diversified with hills and mountains, of a strong rich soil. The northwestern part of the state is mountainous, and abounds in beautiful scenery. The soil of Georgia, though varied, is a large portion of it, productive. At a distance from the sea it changes from gray to red; in some places it is gravelly, but fertile : and farther back in the country its color is gradually deepened, till it becomes what is called the "mulatto soil," consisting of black mould and reddish earth. This is succeeded in its turn by a soil that is nearly black, and very rich. In the southwest portion of the state is Okefenokee swamp, about 170 miles in circumference.
Mountains. — This state is traversed on the north by a spur of the Alleghanies, among which are Yonah and Currahee mountains. Pine mountain lies near the western boundary.
Rivers and Sounds. — The principal rivers are, the Savannah, Ogeechee. Altamaha, Satilla, Ocmulgee, Oconee, St. Mary's, Flint, Chattahoochee, Tallapoosa, and Coosa. The coast of Georgia is indented by numerous sounds and inlets, which occur at the mouths of the principal rivers.
Islands. — Along the Atlantic coast there is a chain of islands, which are separated from the main by rivers, creeks, and inlets, forming an inland navigation of more than 100 miles. The principal of these islands are Ту-bee, Wassaw, Ossabaw, St. Catherine's, Sapelo, St Simon's, Jykill, and Cumberland.
Climate. — The climate, from the difference of elevation, is varied, one section producing wheat, and another sugar-cane. The winters are usually mild and pleasant; snow is seldom seen, nor is vegetation often interrupted by severe frosts. The temperature of winter usually fluctuates from 40° to 60° Fahrenheit, although it occasionally falls as low as 16°. In the low country, in the vicinity of swamps, fevers and bilious attacks are common, owing partly to the badness of the water, but principally to the noxious vapors which arise from stagnant water, and putrid matter in the rice swamps. In the "upper country" the air is pure and salubrious throughout the year, and the water is abundant and good.
Productive Resources.—The staple products of this state consist of horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, silk, wool, butter, cheese, cotton, tobacco, rice, sugar, wine, wheat, rye, oats, barley, potatoes, and Indian corn. Among the mineral resources are, copper, iron, and gold. The latter occurs in considerable abundance in the northern part of the state, on both sides of Chattahoochee river, as far north as the Blue Ridge.
Manufactures. — The people of Georgia arе more engaged in manufactures than those of any other southern state. It has quite a number of large cotton factories, which are worked by slave labor. It has also extensive tanneries, and mills of various descriptions.
Railroads and Canals. — There are about 1,000 miles of railroad already in successful operation in Georgia, and more in process of construction. T he cost of the railroads already completed in this state is over $15,000,000. T he principal canals in Georgia are, one from Savannah to the Ogeechee river, 16 miles, and another from Altamaha to Brunswick, 12 miles.
Commerce. — The foreign commerce of Georgia amounts to about $9,000,000 annually. The coasting trade is also considerable.
Education. — The university of Georgia, founded in 1785, in Athens, is the principal literary institution in the state. There are also, the Oglethorpe university, at Medina, near Milledgeville. The Mercer university, at Penfield, the Georgia Female college, near Macon, and the Georgia medical college, at Augusta. There are about 250 academies scattered through the state, and some 1,500 primary and common schools.
Population — In 1749, 6,000; in 1790, 82,584; in 1800, 162,686; in 1810, 252,433; in 1820, 348,9899; in 1830, 516,567; in 1840, 692,392; in 1850, 905,999. Number of slaves in 1790, 29,264; in 1800, 59,404; in 1810, 105,218; in 1820, 149,656; in 1830, 217,531; in 1840, 280,944; in 1850, 381,681.
Government. — The governor is elected by the people, and holds his office two years. The senate consiets of 47 members, elected from forty-four districts of two counties each, two districts of three counties each, and one district comprising but a single county. The house of representatives is composed of 130 members : the 35 counties having the largest number of inhabitants are entitled to two members each, and the remainder one each. State election biennially, first Monday in October. The legislature meets biennially, on the first Monday in November (odd years), at Mllledgeville. The judges of the superior court are elected for three years by the legislature, and the judges of the inferior courts and justices of the peace are elected quadrennially by the people. All the free white male inhabitants, who shall have resided within the county in which they vote six months preceding the election, and shall have paid taxes in the state for the year previous, have the right of suffrage.
History. — The state of Georgia embraces a part of Virginia, as granted to Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1584; or a portion of South Virginia, as granted by James I., of England in 1606. A portion of its present territory also embraces a part of the ancient Georgia colony, chartered in 1732, to a corporation "in trust for the poor," for twenty-one years, including the country between the Savannah and Altahama rivers, extending westward from their sources to the "South sea;" also a portion of the northern part of Florida, as claimed at the time by Spain. The first permanent settlement in Geargia was made under this çrant at Savannah, by Oglethorpe, in 1732, who brought out a band of colonists, collected from among the poor and vicious population, as an experimental effort for their reformation, by providing them with the means of self-support. This benevolent design failing of success, the trustees of the colony sent out a better class of emigrants in 1735 from Scotland, Switzerland, and Germany. In the year following Oglethorpe extended his settlements as far south as St. John's river, in Florida, but was repulsed by the Spaniards. He retained his fortification at the mouth of the St. Mary's, and this river afterward became the boundary between Georgia and Florida. In the year 1752, the trustees of the colony surrendered their charter to the king, and their province was forced into a royal government. А general representative assembly was established in 1755; and in 1763, all the territory between the Altamaha and St. Mary's was annexed. In 1775, Georgia acceded to the union of the colonies, and sent deputies to Congress. When military operations were transferred to the southern states, from 1779 to 1781, Georgia became a portion of the bloody arena. It was at the siege of Savannah, Sept. 23, 1779, that Count Pulaski, the brave and patriotic Pole, was killed. In 1777, the first state constitution was adopted, and the parishes then existing were formed into counties. A second constitution was adopted in 1785, and the one now in force in 1708. In 1788, it adopted the constitution of the United States by a unanimous vote. By different conventions, all of the new states, Alabama and Mississippi, lying north of thirty-one degrees, have been yielded to the general government. Motto of the state seal of Georgia, "Constitution" supported by "Wisdom," "Justice," "Moderation," and " Agriculture and Commerce."
The capitol is an imposing structure, consisting of a main building and two wings, each adorned with a portico and Ionic pillars. The central edifice is 180 feet wide, 80 feet deep, and 108 feet from the ground to the top of the dome. The whole is surrounded by an open space, adorned with trees, walks, and an iron-railing. The other prominent buildings, are a Masonic-hall, two banks, a prison, and 11 number of churches.
By the Mount Airy water-works, water is elevated from the Susquehanna into a reservoir, on a hill above the borough, and thence is distributed through iron pipes.
Manufactures, to a considerable extent, are produced in Harrisburgh, and the town is gradually increasing in population and wealth.
The population in 1810, was 2,287; in 1820, 2,990; in 1830, 4,311; in 1840, 6,020; in 1850. 8,173.
ILLINOIS, sometimes called the " Prairie State," is situated between 37° and 42° 30' north latitude, and 87° 49' and 91°30' longitude west from Greenwich; it is bounded north by Wisconsin, east by Lake Michigan and Indiana, south by the Ohio river, which separates it from Kentucky, and west by the Mississippi river, which separates it from Missouri and Iowa. Its superficial area is 55,400 square miles.
Physical Aspect. — The general surface of this state may be regarded as a gentle plain, more or less rolling inclined in the direction of its rivers. The northern and southern sections, however, are somewhat broken, but no portion of the territory is traversed by ranges of mountains, or hills. It is estimated that Illinois contains more arable land than any state in the Union. In that portion north of Kaskasia river the prairie country dominates; and it is computed that two thirds of the state is covered with this class of lands. Many portions of them are undulating, entirely dry, and abound in wholesome springs; but as a general rule, they consist of plains; and in the true meaning of the term, in French, they are " meadows," presenting every degree of fertility, down to extreme barrenness. Many of them exhibit alluvial deposites, which prove that they have once been morasses, and perhaps lakes. In numerous instances, there are thickets, or groves of timber, amid these prairies, containing from 100 to 2,000 acres each, which resemble oases in the desert, or islands in the sea. Along the borders of many of the streams are rich " bottoms," or alluvial deposites. The "American bottom" commences at the confluence of the Mississippi and Kaskaskia rivers, extending northward to the mouth of the Missouri, a distance of about eighty miles, and comprises an area of 288,000 acres. It is bounded on the east by a chain of ' bluffs," some of which occur in parallel ridges, while others are of a conical shape, formed of lime-rock, from 50 to 200 feet in height
Rivers and Lakes. — The principal rivers are, the Mississippi, which bounds the state on the west, the Ohio, which bounds it on the south, Kankokee, Kaskaskia, Sangamon Little Wabash, Muddy, Saline, Rock, Embarras, Fox, the Wahash, the principal river in the state, which forms a portion of the eastern boundary, Des Plaines, and Vermilion. Besides Lake Michican, which lies on the northeast corner, this state contains Peoria lake, an expansion of Illinois river.
Climate. — The climate of this state is generally healthy, and the air pure and serene, except in the vicinity of wet, low lands, or stagnant pools. The winters, which are cold, are somewhat milder than those of the Atlantic states in the same latitude. Snow seldom falls to the depth of six inches, and it as rarely remains on the ground more than ten or twelve days. The Mississippi is sometimes frozen over as far down as St. Louis, sufficiently strong to be crossed on the ice. The summers are warm, particularly in the southern part, but the intensity of the heat is modified by the breeze.
Productive Resources. — The staple products are, horses, mules, neat cattle, sheep, swine, poultry, hatter, cheese, wool, cotton, hemp, flax, hops, hay, wine, wheat, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, and Indian corn. Among the mineral resources are, zinc, copper, iron, and lime. Bituminous coal may be found in nearly every county in the state. Common salt is procured by evaporating the water of salt springs. The lead mines in the vicinity of Galena are very extensive, and of great value to the state. The mineral has been found in every portion of a tract of more than fifty miles in extent. The ore lies in beds, or horizontal strata, varying in thickness from one inch to several feet.
Manufactures. — In 1850 there were, in Illinois, 3,099 manufacturing establishments, producing each $500 and upward annually. The manufactures consist mostly of woollen fabrics, machinery, saddlery, agrcultural implements, &c.
Railroads and Canals. — There are about 1,200 miles of railroad completed and in course of construction in this state; some off them, particularly the Central railroad, are verу important. The Illinois and Michigan canal, connecting the waters of Lake Erie, at Chicago, with those of the Illinois river at Peru, is one of the most important works of internal improvement in the country. It is the connecting link of an unbroken internal water communication from the Atlantic, off Sandy Hook, New York, by the way of the lakes, the Illinois and Mississippi river, to the gulf of Mexico. The canal is 113 miles long, 60 feet wide, and 6 feet deep, and designed for boats of 120 tons. It cost over $8,000,000.
Commerce. — The direct foreign commerce of Illinois is, of course, from its insular position, very small; but its coasting and lake trade is important, amounting, in 1850, to over $10,000.000.
Education. — The principal collegiate institutions in Illinois are, the Illinois college, at Jacksonville, founded in 1829; the McKendree college, at Lebanon, in 1831; the Shurtleff college, at Upper Alton, in 1815; the Knox Manual Labor college, in Galesburg, in 1837; and the College of St. Mary of the Lakes, at Chicago, in 1846. There are about 100 academies, and 2,000 common schools in the state.
Government. — The legislative authority is vested in a senate, the members of which, 25 in number, are elected for four уеars, оne half every two years; and a house of representatives, 75 in number, elected for two years. Senators must be thirty years of age, and five years inhabitants of the state. Representatives must be twenty-five years of age, citizens of the United States, and three years inhabitants of the state. The executive power is vested in a governor and lieutenant-governor, chosen by a plurality of votes, once in four уears, on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November, who must be thirty-five years of age, citizens of the United States for fourteen years, and residents of the state for ten years. The governor is not eligible for two consecutive terms. A majority of members elected to both houses may defeat the governor's veto. A majority of the members elected to each house is required for the passage of any law. The legislature meets biennially at Springfield, on the first Monday in January. The judicial power ie vested in a Supreme court, of three judges, elected by the people, for a term of nine years, one being chosen triennially; also in circuit courts, of one judge each, elected by the people in nine judicial circuits, into which the state is divided, for six years; and county courts, of one judge each, elected by the people for four years. All white male citizens, 21 years of age, resident in the state for one year, may vote at elections. No state bank can be created or revived. Acts creating banks must be submitted to the people. Stockholders are individually liable to the amount of their shares.
Population. — In 1810, 12,282; in 1820, 55,211; in 1830, 157,455; in 1840, 476,183; in 1850, 851,470.
History. — This state embraces a part of Upper Louisiana, as held by the French prior to 1763, when it was ceded to England, together with Canada and Acadia. The first permanent settlement was made at Kaskaskia, in 1685, although La Salle had built a fort, called Crevecœur, on Illinois river, five years before. At the close of the revolutionary war, in 1783, this country was claimed under the charter of Virginia, and held by that state until ceded to the United States, in 1787. It was then made a part of the territory northwest of Ohio river. When Ohio was made a separate territory, in 1800, Illinois and Indiana were formed into another territory, and remained as such until 1809, when they were divided into two. In 1812, a territorial government was formed, with a legislature and one delegate to Соngress. In 1818 a state constitution was formed, and Illinois admitted into the Union as an independent state. The present constitution of the state was adopted by a state convention in August, 1847, and accepted by the people in March, 1818. "Motto of the seal, "State Sovereignty; National Union."
The manufacturing establishments are various and flourishing.
The Columbia and Philadelphia railroad communicates with Lancaster, and leads toward Harrisburgh; and here, the Westchester branch diverges toward York.
The population in 1810, was 5,405; in 1820, 6,633; in 1830, 7,704; in 1840, 8,417; in 1850, 8,811.
The population in 1820, was 5,283; in 1830, 6,408; in 1840, 6,984; in 1850, ---.
The Milwaukee and Mississippi railroad is completed to Palmyra, 43 miles westward.
The population in 1840, was 1,700; in 1850, 20,026.
The Montgomery and West Point and the Lagrange railroads, unite the city to Atlanta, on the route of the Georgia railroad, and to the intermediate points.
The population in 1840, was 2,179; in 1850, 11,937.
The New Bedford and Taunton railroad joins the Boston and Providence railroad at Mansfield, and communicates with this place.
The population in 1810, was 5,631; in 1820, 3,947; in 1830, 7,592; in 1840, 12,087; in 1850, 16,443.